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1 FRAME THE LESSON Conflicts and Compromises TEACHER: CLASS: 8 th Grade DATE: March 7-8 M T W TH F Student Expectations Bundled in Lesson Noun=Underline Verb=Italicize 1A: identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, drafting of the Declaration of Independence, creation and ratification of the Constitution, religious revivals such as the Second Great Awakening, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects 7C: analyze the impact of slavery on different sections of the United States 7D: identify the provisions and compare the effects of congressional conflicts and compromises prior to the Civil War, including the roles of John Quincy Adams, John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster 8B: explain the causes of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states' rights, and slavery, and significant events of the Civil War, including the firing on Fort Sumter; the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg; the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation; Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln 21A: identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical and contemporary issues 21C: summarize a historical event in which compromise resulted in a peaceful resolution Objective/Key Understanding: Describe how the Missouri Compromise affected slavery. Explain why conflict arose over the issue of slavery in western territories. Identify why the Free-Soil party was founded. Explain how the Compromise of 1850 tried to resolve the issue of slavery. Summarize how Uncle Tom s Cabin affected attitudes toward slavery. Introduce Vocabulary Activity (p. 490) Missouri Compromise Wilmot Provisio popular sovereignty Free-Soil Party secede Compromise of 1850 Fugitive Slave Act Uncle Tom s Cabin John C. Calhoun fugitive Daniel Webster Henry Clay civil war Resources/Materials: U.S. History Textbook Colonization through Reconstruction (p ) Interactive Reading Notepad (p. 490) Online Editable Presentation (p. 490) Online Start Up Activity (p. 490) Analyze Maps (p. 491) Analyze Data (p. 493) Interactive Cartoon: The Fugitive Slave Act (p. 493) Analyze Data (p. 494) Analyze Images (p. 495) Analyze Information (p. 496) Digital Activity: Conflicts and Compromise Prior to the Civil War (p. 467) Digital Lesson Quiz: (p. 497)

2 Informal Assessment Questions 1-5 (p. 498) What was the effect of the Missouri Compromise? What could explain why the Wilmot Provisio passed in the House but did not pass in the Senate? Summarize the South s reaction to California s request for admission to the Union. Vermont declared free any enslaved person who entered the state, an action in direct conflict with the Fugitive Slave Act. How was Vermont s declaration similar to that of South Carolina, which in 1832 declared a tariff passed by Congress, the so-called Tariff of Abominations, illegal? Why was the Fugitive Slave Act advantageous to the southern states? Critical Writing Prompt: Stop & Check for Understanding High Level Questions Why did Missouri s application to join the Union as a slave state spark a crisis in Congress? Why did the Missouri Compromise fail to solve the issue of slavery beyond 1848 What was significant about the Free-Soil Party and the fact that slavery was a political issue for the first time? Why did Daniel Webster, an avowed opponent to slavery, agree to support returning to their owners African Americans who had escaped slavery? How did the Fugitive Slave Act cause tensions between northerners and southerners? What legitimate complaint did southerners have about Uncle Tom s Cabin? Small Group Purposeful Talk Question Stems Henry Clay s Missouri Compromise (p. 491) What role did Henry Clay play in achieving congressional compromise before the Civil War? Western Expansion Heightens Tension Over Slavery (p ) What was a primary cause of sectionalism? What effect would sectionalism have on congressional conflicts over territorial gains? The Free-Soil Party Opposes Slavery in the West (p ) Given the effects of sectionalism, why might voters have been unlikely to support Lewis Class for president? California Reignites the Slavery Debate (p ) Summarize the roles played by John C. Calhoun, Henry Clay, and Daniel Webster in the congressional conflict over California s statehood. What did their approaches have in common, and how did they differ? Congress Reaches a Compromise (p ) Do you think the provisions of the Compromise of 1850 provided for a peaceful resolution to the conflict of slavery? Explain your reasoning. A Book Sways the North Against Slavery (p. 498) How did Uncle Tom s Cabin impact perceptions of slavery in the North? What did Harriet Beecher Stowe hope to convey about the effects of slavery on people in the South?

