Comparison of different methods for the determination of sunshine duration

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Comparison of different methods for the determination of sunshine duration"

Transcription

1 Scientific report; WR Comparison of different methods for the determination of sunshine duration Yvonne B.L. Hinssen De Bilt, 2006

2 Scientific report = wetenschappelijk rapport; WR De Bilt, 2006 PO Box AE De Bilt Wilhelminalaan 10 De Bilt The Netherlands Telephone +31(0) Telefax +31(0) Author: Hinssen, Y.B.L. (University of Utrecht) KNMI, De Bilt. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval systems, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission in writing from the publisher.

3 Scientific report; WR-2006-xx Comparison of different methods for the determination of sunshine duration Yvonne B.L. Hinssen De Bilt, 2006

4

5 Contents 1. Introduction 5 2. Instruments for the measurement of solar radiation 2.1. Pyrheliometer 2.2. Pyranometer 2.3. BSRN at Cabauw Different methods for the determination of sunshine duration 3.1. The pyrheliometric method 3.2. The pyranometric method The Slob algorithm Adjustments to the Slob algorithm Solar radiation measurements 4.1. Measurement period 4.2. Quality checks Quality flags Ten minute means instead of one minute means Comparison of pyrheliometric and pyranometric sunshine duration 5.1. Introduction 5.2. Daily sunshine duration 5.3. Monthly and seasonal sunshine duration 5.4. Analysis of the Bergman method in terms of solar elevation angle and cloudiness Solar elevation angle Cloudiness 5.5. Conclusions and suggestions for improvement Improvement of the pyranometric method 6.1. Adjusting the algorithm 6.2. Parameterizations and measurements 6.3. Sensitivity analysis 6.4. A linear algorithm Sunshine duration from a sunshine duration sensor 7.1. The CSD

6 7.2. Direct irradiance 7.3. Sunshine duration determined by the CSD Summary and conclusions 65 Acknowledgements 69 Symbols and acronyms 70 References 71 4

7 1. Introduction In this study, the quality of sunshine duration (SD) measurements in the Netherlands is studied. Roughly speaking, sunshine duration is defined as the time during which the sun is visible and it is usually given in hours per day, month, season or year. Sunshine duration measurements have already been performed for over a century (at De Bilt since 1901 (Klimaatatlas, 2002)), in different ways and at many locations around the world. Since long time series of sunshine duration measurements exist, they have a historical value. Sunshine duration is a way to characterise the climate of a particular region (WMO, No 8, 1996), and is used in tourism. Furthermore, if solar radiation measurements are not available, sunshine duration data can give information about the solar radiation, which is valuable for agriculture, architects and solar energy applications (Velds, 1992). An example of a climatological map of sunshine duration is shown in Figure 1.1. This figure shows the distribution of yearly sunshine duration over the Netherlands, averaged over the period 1971 to Figure 1.1 clearly shows that the west-coast of the Netherlands receives more sunshine than the eastern part. This is caused by the fact that Cabauw Figure 1.1: Distribution of the yearly sunshine duration (in hours) over the Netherlands averaged over Yearly averaged sunshine duration over the Netherlands is 1534 h. The black dot indicates the location of Cabauw. (Source: Klimaatatlas van Nederland, KNMI 2002) westerly winds dominate, advecting moist air from sea to land. Over sea there is little convection, but over land the air heats more leading to more convection and more clouds inland. This distribution of sunshine duration will affect, for example, tourism. Until 1989, the Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder has been the common instrument to measure the sunshine duration. The first version of this instrument was built by J.F. Campbell in Adjustments by G.G. Stokes, in 1879, resulted in the Campbell-Stokes recorder (Coulson, 1975). The instrument consists of a glass sphere, mounted concentrically in a section of a spherical bowl, so that the sun s rays are focused on a paper card held in grooves in the bowl. The Campbell-Stokes recorder detects sunshine if the beam solar energy concentrated by a special lens is able to burn a paper card. The card is provided with a time indication, which makes it possible to determine the sunshine duration (in units of 0.1 hour) from the length of the burn when the card is removed from the instrument at the end of the day. A disadvantage of the Campbell-Stokes recorder is that the determination of sunshine duration is not always accurate, particularly during semi-clouded conditions. Under these weather circumstances dots will be burnt into the card, since sunny periods are alternated by cloudy periods, and the sunshine duration is often overestimated, since it is difficult to determine the 5

