Summary and Conclusions

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Summary and Conclusions"

Transcription

1 Summary and Conclusions This Chapter summarizes the results obtained in the earlier chapters based on the analysis of observed data and climate models simulations for the present and future emission scenarios. In this thesis extensive analysis have been done on the characteristics of Eurasian snow depth with respect to Indian summer monsoon rainfall, RegCM3 simulated long term data based on Indian summer monsoon season, summer and winter observed temperatures and IPCC model generated past and future climate scenarios. The analysis is supported by an understanding of underlying changes in climate variables and associated atmospheric circulation. Negative relationship between Eurasian snow cover/depth and Indian summer monsoon rainfall is well documented. Further studies suggest strong positive correlation of East Eurasian snow depth and negative correlation of West Eurasian snow with Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Station observations from Historical Soviet Daily Snow Depth version-2, IMD gridded rainfall dataset and onset dates over Kerala coast are considered here for the period First of all East and West Eurasian regions are selected on the basis of this strong positive and negative correlations, respectively. West and East Eurasian zones are further divided into six zones based on the latitudes and evolution of snowfall. Statistical analysis has been done on snow depth in different zones of Eurasia. Detailed examination has been done on the starting and the ending dates of snowfall in all the stations of Eurasia and an attempt has been made to explore possible relationship with the onset of Indian summer monsoon in order to make use of these findings in long range monsoon prediction. Snow depths in different zones of Eurasia are also related with summer monsoon rainfall in five homogeneous regions in India. Simulations of IIT Delhi T80L18 spectral GCM from a sensitivity experiment are considered to re-examine snow-monsoon relationship for the years 1975 and 1979, the low and high spring snow years, respectively. Further, high resolution IPCC MIROC simulated snow depths are compared with the observations for base line period ( ) and snow depth projections for the near future ( ) in East and West Eurasia. Climatologically, snow depths in the northernmost zones of Eurasia are around three times more than those in the respective southern zones. In southern zones, snow depths are less than the mean over the whole of Eurasia. Analysis shows that snow starts falling at stations located in the northeast of Eurasia and gradually propagates towards southwest. Stations with early starting date of snowfall have late ending dates and also have late occurrence of maximum snow depth. The duration of snowfall in the northern zones is longer and hence there snow depths persist for relatively longer period than in the southern zones. Snow depth varies to a great extent over different stations in West and East Eurasia. Relatively high coefficients of variation in the snow depths are observed in south and southwest stations in West Eurasia than in any other station. In some years, more snowfall in East Eurasia is accompanied by less snowfall in the West Eurasia and vice versa. Also, in some years snow depths in the northernmost and southwest zones in East Eurasia are opposite in phase. The relationship between snow starting dates in Eurasia and onset dates of summer monsoon is weak. However, the northernmost zones of East and West Eurasia have significant correlations with seasonal summer rainfall in

2 Northwest, West Central and Peninsular India. The most robust relationship is with the Peninsular India. Indian summer monsoon rainfall has been examined in detail by using nine-member ensemble seasonal integrations of a regional climate model RegCM3 at 55km resolution over the period NCEP reanalysis data are used for validation of temperature, mean sea level pressure and wind field simulations. Rainfall simulations are compared with observations from IMD, APHRODITE, CRU, GPCP and CMAP gridded data. Climatology of variables such as rainfall, temperature, mean sea level pressure and wind at lower and upper level are analyzed to evaluate the model performance. An attempt has been made to identify the causes behind model bias. Four pairs of contrasting monsoon rainfall years are considered for the analysis of active and break events in RegCM3 simulated Indian summer monsoon. Frequency distributions of IMD observed and RegCM3 simulated precipitation and surface maximum and minimum temperatures are compared. For extreme rainfall analysis over a considered period of 28 years, very wet and extremely wet days precipitation indices are considered. Comparison of IIT Delhi T80L18 spectral GCM simulations at 150km resolution and RegCM3 in contrasting monsoon years is also made. RegCM3 simulated precipitation is well captured over the Central and Northeast India with slightly underestimation over some of the parts. RegCM3 has overestimated rainfall over the southern Peninsular and Northwest India. A dipole like structure is observed over the Indian Ocean. Northern parts of the Indian Ocean have wet bias whereas the southern parts have dry bias. At 500 hpa, RegCM3 has a warm bias of about 1.5 o C over the Himalayan and Tibetan regions. Temperature in the remaining parts of the domain is well captured by the model. The pressure gradient develops towards the Northwest of India up to the southern plains of Pakistan and Afghanistan in RegCM3 simulations which is similar to the observations. RegCM3 simulates another low pressure regime at the foothills of Himalayas and Tibet which is deeper than the previous. This low pressure system is reverse in the case of reanalysis. As a consequence the rainfall is not well distributed over the Indian land. RegCM3 simulated maximum surface temperature shows strong cold bias over the entire Indian region. However, the minimum temperature is close to the observation except over the Himalayas. The direction of the Somali jet and easterly jet and Tibetan anticyclonic position are well simulated by RegCM3. However, difference fields show that RegCM3 simulated wind at 850 hpa is stronger than the reanalysis wind over the southern Peninsula and Central India. Over the Indian Ocean, near to the equator and along the Kerala coast, RegCM3 simulates stronger low level wind fields. RegCM3 simulates stronger easterly component of Tibetan anticyclone than observation over the Bay of Bengal and southernmost Peninsular India. However, westerly is weaker to the north of 30 N latitude. The temporal correlation coefficients (CCs) between area weighted RegCM3 rainfall and IMD observed rainfall over India as a whole in June, July, August, September and JJAS are 0.53, 0.67, 0.61, 0.15 and 0.5, respectively. Annual time variations in Central India JJAS rainfall depict some improvement in CCs. Except in September, simulated rainfall in rest the months

