# Name Hour. Acids, Bases, Salts & Neutralization. Solution Stoichiometry Notepack

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1 Name Hour Acids, Bases, Salts & Neutralization Solution Stoichiometry Notepack

2 The Concentration of a Solution Molarity, Page 509: 1. Define concentration: 2. Define concentrated: 3. Define dilute: 4. Define Molarity: Acids, Bases, Salts and Neutralization Sample problems: 1. A saline solution contains 0.9 grams of sodium chloride per 100 ml of solution. What is the molarity of the solution? 2. A solution has a volume of 2.0 Liters and contains 36 grams of glucose. What is the molarity of the solution? (Molar mass of glucose, C6H12O6 = 180 g/mol) 3. A solution has a volume of 250 ml and contains 0.7 mol of table salt. What is its molarity? 4. How many moles of solute are present in 1.5 L of 0.24 M Na2SO4? 5. How many moles of ammonium nitrate are in 335 ml of M NH4NO3? How many grams is this? 6. How many moles of solute are in 250 ml of 2.0 M CaCl2? How many grams is this?

3 Making Dilutions You can make a solution less concentrated by diluting it with solvent. The dilution reduces the moles of solute per unit volume. Remember this did not change the total moles of solute in the solution. 1. What is the formula to calculate dilutions? Problems: 1. How many milliliters of a stock solution of 2.0 M MgSO4 would you need to prepare 100 ml of 0.4 M MgSO4? 2. How many milliliters of a stock solution of 4.0 M KI would you need to prepare 250 ml of a 0.76 M KI? 3. Suppose you need 250 ml of a 0.2 M NaCl, but the only supply of sodium chloride you have is a solution of 1.0 M NaCl. How do you prepare the required solution? (describe the exact process) 20.1 Describing Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases: Page 577 A. List some properties of acids: B. List some properties of bases: Names and Formulas of Acids and Bases: Page 578 A. Define Acid What is the general formula for an acid?

4 There are three rules for naming acids. These rules focus on the name of the anion, in particular, the suffix of the anion name. Fill in the following chart regarding the rules for naming acids: Page 578 NAMING ACIDS Anion Ending Example Acid name Example -ide Cl -1 Chloride Hydro (stem) ic acid -ite 2- SO 3 (stem)-ous acid Sulfite -ate NO -1 3 (stem)-ic acid B. Define a base- What is the general formula for a base- When naming a base, name it just like any other ionic compound say the name of the positive ion followed by the name of the anion, (hydroxide). Examples: 1. Name these compounds as acids: a. HClO b. HCN c. H 3 PO 4 2. Name each as an acid or base: a. HF b. HNO 3 c. KOH d. H 2 SO 4 e. H 2 CO 3 f. HClO 3 g. Al(OH) 3 h. Ba(OH) 2 3. Write formulas for each acid or base: a. chromic acid b. iron (II) hydroxide c. hydroiodic acid d. lithium hydroxide e. barium hydroxide f. hydrobromic acid g. rubidium hydroxide h. hydroselenic acid

5 20.2Hydrogen Ions and Acidity Hydrogen Ions From Water Occasionally, the collisions between water molecules are energetic enough that a hydrogen ion is transferred from one water molecule to another. Show the self ionization of water reaction: A water molecule that loses a hydrogen ion becomes a A water molecule that gains a hydrogen ion becomes a The self ionization of water occurs only to a small extent: What is the concentration of the hydronium ion or hydroxide ion in pure water at 25 degrees C? [H 3 O + ] = and [OH - ] = * the brackets stand for concentration in molarity units. Why is water said to be neutral? For aqueous solutions, the product of the hydrogen ion concentration and the hydroxide ion concentration is known as the ion-product constant for water, K w. Write the expression for Kw: In acidic solutions, the [H+] is greater than the [OH-]. Therefore, the [H+] is greater than 1 x10-7 mol/l. In basic solutions, the [H+] is less than the [OH-]. What is another name for basic solutions? Example One: If [H+] = 1 x 10-5 mol/l, is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? What is the [OH-] of this solution?

6 Problem 1 If the hydroxide ion concentration of a aqueous solution is 1 x 10-3 mol/l, what is the [H+] in this solution? Is the solution acidic, basic, or neutral? Problem 2 Classify each solution as acidic, basic, or neutral: a. [H+] = 6.0 x M b. [OH-] = 3.0 x 10 2 M c. [H+] = 2.0 x 10 7 M d. [OH-] = 1.0 x 10 7 The ph Concept: Since the hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter is inconvenient to use, a more widely used system, called the ph scale, is used. What is a ph scale and what do we use it for? Sketch in a ph scale, indicating where acids, bases, and neutral solutions fall. (Bottom of page 584 is helpful here) Write the formula for calculation ph: For ph calculations, concentration should be expressed in exponential form: For example, 0.01M: Example 2 The hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution is 1 x mol/l. What is the ph of a solution?