8 exact length of the burn. Furthermore, the morning values can be disturbed by dew or frost, especially at mid and high latitudes. Despite its inaccuracies, the Campbell-Stokes recorder has been and is used widespread. No international regulations about the exact size and material for the different parts of the instrument were set however, so under the same circumstances different instruments could give different sunshine duration values. This changed in 1962, when the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) recommended the Interim Reference Sunshine Recorder (IRSR), a special design of the Campbell-Stokes recorder, as the standard instrument to measure sunshine duration. The IRSR was set as the standard instrument in order to homogenise the world-wide sunshine duration data during the period needed for finding a precise physical definition, based on measurements of the direct solar irradiance, which could be used in the determination of sunshine duration. To keep the connection with the Campbell-Stokes recorder, the direct solar irradiance threshold corresponding to the burning threshold of the Campbell-Stokes recorders was studied. Investigations showed that this threshold for burning the card varies between 70 and 280 Wm -2, due to the dependence on humidity (the card will burn more easily under dry conditions than under wet conditions). Further investigations resulted in a mean value for the threshold of 120 Wm -2, which was accepted in 1989 by the WMO as the actual threshold. As a reference sensor for the detection of the threshold irradiance, a pyrheliometer was recommended, an instrument that measures the direct normal solar irradiance (DNSI). Since 1989 the WMO defines sunshine duration officially as the time during which the DNSI exceeds 120 Wm -2. The WMO requirement is that hours of sunshine should be measured with an uncertainty of ± 0.1 hours and a resolution of 0.1 hours (WMO, No 8, 1996). The advantage of this new method is that it is more precise and that it does not involve a burn card that has to be replaced daily, making the new method also applicable at automatic weather stations. Another advantage of the new method is that it involves no burn cards that have to be interpreted manually, which could give rise to different interpretations. In the Netherlands, the KNMI (Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute) network of meteorological stations has been automated in the last few decades. Many manned stations now make use of automated observation systems in which the Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder can no longer be used, since the burn cards have to be replaced manually every day. Furthermore, the new definition of sunshine duration as presented by the WMO presents another reason why the Campbell-Stokes recorder is not suitable for sunshine duration measurements anymore. According to the WMO definition, DNSI measurements are required to determine the sunshine duration. The DNSI is the radiation from the direction of the sun, measured in a plane perpendicular to the direction to the sun, and it is measured with a pyrheliometer. The pyrheliometer is always pointed towards the sun, which is achieved by a sun tracker. It is an expensive instrument that needs care, which is why the DNSI is only measured at 2 places in the Netherlands. Global radiation on the other hand, is measured at about 30 locations in the Netherlands. Global radiation is measured on a horizontal surface and consists of both the radiation directly from the sun, and the diffuse sky radiation. It is measured with a pyranometer, an instrument that does not require a sun-tracker and is cheaper and needs less care than a pyrheliometer. If the pyrheliometer would be taken as the standard instrument to determine the sunshine duration, 20 to 30 of these instruments would have to be installed to obtain a representative view of the distribution of sunshine duration over the Netherlands, which is not feasible. Since 6