3 TERI University Ph.D. Thesis, Summary and Conclusions have been well correlated with the observation. The CCs between RegCM3 and IMD area weighted mean surface temperatures over Indian land for June, July, August, September and the JJAS season as a whole are 0.62, 0.69, 0.35, 0.78 and 0.66, respectively. Best correlation between RegCM3 simulated and IMD observed JJAS rainfall and temperature is found over central India. The positive and negative phases of rainfall particularly during contrasting monsoon seasons, , , , and are comparable with corresponding IMD observed values. RegCM3 simulated active and break spells in these four pairs of contrasting years are less in number than those in IMD observations. Monsoon breaks in the RegCM3 are of longer life span that those actually observed. Mean summer monsoon rainfall during the months June to September in two contrasting monsoon years 2002 and 2003 simulated by two different models; IITD spectral GCM and RegCM3 are compared. RegCM3 results are much closer to the actual measurements of IMD compared to the GCM results. Frequency of occurrence of rainfall less than 5mm is underestimated by RegCM3 with different magnitudes in all the three selected zones Northwest, Central and Peninsular India. Frequency of occurrence of more than 20mm rainfall are underestimated over the Central India zone and overestimated in Peninsular India. 5-10mm rainfall frequency is overestimated in Northwest and Central India. These differences in frequency distribution between RegCM3 simulated and IMD observed rainfall could explain the wet bias over Northwest, Peninsula and dry bias over Central India up to some extent. Variations in very wet and extremely wet days show that correlations between RegCM3 and IMD frequency of occurrence of rainfall extremes are weak. Frequency distribution of minimum temperature is well in phase with observation compared to maximum temperature. Maximum temperature shows 10 o C shift towards the colder domain. However, both warm days and nights are well simulated by the model with an exception of some systematic bias. Nevertheless, smoothed curves obtained from binomial filtering are well in phase with each other. The extremes of temperature are always of great concern due to their direct influence on human being and surrounding environment. In the recent past, the changing pattern, frequency and magnitudes of extreme temperature events across the world are well reported. Studies suggest that extreme temperature events are increasing over the world. Some such inference over India has been so far based on observed temperature values. However, these observations are not uniform in space and time duration. Currently, a very good quality dataset of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the period is prepared by the IMD at a resolution of 1 o x1 o over the Indian land points. This dataset is used to examine the changes in frequency of occurrence and episodes of temperature in seven homogeneous regions and over the whole of the country. The year to year variations in seasonal mean, maximum and minimum temperatures in pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter seasons are analyzed. Extreme temperature indices such as warm days and nights in summer and cold days and nights in winter are divided into three different intensities based on its severity. These temperature exceedences are examined in detail at inter-annual and inter-decadal scales. Further, long and short spells of warm days and cold nights are also considered. An attempt has also been made to analyze variations in temperature, simulated by RegCM3 in order to find out the possibility to generate future projections of temperature extremes using high resolution RegCM3 driven with GCMs output.

4 For validation of model output temperature variations, corresponding NCEP reanalysis fields and IMD observed data are used. One of the important results of this study is the significant decreasing trends in the frequency and spells of cold nights for the period in the country as a whole and in all the regions in the north except Western Himalaya. In this region the number of cold days show decreasing trend. Southern regions in India show drastic decrease in the frequency of cold nights in winter with respect to the period Relatively more warm days in the summers of the last decade is noticed in southern regions as compared to the northern regions. Increase in the frequency of warm nights in summer is found in two northern regions North West and North East and in the two southern regions, West Coast and Interior Peninsula. Cooling tendency in winter over two northern regions, North Central and North East has also been noticed due to significant increase in the frequency of cold days. Changes in the frequency of warm and cold exceedences indicate maximum warming in the West Coast as compared to all other regions. Results show that frequencies of occurrence of the strongest category of warm days and nights such as TX99p and TN99p are maximum during the decade as compared to earlier decades when India is considered as one complete unit. Regions in the south India show rise in the frequency of warm days in summer whereas regions in the north India do not indicate any change in the frequency of occurrence of warm days. Nevertheless, decrease in the number of winter cold nights leads to relatively more warming in the northern regions of the country than in the south. Overall results indicate that the decreasing trends in the frequency of cold nights are more significant and prevalent than the increasing trends in warm days in India. Simulation of Indian summer monsoon rainfall and its variability by a global model at different time scales is always a challenging task. The global models are unable to capture rainfall pattern over complex terrains with good confidence. In the fourth assessment report of IPCC it is reported that the pattern and magnitude of Indian summer monsoon rainfall are likely to change under warmer climate. It is mainly based on simulations of IPCC models under different forced scenarios. In this study, selected high resolution GCM simulations with average latitudinal surface resolution varying from 1.1 to 2.0 o are used. These models are CCSM3, ECHAM5, GFDL2.1, MIROC3.2 (hires) and UKMO-HadGEM1. The marker scenarios namely, A2, B1 and A1B are used to make projections of future climate. Changes in monsoon rainfall, temperature and wind circulations are studied in the simulations of IPCC AR4 models under forced scenarios during with respect to the base line period To understand the possible changes in mean JJA circulation and rainfall during with respect to the baseline period under the emission scenarios A2, A1B and B1, the future projected changes in mean JJA temperature at 500hPa, wind at 850hPa and 200hPa and rainfall are analyzed in detail. Relatively less warming is noticed over the Himalayan and Tibetan regions compared to other parts of India in all considered model projections under A2, A1B and B1 scenarios. The model simulated future projection of mean wind at 850hPa under A2, A1B and B1 scenarios shows an anomalous anticyclonic flow over Arabian Sea and anomalous easterly flow over Indian Ocean which could be responsible for weakening of Indian summer monsoon in warmer

