Climate and Weather. S6E2. Students will understand the effects of the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun.

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1 Climate and Weather

2 Climate and Weather S6E2. Students will understand the effects of the relative positions of the earth, moon and sun. c. Relate the tilt of the earth to the distribution of sunlight throughout the year and its effect on climate. S6E4. Students will understand how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather. a. Demonstrate that land and water absorb and lose heat at different rates and explain the resulting effects on weather patterns. b. Relate unequal heating of land and water surfaces to form large global wind systems and weather event such as thunderstorms and tornadoes. c. Relate how moisture evaporating from the oceans affects the weather patterns and the weather events such as hurricanes.

3 Climate and Weather How does the sun interact with the Earth to produce weather and climate?

4 What is the atmosphere? The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surround the planet. Climate is the pattern of temperature and precipitation typical of an area over a long period of time. Weather is the condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.

5 What's in the atmosphere? The most abundant gas in the atmosphere is NOT oxygen! It's nitrogen (N)! Earth's atmosphere is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. The other 1% contains carbon dioxide, water vapor, and many other gases, as well as particles of liquids and solids (dust, smoke, and other chemicals).

6 What's in the atmosphere? Why is oxygen important? How does life on Earth depend on the atmosphere?

7 What's in the atmosphere? Why is oxygen important? It is essential to plants and animals and aids combustion (burning fuel, striking a match, lighting a candle, enjoying a campfire) How does life on Earth depend on the atmosphere? The atmosphere contains gases that living things need, keeps the surface warm, protects living things from dangerous radiation, and prevents the surface from being hit by most objects from other space.

8 What's in the atmosphere? The Earth's atmosphere has four main layers: 1. troposphere 2. stratosphere 3. mesosphere 4. thermosphere

9 What's in the atmosphere? The Earth's atmosphere has four main layers: The troposphere is where weather occurs

10 What is air pressure? The weight of a column of air pushing down on an area; the force exerted by the weight of air molecules Air pressure is measured with a barometer. Since there's a lot of space between air molecules, air can be compressed. When air is compressed, it is said to be under high pressure.

11 What is air pressure? Warm air masses have low pressure Cold air masses have high pressure (Think about how compact the molecules are--cold air molecules are closer together, warm air molecules are farther apart)

12 What is air pressure? Altitude, or elevation, is the distance above sea level As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. As air pressure decreases, so does density Think--why is it hard to breathe at the top of a mountain?

13 What causes wind? Wind is the result of horizontal differences in air pressure. Air moves from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.

14 What causes wind? Differences in air pressure are caused by uneven heating of the Earth's surface. The sun is the major source of energy for heating, and thus is the cause of wind.

15 What causes wind? Winds are described by their direction and speed. Wind speed is measured with an anemometer. Winds are named by the direction the wind is coming from.

16 Local winds Blow over short distances Caused by unequal heating of Earth's surface within a small area

17 Local winds Sea breeze blows from an ocean or a lake. Land breeze blows from land to a body of water. The sun heats land faster than it heats water, and at night land cools more quickly than water. Water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly. Since cooler air moves underneath warmer air, when will you feel a sea breeze or a land breeze?

18 Local winds

19 Global winds Blow steadily from specific directions over long distances Caused by the unequal heating of Earth's surface Occur over a large area Do not follow a straight path because...

20 Global winds Do not follow a straight path because of Earth's rotation. The Coriolis effect is the way Earth's rotation makes winds curve. Like currents, global winds in the Northern Hemisphere curve to the right, or clockwise, and global winds in the Southern Hemisphere curve to the left, or counterclockwise.

21 Global winds Warm air rises at the equator, and cold air sinks at the poles; thus, air pressure will be lower near the equator and greater near the poles Global convection currents, the Coriolis effect and other factors produce a pattern of calm areas and global wind belts

22 Global winds Major global wind belts Trade winds--blow toward the equator and are turned west by the Coriolis effect; occur between 30 degrees north latitude and the equator and 30 degrees south and the equator Prevailing westerlies--blow toward the poles and are turned east by the Coriolis effect; between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north and south (mid-lattitudes)

23 Global winds Major global wind belts Polar easterlies--cold air near the poles sinks and flows back toward lower lattitudes; usually meet the prevailing westerlies around 60 degrees latitude Jet streams--bands of high-speed winds about 10 km above Earth's surface; generally blow from west to east at speeds of km/hr

