PARTS OF A FLOWER. Different Parts and their functions: The flower s main purpose on a plant is for reproduction

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1 PARTS OF A FLOWER The flower s main purpose on a plant is for reproduction Different Parts and their functions: Pedicel The Stalk Supporting the Flower. Receptacle The Part Of The Flower To Which The Others Are Attached. Sepal Each Parts Of The Calyx Of The Flower. Petal Each Parts Of The Corolla Of A Flower. Filament Male Reproductive Organ Of A Flower. Anther Part Of The Stamen That Produces The Pollen.

2 Pistil The Set Of Female Parts Of A Flower.( Stigma, Style, Ovary ). Stigma Part Of The Pistil That Receives The Pollen. Style Central Part Of The Pistil. Ovary Lower Part Of The Pistil Which Produces Eggs. 1. Parts of a flower https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fsbqqdg5giw 2. Fertilization in flowering plants https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=abpehe6exgi

3 POLLINATION Pollination is very important. It leads to the creation of new seeds that grow into new plant But how does pollination work? Well, it all begins in the flower. Flowering plants have several different parts that are important in pollination. Flowers have male parts called stamens that produce a sticky powder called pollen. Flowers also have a female part called the pistil. The top of the pistil is called the stigma, and is often sticky. Seeds are made at the base of the pistil, in the ovule. To be pollinated, pollen must be moved from a stamen to the stigma. When pollen from a plant's stamen is transferred to that same plant's stigma, it is called self-pollination. When pollen from a plant's stamen is transferred to a different plant's stigma, it is called cross-pollination. Cross-pollination produces stronger plants. The plants must be of the same species. For example, only pollen from a daisy can pollinate another daisy. Pollen from a rose or an apple tree would not work. But how does pollen from one plant get moved to another? How Do Plants Get Pollinated? Pollination occurs in several ways. People can transfer pollen from one flower to another, but most plants are pollinated without any help from people. Usually plants rely on animals or the wind to pollinate them. When animals such as bees, butterflies, moths, flies, and hummingbirds pollinate plants, it's accidental. They are not trying to pollinate the plant. Usually they are at the plant to get food, the sticky pollen or a sweet nectar made at the base of the petals. When feeding, the animals accidentally rub against the stamens and get pollen stuck all over themselves. When they move to another flower to feed, some of the pollen can rub off onto this new plant's stigma.

4 Plants that are pollinated by animals often are brightly colored and have a strong smell to attract the animal pollinators. Another way plants are pollinated is by the wind. The wind picks up pollen from one plant and blows it onto another. Plants that are pollinated by wind often have long stamens and pistils. Since they do not need to attract animal pollinators, they can be dully colored, unscented, and with small or no petals since no insect needs to land on them. Where Do Plants Come From? Plants come from seeds. Each seed contains a tiny plant waiting for the right conditions to germinate, or start to grow. What Do Seeds Need to Start to Grow? Seeds wait to germinate until three needs are met: water, correct temperature (warmth), and a good location (such as in soil). During its early stages of growth, the seedling relies upon the food supplies stored with it in the seed until it is large enough for its own leaves to begin making food through photosynthesis. The seedling's roots push down into the soil to anchor the new plant and to absorb water and minerals from the soil. And its stem with new leaves pushes up toward the light. The germination stage ends when a shoot emerges from the soil. But the plant is not done growing. It's just started. Plants need water, warmth, nutrients from the soil, and light to continue to grow.

5 PARTS OF A PLANT What Do Different Plant Parts Do? Plant parts do different things for the plant. Roots Roots act like straws absorbing water and minerals from the soil. Tiny root hairs stick out of the root, helping in the absorption. Roots help to anchor the plant in the soil so it does not fall over. Roots also store extra food for future use. Stems Stems do many things. They support the plant. They act like the plant's plumbing system, conducting water and nutrients from the roots and food in the form of glucose from the leaves to other plant parts. Stems can be herbaceous like the bendable stem of a daisy or woody like the trunk of an oak tree. Leaves Most plants' food is made in their leaves. Leaves are designed to capture sunlight which the plant uses to make food through a process called photosynthesis. Flowers Flowers are the reproductive part of most plants. Flowers contain pollen and tiny eggs called ovules. After pollination of the flower and fertilization of the ovule, the ovule develops into a fruit. Fruit Fruit provides a covering for seeds. Fruit can be fleshy like an apple or hard like a nut. Seeds

6 Seeds contain new plants. Seeds form in fruit. SEED DISPERSAL People plant some seeds, but most plants don't rely on people. Plants rely on animals and wind and water to help scatter their seeds. Animal dispersal Animals disperse seeds in several ways. First, some plants, like the burr at left, have barbs or other structures that get tangled in animal fur or feathers, and are then carried to new sites. Other plants produce their seeds inside fleshy fruits that then get eaten be an animal. The fruit is digested by the animal, but the seeds pass through the digestive tract, and are dropped in other locations. Some animals bury seeds, like squirrels with acorns, to save for later, but may not return to get the seed. It can grow into a new plant. Wind dispersal The kinds of seeds which are often wind dispersed are smaller seeds that have wings or other hair-like or feather-like structures. Plants that produce wind-blown seeds, like the dandelion shown in the video clip below, often produce lots of seeds to ensure that some of the seeds are blown to areas where the seeds can germinate. Floating in water Many aquatic plants and plants that live near water have seeds that can float, and are carried by water. Plants living along streams and rivers have seeds that float downstream and therefore become germinate at new sites. The size of the seed is not a factor in determining whether or not a

7 seed can float. Some very large seeds, like coconuts, can float. Some small seeds also float. And some plants disperse their seeds in other ways... Some plants have unique ways to disperse their seeds. Several kinds of plants "shoot" seeds out of pods, as in the video clip below. The seeds can travel quite a few feet from the plant this way.

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