5 TERI University Ph.D. Thesis, Summary and Conclusions climate. At 200hPa, models simulated future projections of mean monsoon wind fields show an anomalous cyclonic flow over the north of Northwest India, Himalayan and Tibetan regions that leads to develop a westerly flow over the Indian Ocean and may cause changes in the distribution of ISMR in parts of India. The future projected ISMR under A2, B1 and A1B scenarios show deficit and excess of rainfall over the lower part of western and eastern coast of India in HadGEM1, ECHAM5, and MIROC (hires) simulations. Low emission scenarios, nearly from all models, show deficit of rainfall over West Coast, Central Northeast and parts of North East India. Some of the important results obtained from this thesis are concluded here. Observational analysis shows a positive relationship between the snow starting dates in the northernmost Eurasia and onset dates of Indian summer monsoon. Regional climate model RegCM3 simulates the Indian summer monsoon rainfall reasonably well especially in the Central India compared to the other regions. Changes in the occurrence of temperature exceedences in India indicate that decreasing trends in the frequency of cold nights are more significant and prevalent than the increasing trends in warm days. Based on the simulations of IPCC models it is found that Indian summer monsoon in the near future likely to be weaker under A2, A1B and B1 emission scenarios. In future, snow starting dates and its connection with Indian summer monsoon onset should be re-examined using more northernmost Eurasian stations data with continuous and longer records including the recent years. Tropical convective heating anomalies may force the anomalous mid-latitude circulation and large scale mid-latitude circulation affects land temperature. The phenomenon of mid-latitude circulation is not properly understood yet and more investigation is required. Further study and modeling experiments are needed verify and understand the mechanisms associated with the opposite polarity between snow depths in northern and southern Eurasia and also the inverse correlation between East and West Eurasia snow depths. More sensitivity experiments using IIT Delhi spectral GCM can also be set during contrasting monsoon cases in order to investigate influence of snow on monsoon. In case of regional climate study over several Indian regions, there is a need to use the state-of-the-art model RegCM4 and tune it for the Indian summer monsoon. A number of sensitivity experiments can be conducted in order to understand and correct the model bias.

Monsoon Variability and Extreme Weather Events

Monsoon Variability and Extreme Weather Events Monsoon Variability and Extreme Weather Events M Rajeevan National Climate Centre India Meteorological Department Pune 411 005 rajeevan@imdpune.gov.in Outline of the presentation Monsoon rainfall Variability

More information

South Africa. General Climate. UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1

South Africa. General Climate. UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles South Africa A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 1. School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford. 2. Tyndall Centre for Climate

More information

Chile extends from tropics down almost to Antarctica and is located on the west side of the Andes

Chile extends from tropics down almost to Antarctica and is located on the west side of the Andes UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles Chile A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 1. School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford. 2. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change

More information

Indonesia. General Climate. UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1

Indonesia. General Climate. UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles. A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 UNDP Climate Change Country Profiles Indonesia A. Karmalkar 1, C. McSweeney 1, M. New 1,2 and G. Lizcano 1 1. School of Geography and Environment, University of Oxford. 2. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change

More information

R. H. Kripalani A.A.Kulkarni, S.S. Sabade and J.H. Oh *

R. H. Kripalani A.A.Kulkarni, S.S. Sabade and J.H. Oh * Summer Monsoon Variability over South and East Asia: Understanding Tele-connections through NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data R. H. Kripalani A.A.Kulkarni, S.S. Sabade and J.H. Oh * Indian Institute of Tropical

More information

El Niño strengthens but a warm Indian Ocean

El Niño strengthens but a warm Indian Ocean 1 of 10 3/09/2015 1:39 PM ENSO Wrap-Up Current state of the Pacific and Indian Ocean El Niño strengthens but a warm Indian Ocean Issued on 1 September 2015 Product Code IDCKGEWW00 The 2015 El Niño is now

More information

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 9 May 2011

ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 9 May 2011 ENSO Cycle: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions Update prepared by Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 9 May 2011 Outline Overview Recent Evolution and Current Conditions Oceanic Niño Index (ONI)

More information

Winter : Illustrating the Strength of WCS Methods

Winter : Illustrating the Strength of WCS Methods Winter 2014-2015: Illustrating the Strength of WCS Methods Amplified and persistent climate patterns in the winter of 2014-2015 brought unusual conditions to many parts of the Northern Hemisphere. Highly

More information

Climate Change in Mongolia

Climate Change in Mongolia Climate Change in Mongolia 2 Mongolia Outputs from GCM 1. Outline In the 40th session of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) held in October 2014, the Synthesis Report of the Fifth Assessment

More information

IX Geography CHEPTER-4 CLIMATE

IX Geography CHEPTER-4 CLIMATE IX Geography CHEPTER-4 CLIMATE Introduction: Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years). Weather refers to

More information

Correspondence: drajan@hydra.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, drajan@ncmrwf.gov.in