9 pyranometer measurements are already available at about 30 locations, it has been decided to estimate the sunshine duration from global radiation measurements. These estimates are based on an algorithm developed by Slob (Slob and Monna, 1991), which uses the mean, minimum and maximum of the global radiation per 10 minute interval as input and gives the sunshine duration in this interval as output. Slob used the WMO definition for sunshine duration as a reference to develop this algorithm (Slob algorithm). Bergman (1993) made some adjustments to the Slob algorithm to find more agreement with the Campbell-Stokes sunshine duration measurements (Bergman algorithm). This was desirable to guarantee homogeneity of the long time series of Campbell-Stokes sunshine duration measurements that already existed. Since October 1 st 1992 the sunshine duration is operationally determined with the Bergman algorithm at all stations in the Netherlands where the global radiation is measured, and the Campbell-Stokes measurements are no longer used in climatological products. In this study we will seek for an answer to the following question: How well is the quantitative agreement between the sunshine duration determined with the Slob/Bergman algorithm and the true sunshine duration, as defined by the WMO, in the Netherlands, and is it possible to increase this agreement by means of improving the Slob/Bergman algorithm? The WMO definition of sunshine duration is the accepted definition of sunshine duration in the meteorological world since 1989 and the goal of this research is thus to examine to what extend the sunshine duration as determined in the Netherlands deviates from the sunshine duration as defined by the WMO. For this purpose solar radiation measurements made at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) station in Cabauw are used (Figure 1.1). At this station, global as well as direct normal solar irradiance are measured with high precision and accuracy, enabling a detailed comparison of the different methods. Figure 1.1 indicates that the yearly sunshine duration at Cabauw is close to the yearly average over the country, indicating that, with respect to sunshine duration, Cabauw is a representative location for the Netherlands. The organization of this report is as follows: First the different radiation instruments are described, in chapter 2. The different methods for the determination of sunshine duration are described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes the solar radiation measurements and some quality issues. In chapter 5, the sunshine duration as determined with pyrheliometer measurements is compared to the sunshine duration determined with pyranometer measurements. Chapter 6 investigates the possibility of improving the algorithm used to determine the sunshine duration from pyranometer measurements. In December 2005 a sunshine duration sensor (CSD) was installed at Cabauw, enabling comparison of the sunshine duration determined with this instrument with the sunshine duration derived with the other methods. These results are presented in chapter 7. Finally, the results of this study are summarized in chapter 8, which also presents the conclusions. 7

10

11 2. Instruments for the measurement of solar radiation As described in the Introduction, there are different methods for determining sunshine duration, all based on different instruments measuring solar radiation. Before giving the instrument details, we first define the radiometric quantity of irradiance (Liou, 2002). To start with, the monochromatic radiance I λ is defined: deλ Iλ = (2.1) cos ( θ ) dω dλ dt da with de λ the differential amount of radiant energy in a time interval dt and in a specified wavelength interval λ to λ + dλ, crossing an element of area da, in directions confined to a differential solid angle dω, which is oriented at an angle θ to the normal of da, so that cos(θ) da denotes the effective area at which the energy is being intercepted. So the intensity is in units of energy per area per time per wavelength and per steradian. The monochromatic irradiance F λ (energy per area per time and per wavelength) is now obtained by integrating the normal component of I λ over the entire hemispheric solar angle: ( θ ) Fλ = Iλ cos dω (2.2) Ω Then finally, the total solar irradiance F (energy per area per time, expressed in Wm -2 ) is obtained by integrating the monochromatic irradiance over all wavelengths of the solar spectrum (0.15 to 4.0 µm (Glickman, 2000)): λ F = F λ dλ (2.3) λ 1 with λ 1 = 0.15 µm and λ 2 = 4.0 µm. In the following section, we describe the instrument used for the WMO definition, the pyrheliometer, and for the Slob/Bergman algorithm, the pyranometer. The first measures direct normal solar irradiance and the second global solar irradiance. The fundamental relationship between the direct normal (I), the global (G) and the diffuse (D) solar irradiance is: G = I cos(θ 0 ) + D, where θ 0 is the solar zenith angle and I cos(θ 0 ) is the component of I reaching a horizontal surface. We will not further describe the Campbell-Stokes recorder, since the present study will not use measurements made by this instrument. What will be discussed, however, is the BSRN site at Cabauw, where the measurements used in this study are made. 2.1 Pyrheliometer A pyrheliometer is an instrument which measures the direct normal solar irradiance, integrated over the entire solar spectrum. It is a telescopic type of instrument with a narrow opening called the aperture, as can be seen in Figure 2.1. The receiving surface of the instrument is arranged to be normal to the solar direction, so that only the radiation from the direct solar beam and a 9

