Road to Civil War ( ) North - South Debates HW

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1 Road to Civil War ( ) North - South Debates HW Crash Course US History Episode #18

2 Review of some examples of sectional tensions before the 1850 s Issues of States Rights vs. Federal Power & Expansion of Slavery are divisive issues that have been simmering for 75 years Examples: Federalists & Anti-Federalists loose or strict interpretation of the Constitution (1780 s) 3/5 th & Slave Trade Clauses of Constitution Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions (1798) Missouri Compromise (1820) South Carolina Tariff Nullification Crisis (1828) Growing Abolition Movement (1830s/40s) Manifest Destiny & Acquisition of New Territory (1840 s)

3 Great Pacificator Henry Clay argues for nationalism & compromise before the Senate in 1850 when debating the admission of California as a new state

4 Stephen Douglas (Dem) & Henry Clay (Whig) organize the Compromise of 1850 and introduce new concept of Popular Sovereignty

5 Key parts of Compromise: The Compromise of 1850 CA enters union as a free state NM & Utah territories will choose slave status later by popular sovereignty No slave trade in DC AND

6 Most controversial part of Compromise of 1850: Debate Issue #1 A stronger Fugitive Slave Law

7 Extremists on both sides unhappy with Compromise of 1850 Ex: William Seward and the abolitionist Higher Law supporters vs. John C. Calhoun and his Southern Fire-Eaters

8 Debate Issue #2: The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Stephen Douglas Idea: Popular Sovereignty for Kansas & Nebraska Territories

9 Results: Pro Slavery Border Ruffians clash with Anti-Slavery Free Soilers in Kansas

10 Radical Abolitionist John Brown & Pottawatomie Creek Massacre raise tensions in Kansas more

11 Continued fighting called Bleeding Kansas ensues for years illustrating failures of popular sovereignty Example of failure of compromise: Lecompton Constitution (Pro Slavery) and Topeka Constitution (Anti Slavery) are passed simultaneously both claiming to be the official constitutions of the Kansas Territory letting territories decide slavery question for themselves becomes a big mess! Kansas not admitted as a state until Civil War begins

12 Debate Issue #3: Representative Brooks (SC) Caning Senator Sumner (Mass) 1856

13 New Republican Party Established in 1854 made up of Conscience Whigs, Free Soilers & Know Nothings Republicans are NOT abolitionists, but do not want any expansion of slavery and strongly oppose Popular Sovereignty Republicans choose Mexican-American War hero John C. Fremont as party s first presidential candidate in 1856 on a platform that favor Homestead Act, a Federally funded transcontinental railroad & a free Kansas (no slavery) 1856 Republican Slogan: Free Soil, Free Speech & Fremont

14 However, James Buchanan (Northern Democrat) elected President 1856 as a compromise to appeal to both North & South His main policy about growing sectional tensions: Do Nothing and let states decide How do you think this works out?

15 At the same time, Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin is published and further increases sectional tension

16 Debate Issue #4: Dred Scott v. Sandford & Roger B. Taney Supreme Court steps in at this point (since President & Congress are not solving growing slavery crisis) and makes an even bigger mess of the situation

17 1858 Illinois Senate race between Abraham Lincoln (Republican) & Stephen Douglas (Democrat) captures national attention as they debate expansion of slavery following Dred Scott decision

18 Stephen Douglas fence sitting position (called Freeport Doctrine) in helps him win Illinois Senate seat over Lincoln, but angers Southern Democrats & hurts Douglas presidential chances in 1860 Lincoln-Douglas Debates

19 Then the actions of a religious zealot divides the nation further Debate Issue # 5: John Brown s Raid at Harpers Ferry (1859)

20 Lincoln becomes president despite winning only 40% of popular vote, but gets a majority of electoral votes (no Southern states) How?? Election sparks secession of seven states in Jan./Feb. 1861

21 South Carolina the first to secede, then FL, GA, AL, LA, MS, TX after 1860 election but before Lincoln's Inauguration

22 Feb Crittenden Compromise Fails April, 1861 Fort Sumter, SC is surrounded by Confederate forces. Union supply ships ordered to resupply fort by President Lincoln are fired upon & fort taken over by Confederate forces. Lincoln begins military draft and War is on

23 4 states in Upper South secede after Lincoln orders attack on Fort Sumter 5 slave holding border states" stay with union 11 states form the Confederate States of America CSA goal to remain an independent nation Lincoln s goal to preserve the United states 4 years of war and 600,000 deaths needed to resolve conflict

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