Correspondence: drajan@hydra.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, drajan@ncmrwf.gov.in Southwest and Northeast Monsoon Season of India During 2004 as Seen by JRA25 and the General Circulation Model T80 D. Rajan 1,2, T.Koike 1, K.Taniguchi 1 1 CEOP Lab, University of Tokyo, Japan 2 NCMRWF,

More information

Ocean Circulation and Climate. The Thermohaline Circulation

Ocean Circulation and Climate. The Thermohaline Circulation Ocean Circulation and Climate In addition to the atmospheric circulation heat is also transported to the poles by the ocean circulation. The ocean circulation is therefore an important part of the climate

More information

Asian Monsoon onset in the present climate and its future projec5on

Asian Monsoon onset in the present climate and its future projec5on Asian Monsoon onset in the present climate and its future projec5on Cheng Ta Chen and Yu Shiang Tung Na5onal Taiwan Normal University, Department of Earth Sciences Background Data (obs and model) Method

More information

1. Incredible India. Shade the map on the next page, to show India s relief. The correct shading is shown on the final page! Incredible India India

1. Incredible India. Shade the map on the next page, to show India s relief. The correct shading is shown on the final page! Incredible India India 1. Incredible India Shade the map on the next page, to show India s relief. The correct shading is shown on the final page! Incredible India India The DCSF supported Action plan for Geography is delivered

More information

Climate Extremes Research: Recent Findings and New Direc8ons

Climate Extremes Research: Recent Findings and New Direc8ons Climate Extremes Research: Recent Findings and New Direc8ons Kenneth Kunkel NOAA Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites North Carolina State University and National Climatic Data Center h#p://assessment.globalchange.gov

More information

Queensland rainfall past, present and future

Queensland rainfall past, present and future Queensland rainfall past, present and future Historically, Queensland has had a variable climate, and recent weather has reminded us of that fact. After experiencing the longest drought in recorded history,

More information

Chapter 2 Monthly and Seasonal Indian Summer Monsoon Simulated by RegCM3 at High Resolutions

Chapter 2 Monthly and Seasonal Indian Summer Monsoon Simulated by RegCM3 at High Resolutions Chapter 2 Monthly and Seasonal Indian Summer Monsoon Simulated by RegCM3 at High Resolutions S.K. Dash, Savita Rai, U.C. Mohanty, and S.K. Panda Abstract The purpose of this study is to examine the advantages

More information

IGAD CLIMATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATIONS CENTRE

IGAD CLIMATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATIONS CENTRE IGAD CLIMATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATIONS CENTRE CLIMATE WATCH FOR THE PERIOD JUNE -DECEMBER 2015 EL NIÑO EVOLUTION OVER EASTERN EQUATORIAL OCEAN REGION AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OVER THE GREATER HORN OF FRICA

More information

Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts. Air Masses. Source Regions. Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics.

Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts. Air Masses. Source Regions. Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. Chapter 9: Air Masses and Fronts Air masses Contain uniform temperature and humidity characteristics. What Characterize Air Masses? What Define Fronts? Fronts Boundaries between unlike air masses. Air

More information

Canadian Prairie growing season precipitation variability and associated atmospheric circulation

Canadian Prairie growing season precipitation variability and associated atmospheric circulation CLIMATE RESEARCH Vol. 11: 191 208, 1999 Published April 28 Clim Res Canadian Prairie growing season precipitation variability and associated atmospheric circulation B. R. Bonsal*, X. Zhang, W. D. Hogg

More information

The Weather of Pemba 30 years of SUN hours, winds & precipitation

The Weather of Pemba 30 years of SUN hours, winds & precipitation The Weather of Pemba 3 years of SUN hours, winds & precipitation A unique weather system Pemba Island has a tropical monsoon climate with high precipitation figures all year round. Pemba Island has two

More information

Improving Dynamical Prediction of Seasonal Mean Monsoon & Extended Range Prediction of Active-Break Spells

Improving Dynamical Prediction of Seasonal Mean Monsoon & Extended Range Prediction of Active-Break Spells Annual Cycle Improving Dynamical Prediction of Seasonal Mean Monsoon & Extended Range Prediction of Active-Break Spells M Rajeevan National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki Inputs: Dr Suryachandra

More information

IGAD CLIMATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATION CENTRE

IGAD CLIMATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATION CENTRE IGAD CLIMATE PREDICTION AND APPLICATION CENTRE CLIMATE WATCH REF: ICPAC/CW/No.32 May 2016 EL NIÑO STATUS OVER EASTERN EQUATORIAL OCEAN REGION AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS OVER THE GREATER HORN OF FRICA DURING

More information

BC and Climate Change at the Third Pole. Danielle Meitiv February 17, 2010

BC and Climate Change at the Third Pole. Danielle Meitiv February 17, 2010 BC and Climate Change at the Third Pole Danielle Meitiv February 17, 2010 BC and Climate Change at the Third pole Slide 2 3 rd rd Pole warming 3x faster than global l average M i t t i Maximum temperatures

More information

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE!