3 Online Resources, Analyzing Maps and Charts & Digital Activity Interactive Reading Notepad (p. 490) You may also use the questions found in the Interactive Reading Notepad (p. 490) for this lesson to guide your class discussion. Online Editable Presentation (p. 490) Use the Online Editable Presentation (p. 490) found on the Digital Course to present the main ideas for this lesson. Online Start Up Activity (p. 490) You can project the Start Up Activity from the course. Analyze Maps (p. 491) Review the map on page 491. Based on the information in the map, how did the Missouri Compromise preserve a balance in the Senate? Analyze Data (p. 493) Review the chart, Presidential Election of 1848, on page 493. According to both pie graphs, what affect did Martin Van Buren s candidacy have on the other two candidates electoral votes? Interactive Cartoon: The Fugitive Slave Act (p. 493) Project the Interactive Cartoon: The Fugitive Slave Act (p. 493) and roll over the hotspots to reveal details about the cartoon and discuss them with students. Analyze Data (p. 494) Review the table, Balance of Free and Slave States, on page 494. What effect di the admission of California to the Union as a free state in 1850 have on the balance of power in the Senate? Analyze Images (p. 495) Review the images of the Senate on page 495. Point out the gallery, where people who are not elected to Congress may observe the activities. Why is the gallery important in a representative government? Analyze Information (p. 496) Review the chart, Effects of the Compromise of 1850, on page 496. Based on the information on the circle graph, what can you infer about the reason Congressional representatives from slave states agreed to the Compromise of 1850? Digital Activity: Conflicts and Compromise Prior to the Civil War (p. 467) Project the Digital Activity: Conflicts and Compromise Prior to the Civil War (p. 467). Review the lesson to identify and record key congressional conflicts that existed prior to the Civil War. Identify and record congressional compromises that attempted to find peaceful resolutions. Why do you think these opposed solutions did not solve the conflicts facing the United States at that time? Digital Lesson Quiz: (p. 497) Assign the Digital Lesson Quiz. Pose these questions: Why did Clay and Webster oppose the expansion of slavery? Why did Calhoun fight so hard to promote the expansion of slavery? What incentive did all three leaders have to reach a compromise? Clay and Webster decided that preserving the union was more important than restricting slavery. Do you agree that the provisions of the Compromise of 1850 were necessary? Why of why not?

4 Engage ~Have students preview the lesson objectives and the list of key terms (p.490). Use the Editable Presentation found on the digital course to present the main ideas of the lesson (p. 490). Complete the Start Up Activity on p 490. Tell students that in Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin, one character describes being forced to return to slavery after having been free. He tells of what he and his family have suffered because of the treatment of enslaved people that is legal under this country s laws. Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate Tell students that in this lesson they will be learning how slavery and sectionalism ignited conflict that became the Civil War. ~Divide the class into groups. Each group is to read a section and be prepared to discuss and share findings with the class. Students are to read assigned sections and use the Note Taking Study Guide to help them take notes and understand the text as they read. Henry Clay s Missouri Compromise (p. 491) Western Expansion Heightens Tension Over Slavery (p ) The Free-Soil Party Opposes Slavery in the West (p ) California Reignites the Slavery Debate (p ) Congress Reaches a Compromise (p ) A Book Sways the North Against Slavery (p. 498) Tell students that in this lesson they will be learning how slavery and sectionalism ignited conflict that became the Civil War. Henry Clay s Missouri Compromise (p. 491) Before 1819, the equal number of slave and free states helped balance the sectional divide. That year, however, Congress considered Missouri s application to join the Union as a slave state. Immediately, a crisis erupted. Missouri s admission would give the South a majority in the Senate. Determined not to lose power, northerners opposed letting Missouri entering as a slave state. Western Expansion Heightens Tension Over Slavery (p ) The Missouri Compromise applied only to the Louisiana Purchase. In 1849, the Mexican War added vast western lands to the United States. Once again, the question of slavery in the territories arose. The Free-Soil Party Opposes Slavery in the West (p ) The debate over slavery led to the birth of a new political party. By 1848, many northern Democrats and Whigs opposed the spread of slavery. However, the leaders of both parties refused to take a stand. They did not want to lose any southern votes. Some also