12 narrow annulus of sky is measured. By mounting the instrument on a solar tracker, it is pointed to the position of the sun automatically. The instrument should be placed in such a way that the solar beam is not blocked by surrounding obstructions at all times and seasons of the year. Further the optical window must be kept clean, care must be taken that condensation does not appear on the inside, and protection against precipitation is needed. At Cabauw the Kipp & Zonen CH1 pyrheliometer is used, which covers the total solar spectrum between 200 and 4000 nm (www.kippzonen.com). 2.2 Pyranometer Pyranometers are used for the measurement of global irradiance, as well as for the measurement of diffuse irradiance. For the measurement of global irradiance A pyranometer is an instrument that measures the global irradiance. Global radiation is defined as the solar radiation received from a solid angle of 2π steradian on a horizontal surface (field of view of 180 degrees). A pyranometer is placed horizontally and thus receives radiation directly from the sun as well as diffuse radiation, which has been scattered in the atmosphere. Like pyrheliometers, pyranometers should be installed on a site as free as possible from obstructions which may shadow the instrument at any time of the year. The pyranometer should not be near to objects that could reflect sunlight onto it or to artificial radiation sources. Further, the glass dome of the instrument should be kept clean and dry. Both a pyrheliometer and a pyranometer contain a thermopile sensor with a black coating, which absorbs the solar radiation incident on it. This radiation is converted to heat, which flows a d b c Figure 2.1: Solar radiation instruments at Cabauw: (a) pyrheliometers and shading spheres mounted on a suntracker in front of two pyranometers (a CM22 and a CM11) to measure the diffuse radiation, (b) an unshaded pyranometer to measure the global radiation, (c) pyrheliometers for the measurement of direct normal solar irradiance and (d) the BSRN site at Cabauw. 10

13 through the sensor to the instrument housing, allowing the thermopile sensor to generate a voltage output signal that is proportional to the solar radiation. At Cabauw the Kipp & Zonen CM22 ventilated and heated pyranometer is used. The pyranometers that are used in the national network are neither ventilated nor heated (CM11). For the measurement of diffuse irradiance The diffuse irradiance is measured with a pyranometer, with a shading device to block the direct solar irradiance. Normally a pyranometer measures the global radiation, but when the direct component is blocked, only the diffuse radiation can reach the instrument. At Cabauw the direct radiation is blocked by a shadow sphere, which is attached to the pyranometer by a thin arm (Figure 2.1). This configuration is mounted on a solar tracker to make sure that the pyranometer is shielded from the direct radiation at all times. Because the shadow sphere is attached to the sun-tracker (on which the pyranometers are mounted) only by a thin arm, almost no diffuse radiation is blocked. To measure the diffuse radiation at Cabauw, the same type of pyranometer is used as for measuring the global radiation (a Kipp & Zonen CM22 ventilated and heated pyranometer), but with a shading sphere. Figure 2.1 shows a pyranometer both with and without shading sphere. 2.3 BSRN at Cabauw For this study, radiation measurements from the BSRN station Cabauw (latitude: N, longitude: E) are used. BSRN is a project of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX). In 2004 BSRN was designated as the global baseline network for surface radiation for the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). The understanding of the radiation distribution as provided by the existing radiometric network is not accurate enough to understand the present climate. The simulation of the past and future climate changes, induced by changes in radiation, is even more uncertain. This is why the WCRP initiated BSRN to support the research projects of the WCRP and other scientific programs. The objective of the BSRN is to provide observations of the best possible quality, for short and longwave surface radiation fluxes, to be able to detect changes in the Earth s radiation field which may be related to climate change. Currently these readings are taken from 35 BSRN stations in contrasting climatic zones, together with collocated surface and upper-air meteorological data. The data are particularly important for the validation and confirmation of satellite and computer model estimates of these quantities. Cabauw is a BSRN station, meaning that radiation measurements are made with the BSRN standard accuracy. The BSRN accuracy requirements are based on the accuracy considered necessary by the satellite and model communities for validating satellite-based estimates of the surface radiation budget and improvement of radiation codes of climate models (Ohmura et al., 1998). Achieving the highest irradiance accuracy requires a high sampling frequency (1 Hz) and short archival interval (1 min). The Cabauw site is chosen for the present analysis of sunshine duration because it includes a pyrheliometer, a pyranometer and a shadowed pyranometer, so that the direct normal, global as well as the diffuse solar irradiance are measured, which is unique for the Netherlands. The measurements of DNSI are needed to determine the sunshine duration according to the WMO definition, while the global irradiance measurements can be used to 11