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25 Global winds Calm areas Doldrums--calm area near the equator with little to no wind. The sun heats the surface strongly near the equator causing warm air to rise and rapidly warms any cool air which moves in; thus, very little motion occurs near the equator. Horse latitudes--calm area around 30 degrees north and south. Warm air rises from the equator and spreads north and south; cold air moves from the poles and sinks; both bands of air stop at about 30 degrees, producing a calm area

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27 What are the major types of air masses in North America? Air mass--a huge body of air that has similar temperature, humidity and air pressure Humidity--a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air Relative humidity--the percentage of water vapor that is actually in the air compared to the amount of water vapor the air can hold at a particular temperature

28 What are the major types of air masses in North America? Four major types of air masses, based on temperature and humidity Terms to know: Tropical--warm air masses which form in the tropics and have low air pressure Polar--cold air masses which form north of 50 degree north latitude and south of 50 degree south latitude and have high pressure

29 What are the major types of air masses in North America? Four major types of air masses, based on temperature and humidity Terms to know: Maritime--form over oceans and are humid Continental--form over land and are dry

30 What are the major types of air masses in North America? Four major types of air masses, based on temperature and humidity Complete the chart--indicate the type of air Air Mass Continental Maritime Tropical Polar

31 What are the major types of air masses in North America? Four major types of air masses, based on temperature and humidity Complete the chart--indicate the type of air Air Mass Continental Maritime Tropical Hot and dry Warm and humid Polar Cold and dry Cool and humid

32 What are the major types of air masses in North America? Maritime tropical air masses from the Pacific Ocean bring warm, humid air to the West Coast. Maritime polar air masses from the Pacific bring cool, humid air to the West Coast. Continental tropical air masses from the Southwest bring hot, dry air to the southern Great Plains. Continental polar air masses from central and northern Canada bring cool air to the central and eastern United States.

33 What are the major types of air masses in North America? In the continental United States, air masses are commonly moved by the prevailing westerlies and jet streams. The prevailing westerlies generally push air masses from west to east in the United States. As air masses move across land and ocean, they collide; if they have different temperatures and densities, they do not mix.

34 What are the main types of fronts? Front--the boundary where air masses meet Colliding air masses can form four types of fronts: cold fronts warm fronts stationary fronts occluded fronts

35 Front Cold front How It Forms A cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass Type of Weather Clouds, possibly storms with heavy precipitation Warm front Occluded front Stationary front

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37 Front Cold front Warm front Occluded front How It Forms A cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass A warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass Type of Weather Clouds, possibly storms with heavy precipitation Clouds, light precipitation Stationary front

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39 Front Cold front Warm front Occluded front Stationary front How It Forms A cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass A warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass A warm air mass is caught between two cold air masses Type of Weather Clouds, possibly storms with heavy precipitation Clouds, light precipitation Clouds, precipitation

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41 Front Cold front Warm front Occluded front Stationary front How It Forms A cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass A warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass A warm air mass is caught between two cold air masses Cold and warm air masses meet, but neither can move the other Type of Weather Clouds, possibly storms with heavy precipitation Clouds, light precipitation Clouds, precipitation Clouds, precipitation

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43 Cyclones and Anticyclones Cyclones, also called "lows," are swirling centers of low air pressure usually associated with clouds, winds, and precipitation Anticyclones, also called "highs," are high-pressure centers generally cause dry, clear weather

44 What are the common types of precipitation? Precipitation--any form of water that falls from clouds and reaches Earth's surface Common types of precipitation: rain, hail, snow, sleet and freezing rain The most common kind of precipitation is rain.

45 What are the common types of precipitation? Rain--drops of water at least 0.5mm in diameter smaller drops of water are called mist or drizzle Hail--round pellets of ice larger than 5mm in diameter form only inside cumulonimbus clouds during thunderstorms strong updrafts in the cloud carry the hailstone up and down through the cold, each time adding new layer of ice; eventually it becomes heavy enough to fall

46 What are the common types of precipitation? Snow--when water vapor in a cloud is converted directly into ice crystals called snowflakes each snowflake has 6 sides or branches dry air produces powdery snow; humid air produces wet clumps of snow Sleet--when raindrops fall through a layer of freezing air and turn into solid ice particles, smaller than 5mm in diameter Freezing rain--when raindrops freeze on a cold surface as rain continues to freeze, a thick layer of ice may build up, breaking trees and power lines

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