feared that the slavery issue would split the nation. California Reignites the Slavery Debate (p ) For a time after the Missouri Compromise, both slave and free states entered the Union peacefully. However, when California requested admission to the Union as a free state in 1850, the balance of power in the Senate was once again threatened. Congress Reaches a Compromise (p ) In 1850, as the debate raged, Calhoun died. His last words reportedly were The South! The poor South! God knows what will become of her now! President Taylor also died in The new President was Millard Fillmore. Unlike Taylor, he supported Clay s compromise plan. A Book Sways the North Against Slavery (p. 498) An event in 1852 added to the growing antislavery mood of the North. Harriet Beecher Stowe, a New England woman, published a novel called Uncle Tom s Cabin. Stowe wrote the novel to show the evils of slavery and the injustice of the Fugitive Slave Laws. ~Guided Reading and Discussion Questions See Small Group Purposeful Talk Question Stems from the previous page for this portion of the lesson. ~Analyzing Maps and Charts & Digital Activity See Online Resources from the previous page for this portion of the lesson. ~Assign the Digital Lesson Quiz for this lesson (p. 498). Teachers can also opt to have students demonstrate mastery by responding to the following questions on paper: What was the effect of the Missouri Compromise? What could explain why the Wilmot Provisio passed in the House but did not pass in the Senate? Summarize the South s reaction to California s request for admission to the Union. Vermont declared free any enslaved person who entered the state, an action in direct conflict with the Fugitive Slave Act. How was Vermont s declaration similar to that of South Carolina, which in 1832 declared a tariff passed by Congress, the so-called Tariff of Abominations, illegal? Why was the Fugitive Slave Act advantageous to the southern states?

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6 FRAME THE LESSON Growing Tensions TEACHER: CLASS: 8 th Grade DATE: March 9-11 M T W TH F Student Expectations Bundled in Lesson Noun=Underline Verb=Italicize 1A: identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, drafting of the Declaration of Independence, creation and ratification of the Constitution, religious revivals such as the Second Great Awakening, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their causes and effects 8B: explain the causes of the Civil War, including sectionalism, states' rights, and slavery, and significant events of the Civil War, including the firing on Fort Sumter; the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg; the announcement of the Emancipation Proclamation; Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House; and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln 10A: locate places and regions of importance in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries 18C: evaluate the impact of selected landmark Supreme Court decisions, including Dred Scott v. Sandford, on life in the United States 21A: identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical and contemporary issues 26A: describe developments in art, music, and literature that are unique to American culture such as the Hudson River School artists, John James Audubon, "Battle Hymn of the Republic," transcendentalism, and other cultural activities in the history of the United States Objective/Key Understanding: Identify the goals and outcomes of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Summarize the impact of the Dred Scott case of the nation. Explain why the Republican Party was founded. Explain the rapid emergence of Abraham Lincoln as a Republican Party Leader. Describe the reaction to John Brown s raid on Harpers Ferry. Introduce Vocabulary Activity (p. 499) Kansas-Nebraska Act Border Ruffians guerilla warfare Dred Scott v. Ssandford lawsuit Arsenal treason martyr Republican Party Resources/Materials U.S. History Textbook Colonization through Reconstruction (p ) Interactive Reading Notepad (p. 499) Online Editable Presentation (p. 499) Interactive Gallery: The Effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (p. 500) Analyze Maps (p.500) Interactive Gallery: The Dred Scott Case (p. 503) Analyze Political Cartoons (p.503) Analyze Political Cartoons (p. 505) Analyze Images (p. 506) Digital Activity: Tensions Divide the Nation (p. 509) Digital Lesson Quiz: (p. 509)