7 Problem 2 Determine the ph of the following solutions: a. [H+] = 1.0 x 10 4 M b. [H+] = M c. [H+] = M d. [H+] = 1.0 x 10 7 M Example 3 The ph of a solution is 6.0. What is the hydrogen ion concentration? Problem 3 Calculate [H+] for each solution: a. ph = 5.00 b. ph = 7.00 c. ph = 6.00 d. ph = 3.00 Calculating ph Values: Most ph values are not whole numbers. They are still easy enough to find using our formula for determining ph values: Also, remembering the relationship between [H+] and [OH-], we can derive another powerful formula for poh: Write the formula for calculating ph: Write the formula for calculating poh: Write the equation showing the relationship between ph and poh: Example 4 What is the ph of a solution if the [OH-] = 4 x 10-11? Problem 6 Calculate the ph for each solution: a. [H+] = 5.0 x 10 6 M b. [H+] = 8.3 x M c. [H+] = 2.7 x 10 7 M d. [OH-] = 4.3 x 10 5 M e. [OH-] = 2.0 x 10 5 M f. [OH-] = 4.5 x M

8 Example 5 What is the [H+] in Molarity units for a solution if the ph = 3.7? Problem 7. Calculate the [H+] in Molarity for each solution: a. ph = 7.3 b. ph = 1.8 c. ph = 9.5 e. ph = 6.7 Problem 8 Calculate the [OH-] concentration for each of the above solutions: a. b. c. d Acid-Base Theories Arrhenius Acids and Bases: Define an Arrhenius Acid- What is an example of a monoprotic acid? Diprotic acid? Triprotic acid? Only the hydrogens in very polar bonds are ionizable. Compare HCl (hydrochloric acid) and HC 2 H 3 O 2 (acetic acid) and CH 4 (methane) Problem 8 Identify the following acids as monoprotic, diprotic, or triprotic: a. sulfuric acid b. phosphoric acid c. hydrochloric acid

9 Define an Arrhenius Base- Metals will react with water for form bases: Example: Write the balanced equation for sodium metal reacting with water Problem 9 Write a balanced equation for each reaction: a. Potassium metal reacts with water: b. Calcium metal reacts with water: Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases: One problem with the Arrhenius theory is that it is not comprehensive enough: We need a better definition to include more substances that behave like acids and bases, yet don t start with H or end with OH For example, NH 3 (ammonia) and Na 2 CO 3 (sodium carbonate) are bases, yet don t end with hydroxide, OH-. Define: Bronsted-Lowery Acids: Define: Bronsted-Lowery Bases: Show ammonia reaction with water: What are conjugates? Show HCl reacting with water and label the conjugate acid-base pairs: define amphoteric:

10 Problem 10: a. Write equation for the ionization of nitric acid in water. Label the conjugate acid-base pairs. b. Write the equation for the ionization of sulfuric acid in water. (remove just one hydrogen). Label the conjugate acid-base pairs. c. Write the equation for the removal of the second hydrogen from the equation above: Label the conjugate acid-base pairs. Define amphoteric Problem 11: Write the conjugate acids for the following bases: a. C l- b. HS0 4 c. NH 3 Problem 12: Write the conjugate bases for the following acids: a. H 2 O c. HCO 3 - b. H 2 CO 3 d. H The Strengths of Acids and Bases Define strong acids: Examples: Show the dissociation of hydrochloric acid in water: Define weak acids: Examples: Show the dissociation of acetic acid in water:

11 The equilibrium constant expression for this formula is: (remember: products over reactants) What is an acid dissociation constant? Write the acid dissociation expression for acetic acid? Look on page 602. These numbers are constants. They can be found in table 20.8, page 602. What does a large Ka value mean? What does a small Ka value mean? Diprotic and triprotic acids lose their hydrogen ions one at a time. Each ionization reaction has a separate ionization constant, Ka. Show the three ionization steps for phosphoric acid and state its Ka value What is a strong base? Examples? What is a weak base? Examples? Write the formula for the dissociation of ammonia in water: What is a base dissociation constant, Kb? Write the base dissociation constant, Kb, for the above equation:

12 What is the value for Kb of ammonia? (this is a constant number) Look at page 603. Calculating Dissociation Constants The acid dissociation constant, Ka, of a weak acid can be calculated from experimental data. You must know two things: 1. The initial molar concentration of the acid 2. The ph of the solution at equilibrium ( to calculate the hydrogen ion concentration) Example 7 : A 0.1 M solution of ethanoic acid is only partially ionized. From measurements of the ph of the solution, [H+] is determined to be 1.34 x 10 3 M. What is the acid dissociation constant (Ka) of ethanoic acid? Problem 16: For a solution of methanoic acid (formic acid) exactly 0.1 M, [H+] = 4.2 x 10 4 M. Calculate the Ka of methanoic acid. Problem:For a solution of a monoprotic weak acid exactly 0.2 M, [H+] = 9.86 x 10-4 M. a. What is the ph of this solution? b. What is the value of Ka for this acid Chapter 21 Neutralization Reactions Acid- Base Reactions: What is a neutralization reaction? Show two examples of a neutralization reaction: 1. 2.

13 Problem 1: Identify the products and write balanced equations for the following neutralization reactions: a. HCl + NaOH b. H 2 SO 4 + KOH c. H 3 PO 4 + Ca(OH) 2 Solution Stoichiometry Problem 1: How many moles of sodium hydroxide are required to neutralize 0.2 moles of nitric acid? Example 2: How many moles of sulfuric acid are required to neutralize 0.5 moles of sodium hydroxide? Problem 3: If 35 ml of 0.2 M hydrochloric acid is required to neutralize 25.0 ml of an unknown base, what is the molarity of the base? Problem 4: How many milliliters of 0.5 M sulfuric acid are required to neutralize 50 ml of 0.2 M potassium hydroxide? Problem 5: How many milliliters of 0.2 M sodium hydroxide must be added to 75 ml of 0.5 M hydrochloric acid to make a neutral solution?

14 Acids, Bases, Salts and Neutralization Vocabulary Assignment Define the following terms: Concentration Dilulte solutions Concentrated solutions Molarity (M) Acid Base Hydroxide ion Hydronium ion Self ionization of water Neutral solution Ion-product constant for water Acidic solution Basic solution Alkaline solution ph Monoprotic acids Diprotic acids Triprotic acids Bronsted-Lowry Acid Bronsted-Lowry Base Conjugate acid Conjugate base Amphoteric

15 Strong acids Weak acids Acid dissociation constant, Ka Strong bases Weak bases Base dissociation constant, Kb Neutralization reactions Titration Standard solution End point of a titration Describe 3 things you expect to learn during this unit:

16 The Proton In Chemistry Video Notes NAME 1. In 1909, Soren Sorenson, employed by a Danish Brewery to determine the normal acidity of beer, developed the ph scale. True or False 2. is the number 1 produced chemical; over 336 billion kilograms per year in the U.S. alone. 3. Indicate if the following is a strong acid, weak acid, strong base or weak base: a. sulfuric acid b. nitric acid c. acetic acid d. sodium hydroxide e. ammonia 4. If farmers want to neutralize excess acid in their soil, they ll use, a base, which will neutralize it. This substance is also used in power plant scrubbers to help neutralize nitrous oxides. 5. Citric acid is found in, a type of food. 6. Acids taste, as in a lemon or a glass of wine. 7. Litmus will turn in acid. 8. Litmus will turn in base. 9. Magnesium reacts with hydrochloric acid to produce a gas. What is that gas? 10. Limestone react with HCl to produce a gas. What is that gas? 11. The common factor in all acid-base reactions is to transfer a, or proton, in a water solution. 12. Most acid rain is produced by humans. It comes from two sources; stationary and mobile sources. Name one example of a stationary source. Name two examples of mobile sources and. 13. is the most common medium in which acids and bases exist. It is necessary to dissociate the ions. 14. Finish the following equation for the dissociation of water: H 2 O + H Hydronium hydroxide Ion ion 15. What is the concentration of the hydronium and hydroxide ion in pure water? a. 1x 10 5 b. 1 x 10 7 c. 1 x 10 9 d. 1 x 10 11

17 16. What is the instrument we use to measure the concentration of the hydronium ion in solution called? 17. Complete the following: a. [H 3 0+] = 1 x 10-1 ph = b. [H 3 O+] = 1x 10 2 ph = c. [H 3 O+] = 1 x 10 7 ph = 18. What is the name of the acid found in gastric juice in our stomachs called? 19. Why take alka seltzer when you have an upset stomach?

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