ChangE. PolICIEs. not the ClIMatE! ChangE PolICIEs not the ClIMatE! IPCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change s (IPCC) reports are the most comprehensive global overview to date of the science behind climate change. These climate

More information

Characteristics and Position of Africa s Major Climate Regions

Characteristics and Position of Africa s Major Climate Regions LESSON 3: AFRICA S CLIMATE REGIONS Key Concepts You must know, or be able to do the following: Name, understand the characteristics and position of Africa s major climate regions Be able to link the African

More information

SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014

SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014 SUBTROPICAL ANTICYCLONES & ASSOCIATED WEATHER CONDITIONS 20 FEBRUARY 2014 In this lesson we: Lesson Description Discuss the THREE high pressure cells that affect South Africa: Location, identification,

More information

POST-MONSOON SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND CONVECTION ANOMALIES OVER INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS

POST-MONSOON SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND CONVECTION ANOMALIES OVER INDIAN AND PACIFIC OCEANS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY Int. J. Climatol. 22: 559 567 (2002) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/joc.729 POST-MONSOON SEA SURFACE TEMPERATURE

More information

Supplementary Information for. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion

Supplementary Information for. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion Supplementary Information for Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Sun Corridor expansion M. Georgescu a,b*, A. Mahalov b, and M. Moustaoui b a School of Geographical Sciences and Urban Planning, Arizona

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Middle-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Middle-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova MIDDLE-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES E.I. Khlebnikova Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia Keywords: continental climate of the temperate belt, east-coast climate of the temperate

More information

Climate Change Projection for South Eastern Europe

Climate Change Projection for South Eastern Europe First Session of South-Eastern Europe Climate Outlook Forum (SEECOF-1) Climate Change Projection for South Eastern Europe Eglantina Bruci Institute for Energy, Water and Environment, University of Polytechnics

More information

Current dynamical downscaling activities at CSIRO

Current dynamical downscaling activities at CSIRO Current dynamical downscaling activities at CSIRO John McGregor, Jack Katzfey, Kim Nguyen and Marcus Thatcher Climate Adaptation Flagship Aspendale, Melbourne, Australia UNFCCC NWP Technical Workshop Apia

More information

ENSO: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by: Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 29 June 2015

ENSO: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions. Update prepared by: Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 29 June 2015 ENSO: Recent Evolution, Current Status and Predictions Update prepared by: Climate Prediction Center / NCEP 29 June 2015 Outline Summary Recent Evolution and Current Conditions Oceanic Niño Index (ONI)

More information

First, we create a GCM area average rainfall time series and compare with the observed rainfall time series calculated in lecture 1.

First, we create a GCM area average rainfall time series and compare with the observed rainfall time series calculated in lecture 1. Exercise 2 INTRODUCTION In this practical exercise, you will evaluate the extent to which SST forcing has impacted the GCM's circulation so as to create correct predictions of the observed circulation

More information

REGIONAL CLIMATE AND DOWNSCALING

REGIONAL CLIMATE AND DOWNSCALING REGIONAL CLIMATE AND DOWNSCALING Regional Climate Modelling at the Hungarian Meteorological Service ANDRÁS HORÁNYI (horanyi( horanyi.a@.a@met.hu) Special thanks: : Gabriella Csima,, Péter Szabó, Gabriella

More information

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation

The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events 2 How do changes

More information

Precipitation is usually on the decrease in February, but still fairly wet and humid.

Precipitation is usually on the decrease in February, but still fairly wet and humid. January coincides with the peak of the rainy season in Seychelles. It is an extremely wet and humid month with occasional outbreaks of showers day or night with a slight preference for rain in the late

More information

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere

Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere Chapter 8 Circulation of the Atmosphere The Atmosphere Is Composed Mainly of Nitrogen, Oxygen, and Water Vapor What are some properties of the atmosphere? Solar Radiation - initial source of energy to

More information

Robert R. Gillies R. Douglas Ramsey

Robert R. Gillies R. Douglas Ramsey Climate of Utah Robert R. Gillies R. Douglas Ramsey Climate in Utah is greatly influenced by its location within the North American Continent with significant local modifications due to topography. Northern,

More information

ONSET CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOUTHWEST MONSOON OVER INDIA

ONSET CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOUTHWEST MONSOON OVER INDIA INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY Int. J. Climatol. 25: 167 182 (2005) Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI: 10.1002/joc.1121 ONSET CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SOUTHWEST

More information

Selecting members of the QUMP perturbed-physics ensemble for use with PRECIS

Selecting members of the QUMP perturbed-physics ensemble for use with PRECIS Selecting members of the QUMP perturbed-physics ensemble for use with PRECIS Isn t one model enough? Carol McSweeney and Richard Jones Met Office Hadley Centre, September 2010 Downscaling a single GCM

More information

Indian Ocean and Monsoon

Indian Ocean and Monsoon Indo-French Workshop on Atmospheric Sciences 3-5 October 2013, New Delhi (Organised by MoES and CEFIPRA) Indian Ocean and Monsoon Satheesh C. Shenoi Indian National Center for Ocean Information Services

More information

Paul Wolyn * NOAA/NWS Pueblo, Colorado

Paul Wolyn * NOAA/NWS Pueblo, Colorado 17.1 THE MARCH 2003 SNOWSTORM OVER SOUTHERN COLORADO Paul Wolyn * NOAA/NWS Pueblo, Colorado 1. INTRODUCTION From 16-19 March 2003 a heavy precipitation event struck most of eastern Colorado. In the southern

More information

A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events the focus of Chapter 3. Presented by: David R.

A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events the focus of Chapter 3. Presented by: David R. A changing climate leads to changes in extreme weather and climate events the focus of Chapter 3 Presented by: David R. Easterling Chapter 3:Changes in Climate Extremes & their Impacts on the Natural Physical

More information

Lecture 4: Pressure and Wind

Lecture 4: Pressure and Wind Lecture 4: Pressure and Wind Pressure, Measurement, Distribution Forces Affect Wind Geostrophic Balance Winds in Upper Atmosphere Near-Surface Winds Hydrostatic Balance (why the sky isn t falling!) Thermal

More information

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development

Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Chapter 24: Tropical Cyclones Hurricane Naming, Track, Structure Tropical Cyclone Development Hurricane Characteristics Definition: Hurricanes have sustained winds of 120 km/hr (74 mph) or greater. Size:

More information

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate?