7 Stop & Check for Understanding High Level Questions Why did northerners consider the Kansas-Nebraska Act as betrayal? How did events in Kansas overshadow the looming Civil War? What does the altercation in the Senate tell you about the mood of the country in the late 1850s? Compare the decision in Dred Scott v. Sandford with the Preamble to the Declaration of Independence which states all men are created equal; [and] are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights. How do the two differ? Why was the Republican Party established in 1854? Describe the contradiction in Lincoln s position on slavery. Why were southerners outraged at the northern response to John Brown s execution? Informal Assessment Questions 1-5 (p. 509) Critical Writing Prompt: Some northerners were outraged by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. What did that outrage have to do with the location of the Kansas Territory? Summarize the issue that was brought to the Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sandford. What worried southerners about the Republican Party victories in the election of 1856? Neither Stephen Douglas nor Abraham Lincoln approved of slavery, so what disagreement did they have? Why did John Brown s raid on a federal arsenal at Harper s Ferry fail? Small Group Purposeful Talk Question Stems The Question of Slavery in Kansas and Nebraska (p ) Cite evidence that the effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act showed the potentially violent outcomes of sectional differences over slavery. Violent Clashes Over Slavery in Kansas (p ) Have students to recall popular sovereignty. List the pros and cons of popular sovereignty as a solution to sectional debates about slavery. Violence Over Slavery Breaks Out in the Senate (p. 502) Describe the events that lead to Brooks beating Sumner in the Senate chamber. Was Brooks justified in his actions against Sumner? How did southerners and respond to Brooks for his actions? How does this reaction reflect sentiments of the nation? The Impact of the Dred Scott Case (p ) What was the decision of the Supreme Court in the Dred Scot case? What do the events leading up to the case indicate about the life of African Americans at this time? How did the decision of the Dred Scott case Impact the Missouri Compromise? How did the decision in the Dred Scott case impact the all parts of the United States? The Republican Party Challenges Other Parties (p ) How did the points of view of the Republican and Democratic parties differ? How did the point of view of the American party contrast with both? Abraham Lincoln Leads the Republican Party (p ) What made the Lincoln-Douglas debates and their outcome such a major event in U.S. history? How did Lincoln s point of view in the debates foreshadow slavery and sectionalism as causes of the Civil War? John Brown s Antislavery Campaign (p ) Why was Brown s raid a major event in U. S. history leading up to the Civil War? Describe the development of The Battle Hymn of the Republic. What makes its writing and message unique to American culture an history?

8 Online Resources, Analyzing Maps and Charts & Digital Activity Interactive Reading Notepad (p. 499) You may also use the questions found in the Interactive Reading Notepad (p. 440) for this lesson to guide your class discussion. Online Editable Presentation (p. 499) Use the Online Editable Presentation (p. 469) found on the Digital Course to present the main ideas for this lesson. Interactive Gallery: The Effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (p. 500) Project the Interactive Gallery: The Effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (p. 500) and click through the items. Cite evidence that the effects of the Kansas-Nebraska Act showed the potentially violent outcomes of sectional differences over slavery. Analyze Maps (p.500) Review the map on page 500. How did the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 conflict with the Missouri Compromise of 1820? Interactive Gallery: The Dred Scott Case (p. 503) Project the Interactive Gallery: The Dred Scott Case (p. 503) and click through the items. Have students write a short summary of the issues and decisions in the landmark Supreme Court case Dred Scott v. Standford. Have students evaluate the impact of the case on African Americans, the slavery debate, southerners, and northerners. Analyze Political Cartoons (p.503) Review the political cartoon on page 503. How does the cartoon portray northerners and southerners differently? Analyze Political Cartoons (p. 505) Review the political cartoon. What can you infer about Fillmore s view on sectional tensions? Analyze Images (p. 506) Review the image on page 507. Prompt students to interpret Lincoln s point of view in the speech. How did Lincoln feel about slavery? How did this point of view compare to the Republican point of view at the time? Digital Activity: Tensions Divide the Nation (p. 509) Project the Digital Activity: Tensions Divide the Nation (p. 509). Have students work in pairs to complete the concept web and then review the webs as a class. How did sectionalism cause the country to become more divided? How did the rise of the Republican Party contribute to these tensions? How did disagreements over slavery in western territories lead the nation toward war? Digital Lesson Quiz: (p. 509) Assign the Digital Lesson Quiz. Pose these questions: Which of these events most clearly demonstrated the effects of sectionalism in the United States, and foreshadowed how sectional conflict would lead to national civil war? Explain your reasoning.