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? In Learning Set 2, you explored how water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly than land. Weather is caused by events in the atmosphere.

More information

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons

CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction. Overview. Seasons CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Fig. 6.11 Overview Atmosphere and ocean one interdependent system Solar energy creates winds Winds drive surface ocean currents and waves Examples of interactions: El Niño-Southern

More information

LESSON 1: THE EARTH S ENERGY BALANCE. Key Concepts X-PLANATION. Energy Balance and Heating of the Atmosphere

LESSON 1: THE EARTH S ENERGY BALANCE. Key Concepts X-PLANATION. Energy Balance and Heating of the Atmosphere LESSON 1: THE EARTH S ENERGY BALANCE Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Define the term Energy Balance Clearly understand the concept of the heating of

More information

Geographic & Topographic features of the UAE

Geographic & Topographic features of the UAE Short description of UAE climate NCMS - UAE Geographic & Topographic features of the UAE UAE. UAE is a Gulf country located between latitudes 22.5-26 north and longitudes 51 51-56 56 east. east The UAE

More information

Analysis of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Impacts from the Mount Pinatubo Eruption in the GFDL R30 and GISS GCMs

Analysis of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Impacts from the Mount Pinatubo Eruption in the GFDL R30 and GISS GCMs Analysis of Stratospheric and Tropospheric Impacts from the Mount Pinatubo Eruption in the GFDL R30 and GISS GCMs Luke Oman Georgiy Stenchikov Alan Robock Brian Soden Richard Wetherald Outline Introduction

More information

Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review. Name Date

Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review. Name Date Benchmark Study Guide S6E4 Weather Review Name Date S6E4 Students will understand how the distribution of land and oceans affects climate and weather. a. Demonstrate that land and water absorb and lose

More information

Ocean Roles in the TBO Transitions of the Indian Australian Monsoon System

Ocean Roles in the TBO Transitions of the Indian Australian Monsoon System 3072 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Ocean Roles in the TBO Transitions of the Indian Australian Monsoon System JIN-YI YU ANDSHU-PING WENG Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine,

More information

Section 12.2 Weather Systems

Section 12.2 Weather Systems Section 12.2 Weather Systems Weather results when air masses with different pressures and temperatures move, change, and collide as a result of uneven heating of the Earth combined with the Earth s rotation.

More information

Geography 1001: Climate & Vegetation. Agenda for Lecture 11: T Oct 2 nd. Hydrologic Cycle Model. Review Lecture 9. Global Water Scarcity

Geography 1001: Climate & Vegetation. Agenda for Lecture 11: T Oct 2 nd. Hydrologic Cycle Model. Review Lecture 9. Global Water Scarcity Geography 1001: Climate & Vegetation Agenda for Lecture 11: T Oct 2 nd Logistics 1 st Exam in 9 days! Take advantage of my office hours Students with documented excuses, please email me this week Review

More information

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Low-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova

ENVIRONMENTAL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION: CLIMATE SYSTEM Vol. II - Low-Latitude Climate Zones and Climate Types - E.I. Khlebnikova LOW-LATITUDE CLIMATE ZONES AND CLIMATE TYPES E.I. Khlebnikova Main Geophysical Observatory, St. Petersburg, Russia Keywords: equatorial continental climate, ITCZ, subequatorial continental (equatorial

More information

On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift

On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift Clim Dyn (2012) 39:841 859 DOI 10.1007/s00382-011-1269-9 On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift C. T. Sabeerali

More information

Improving Hydrological Predictions

Improving Hydrological Predictions Improving Hydrological Predictions Catherine Senior MOSAC, November 10th, 2011 How well do we simulate the water cycle? GPCP 10 years of Day 1 forecast Equatorial Variability on Synoptic scales (2-6 days)

More information

Global Surface Temperature most of the warming happened the warmest year is Lecture 6: Climate Changes. More Warming in the N.H.

Global Surface Temperature most of the warming happened the warmest year is Lecture 6: Climate Changes. More Warming in the N.H. Lecture 6: Climate Changes Global Surface Temperature most of the warming happened the warmest year is 1998 Tectonic-Scale Climate Changes Orbital-Scale Climate Changes Deglacial and Millennial Climate

More information

Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist. Introduction. Climatic controls

Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist. Introduction. Climatic controls Climate of Illinois Narrative Jim Angel, state climatologist Introduction Illinois lies midway between the Continental Divide and the Atlantic Ocean, and the state's southern tip is 500 miles north of

More information

Pressure, Forces and Motion

Pressure, Forces and Motion Pressure, Forces and Motion Readings A&B: Ch. 4 (p. 93-114) CD Tutorials: Pressure Gradients, Coriolis, Forces & Winds Topics 1. Review: What is Pressure? 2. Horizontal Pressure Gradients 3. Depicting

More information

The Climate of the Douro: Structure, Trends and Mitigation and Adaptation Responses to a Changing Climate

The Climate of the Douro: Structure, Trends and Mitigation and Adaptation Responses to a Changing Climate The Climate of the Douro: Structure, Trends and Mitigation and Adaptation Responses to a Changing Climate Gregory V. Jones Department of Environmental Studies Fernando Alves Association for Viticultural

More information

Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre, School of energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong

Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre, School of energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong Diurnal and Semi-diurnal Variations of Rainfall in Southeast China Judy Huang and Johnny Chan Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre School of Energy and Environment City University of Hong Kong

More information

Kansas and Climate Change

Kansas and Climate Change Kansas and Climate Change Johannes Feddema and Nathaniel Brunsell Department of Geography The University of Kansas Simulating human land cover change in global climate models Outline Kansas and climate

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift

On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift Clim Dyn DOI 10.1007/s00382-011-1269-9 On the relationship between Indian summer monsoon withdrawal and Indo-Pacific SST anomalies before and after 1976/1977 climate shift C. T. Sabeerali Suryachandra

More information

The Oceans Role in Seasonal and Longer Term Climate

The Oceans Role in Seasonal and Longer Term Climate The Oceans Role in Seasonal and Longer Term Climate Why the recent cooling is likely just the start Although, I believe ultimately the sun is the primary driver for the changes to global climate, the oceans

More information

Tropical Wet (Rainforest)

Tropical Wet (Rainforest) Tropical Wet (Rainforest) 1 Tropical Wet Temperature ( ºF) 75 81 85 90 90 85 90 92 90 85 80 75 Precipitation (inches) 1.0 1.5 1.5 4.0 8.0 6.0 6.0 7.0 12.0 9.0 2.0 1.0 The climate on eastern sides of continents

More information

Global land-based gridded datasets of climate extremes indices (ETCCDI) Markus Donat and many others

Global land-based gridded datasets of climate extremes indices (ETCCDI) Markus Donat and many others Global land-based gridded datasets of climate extremes indices (ETCCDI) Markus Donat and many others Is the occurrence of extreme climate events changing? Problem: limited availability of daily observational

More information

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab)

8.5 Comparing Canadian Climates (Lab) These 3 climate graphs and tables of data show average temperatures and precipitation for each month in Victoria, Winnipeg and Whitehorse: Figure 1.1 Month J F M A M J J A S O N D Year Precipitation 139

More information

ESCI 344 Tropical Meteorology Lesson 5 Tropical Cyclones: Climatology

ESCI 344 Tropical Meteorology Lesson 5 Tropical Cyclones: Climatology ESCI 344 Tropical Meteorology Lesson 5 Tropical Cyclones: Climatology References: A Global View of Tropical Cyclones, Elsberry (ed.) The Hurricane, Pielke Tropical Cyclones: Their evolution, structure,

More information

Numerical Modeling of Wildland Fire Behaviour under Foehn Winds in New Zealand

Numerical Modeling of Wildland Fire Behaviour under Foehn Winds in New Zealand Numerical Modeling of Wildland Fire Behaviour under Foehn Winds in New Zealand Talk by Colin Simpson University of Canterbury Te Whare Wānanga o Waitaha Christchurch, New Zealand Introduction PhD Student

More information

The Prediction of Indian Monsoon Rainfall: A Regression Approach. Abstract

The Prediction of Indian Monsoon Rainfall: A Regression Approach. Abstract The Prediction of Indian Monsoon Rainfall: Goutami Bandyopadhyay A Regression Approach 1/19 Dover Place Kolkata-7 19 West Bengal India goutami15@yahoo.co.in Abstract The present paper analyses the monthly

More information

Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Dynamical Processes in the Tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans and the TBO

Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Dynamical Processes in the Tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans and the TBO 2138 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Dynamical Processes in the Tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans and the TBO GERALD A. MEEHL, JULIE M. ARBLASTER, AND JOHANNES LOSCHNIGG* National Center for

More information

Appendix. Global Circulation and El Niño

Appendix. Global Circulation and El Niño Appendix. Global Circulation and El Niño The radiant energy from the Sun is not equally distributed over the surface of the Earth. Equatorial latitudes receive much more energy than polar latitudes, and

More information

Climate Change Implications for Fire and Invasive Species across American Deserts

Climate Change Implications for Fire and Invasive Species across American Deserts Climate Change Implications for Fire and Invasive Species across American Deserts John T. Abatzoglou 1,2* Crystal A. Kolden 2 1 San Jose State University, San Jose, California 2 Desert Research Institute,

More information

Latest Decadal Forecast: January 2014

Latest Decadal Forecast: January 2014 Latest Decadal Forecast: 2014-2018 January 2014 280114_MetOffice_DecadalForecast_researchnews_final - 1 Crown copyright 2008 Summary This paper summarises the outcome of the latest experimental decadal

More information

ANALYSIS OF TOURISM POTENTIAL FOR CRETE

ANALYSIS OF TOURISM POTENTIAL FOR CRETE ANALYSIS OF TOURISM POTENTIAL FOR CRETE A. Matzarakis 1, P. Nastos 2 N. Karatarakis 3, A. Sarantopoulos 3 1 Meteorological Institute, University of Freiburg, Germany 2 Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric

More information

Government of India Earth System Science Organization Ministry of Earth Sciences India Meteorological Department

Government of India Earth System Science Organization Ministry of Earth Sciences India Meteorological Department Government of India Earth System Science Organization Ministry of Earth Sciences India Meteorological Department Press Release Dated: 1 October, 2015 Subject: Current status of southwest monsoon 2015 and

More information

CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR MALAYSIA

CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR MALAYSIA CLIMATE CHANGE SCENARIOS FOR MALAYSIA 2001-2099 Malaysian Meteorological Department Scientific Report January 2009 Prepared by: Numerical Weather Prediction Development Section Technical Development Division