9 Engage ~Have students preview the lesson objectives and the list of key terms (p.499). Use the Editable Presentation found on the digital course to present the main ideas of the lesson (p. 499). Complete the Start Up Activity on p 499. Tell students that in the mid-1800s, tensions between the North and South grew. Discuss sectionalism. Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate Tell students that in this lesson they will be learning how sectionalism and debates over slavery led to violence and political rifts. ~Divide the class into groups. Each group is to read a section and be prepared to discuss and share findings with the class. Students are to read assigned sections and use the Note Taking Study Guide to help them take notes and understand the text as they read. The Question of Slavery in Kansas and Nebraska (p ) Violent Clashes Over Slavery in Kansas (p ) Violence Over Slavery Breaks Out in the Senate (p. 502) The Impact of the Dred Scott Case (p ) The Republican Party Challenges Other Parties (p ) Abraham Lincoln Leads the Republican Party (p ) John Brown s Antislavery Campaign (p ) Tell students that in this lesson they will be learning how sectionalism and debates over slavery led to violence and political rifts. The Question of Slavery in Kansas and Nebraska (p ) In January 1854, Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a bill to set up a government for the lands covering the northwestern part of the Louisiana Purchase. This territory stretched from present-day Oklahoma north to present-day Canada, and from Missouri west to the Rockies. Violent Clashes Over Slavery in Kansas (p ) Kansas now became a testing ground for popular sovereignty. Stephen Douglas hoped that settlers would decide the slavery issue peacefully on election day. Instead, proslavery and antislavery forces sent settlers to Kansas to fight for control of the territory. Violence Over Slavery Breaks Out in the Senate (p. 502) Even before John Brown s attack, the battle over Kansas had spilled into the Senate. Charles Sumner of Massachusetts was the leading abolitionist senator. In one speech, the sharp-tongued Sumner denounced the proslavery legislature of Kansas. He viciously criticized his southern foes, singling out Andrew Butler, an elderly senator from South Carolina. The Impact of the Dred Scott Case (p ) With Congress in an uproar, many Americans looked to the Supreme Court to settle the slavery issue and restore peace. In 1857, the Court ruled on a case that involved an enslaved man named Dred Scott. Instead of bringing harmony, however, the Court s decision further divided the North and the South. The Republican Party Challenges Other Parties (p ) By the mid-1850s, people who opposed slavery in the territories sought a new political voice. Nether Whigs nor Democrats, they argued, would take a strong stand against slavery. We have submitted to slavery long enough, an Ohio Democrat declared. Abraham Lincoln Leads the Republican Party (p ) The next test for the Republican party came in 1858 in Illinois. Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, challenged Democrat Stephen Douglas for his seat in the Senate. Because most Americans expected Douglas to run for President in 1860, the race captured the attention of the whole nation. John Brown s Antislavery Campaign (p ) In the meantime, more bloodshed inflamed divisions between the North and the South. In 1859, the radical abolitionist John Brown carried his antislavery campaign from Kansas to the East. He led a group of followers, including five African Americans, to the town of Harpers Ferry, Virginia. ~Guided Reading and Discussion Questions See Small Group Purposeful Talk Question Stems from the previous page for this portion of the lesson. ~Analyzing Maps and Charts & Digital Activity See Online Resources from the previous page for this portion of the lesson. ~Assign the Digital Lesson Quiz for this lesson (p. 509). Teachers can also opt to have students demonstrate mastery by responding to the following questions on paper: Some northerners were outraged by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act. What did that outrage have to do with the location of the Kansas Territory? Summarize the issue that was brought to the Supreme Court in Dred Scott v. Sandford. What worried southerners about the Republican Party victories in the election of 1856? Neither Stephen Douglas nor Abraham Lincoln approved of slavery, so what disagreement did they have? Why did John Brown s raid on a federal arsenal at Harper s Ferry fail?

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