More information

James Hansen, Reto Ruedy, Makiko Sato, Ken Lo

James Hansen, Reto Ruedy, Makiko Sato, Ken Lo If It s That Warm, How Come It s So Damned Cold? James Hansen, Reto Ruedy, Makiko Sato, Ken Lo The past year, 2009, tied as the second warmest year in the 130 years of global instrumental temperature records,

More information

Introduction HIRLAM 7.2

Introduction HIRLAM 7.2 Introduction HIRLAM 7.2 Differences between the current operational HIRLAM version 7.0 and the next operational version 7.2 are described in this document. I will try to describe the effect of this change

More information

GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems

GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems GEO 101: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Chapter 10: Global Climate Systems Why does the climate differ from one place to another? What controls the global climate? What typical climate patterns do we have across the

More information

ALFREDO ROCHA. Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, 3800 Aveiro, Portugal AND IAN SIMMONDS

ALFREDO ROCHA. Departamento de Física, Universidade de Aveiro, 3800 Aveiro, Portugal   AND IAN SIMMONDS INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY, VOL. 17, 267 290 (1997) INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY OF SOUTH-EASTERN AFRICAN SUMMER RAINFALL. PART II. MODELLING THE IMPACT OF SEA-SURFACE TEMPERATURES ON RAINFALL AND

More information

Decreasing temperature variability over the mid- to high latitude Northern Hemisphere in a warming climate

Decreasing temperature variability over the mid- to high latitude Northern Hemisphere in a warming climate Decreasing temperature variability over the mid- to high latitude Northern Hemisphere in a warming climate James Screen, PCWG meeting, 29 January 2014 Climate change and extremes Arctic amplification Mean

More information

Lecture 8. El Nino and Climate Variability

Lecture 8. El Nino and Climate Variability Lecture 8 El Nino and Climate Variability Internal Climate Variability: Some key concepts to review: Recall that high pressure is associated with cold temperatures and sinking motion. The sinking motion

More information

Wind and Weather Notes. 8 th Grade Science Mrs. Melka

Wind and Weather Notes. 8 th Grade Science Mrs. Melka Wind and Weather Notes 8 th Grade Science Mrs. Melka 2015-16 Why is Wind Important? Part 1 Because wind systems determine major weather patterns on Earth. Wind also helps determine where planes and ships

More information

Air masses, fronts and cyclones

Air masses, fronts and cyclones Air masses, fronts and cyclones G Aims Air masses, fronts and cyclones To explain the seasonal changes in weather patterns in the midlatitudes To outline the sequence of stages in the life cycle of a migrating

More information

Geography affects climate.

Geography affects climate. KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

UNCERTAINTIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS

UNCERTAINTIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS OECD Workshop on the benefits of climate policy. Paris, 12/13 December 2002 UNCERTAINTIES IN CLIMATE CHANGE PREDICTIONS Geoff Jenkins Hadley Centre MetOffice,UK 1 CLIMATE CHANGE DEPENDS UPON: How man-made

More information

Tropical Cloud Population

Tropical Cloud Population Tropical Cloud Population Before Satellites Visual Observation View from and aircraft flying over the South China Sea Radiosonde Data Hot tower hypothesis Riehl & Malkus 1958 Satellite Observations Post

More information

UNIT I INTRODUCTION. This unit deals with Location space relations and India s place in the world

UNIT I INTRODUCTION. This unit deals with Location space relations and India s place in the world UNIT I INTRODUCTION This unit deals with Location space relations and India s place in the world CHAPTER INDIA LOCATION You have already seen the map of India in the previous classes. Now you closely examine

More information

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414)

Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) NCEA Level 3 Earth and Space Science (91414) 2014 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2014 Earth and Space Science: Demonstrate understanding of processes in the atmosphere system (91414) Evidence Statement

More information

Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems

Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Chapter 8 Global Weather Systems Global Weather Systems Low-latitudes Hadley Cell Circulation Wet near the equator Dry near 20-30 N and 20-30 S Periods of wet and dry in between Easterly Winds (NE & SE

More information

AIR TEMPERATURE IN THE CANADIAN ARCTIC IN THE MID NINETEENTH CENTURY BASED ON DATA FROM EXPEDITIONS

AIR TEMPERATURE IN THE CANADIAN ARCTIC IN THE MID NINETEENTH CENTURY BASED ON DATA FROM EXPEDITIONS PRACE GEOGRAFICZNE, zeszyt 107 Instytut Geografii UJ Kraków 2000 Rajmund Przybylak AIR TEMPERATURE IN THE CANADIAN ARCTIC IN THE MID NINETEENTH CENTURY BASED ON DATA FROM EXPEDITIONS Abstract: The paper

More information

Downscaling of the global warming projections to Turkey

Downscaling of the global warming projections to Turkey Downscaling of the global warming projections to Turkey Cimate Sub-Group Fujio Kimura(Group Leader) Terrestrial Environment Research Center, University of Tsukuba Akio Kitoh, Meteorological Research Institute,

More information

2013 Annual Climate Summary for the Southeast United States

2013 Annual Climate Summary for the Southeast United States Months of heavy rain forced the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers to open the spillways at Lake Hartwell, located at the headwaters of the Savannah River along the South Carolina-Georgia border, on July 9,.

More information

Comment on "Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback"

Comment on Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback LLNL-JRNL-422752 Comment on "Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback" A. J. Broccoli, S. A. Klein January 22, 2010 Science Disclaimer This document was prepared as an account

More information