14 determine the sunshine duration with the Slob or Bergman algorithm. The measurements of the diffuse component are also useful, since they can be used to check the relationships that are used for the algorithms. All instruments have a sampling rate of 1 Hz. This means that every second the measurement can be compared to the WMO threshold of 120 Wm -2 and sunshine seconds can be determined. The data acquisition system of the national network stores 10 minute means and extremes based on 12 s readings of the global irradiance. To guarantee agreement with the original design of the algorithm, this resolution is also used in this study, so not all measurements of the global irradiance are used to determine the mean, minimum and maximum of the global irradiance in a 10 minute interval, but only 1 measurement every 12 seconds. 12

15 3. Different methods for the determination of sunshine duration In this study different methods for the determination of sunshine duration are compared. The main methods are the pyrheliometric method (based on measurements of direct irradiance) and the pyranometric method (based on measurements of global irradiance). The pyranometric method exists in different variations, since both Bergman and Schipper made some adjustments to the original Slob algorithm, which is used in the pyranometric method. 3.1 The pyrheliometric method The pyrheliometric method is based on the sunshine duration according to the WMO definition. The WMO CIMO Guide No. 8 (1996) states that the sunshine duration during a given period is defined as the sum of that subperiod for which the direct solar irradiance exceeds 120 Wm -2 and that hours of sunshine should be measured with an uncertainty of ± 0.1 hours and a resolution of 0.1 hours. In the present study, the pyrheliometric method is based on measurements of the DNSI per second and the WMO threshold of 120 Wm -2. If the measured value exceeds this threshold, this second is determined as sunny. Since this method uses measurements of the direct radiation, we call it the Direct method. The corresponding sunshine duration is given the symbol SD Direct, and is considered to be the true sunshine duration. It should be noted that the Direct method deviates from the WMO definition, because it uses one measurements per second, and the WMO definition only requires a resolution of 0.1 hours. Earlier, this high sampling rate of DNSI measurements was used by Forgan and Dyson (2003, 2004), who determined the sunshine seconds in a minute. These authors assessed the uncertainty in daily sunshine duration from BSRN minute statistics for measurements in the Australian Network. The response time of the pyrheliometer is 7 s (95% level), which means that the instrument does not respond instantaneously. However, since the sampling time (1 s) is much less than the response time (7 s), no information is lost in the pyrheliometric direct irradiance signal (Forgan, personal communication). 3.2 The pyranometric method The pyranometric method is based on measurements of the global radiation, as made by a pyranometer. The relation between global radiation and sunshine duration has been studied extensively. For the Netherlands, this relation was for example studied by Frantzen and Raaff (1982), but it has also been studied for other parts of the world (see for example Gopinathan (1988), Al-Sadah and Ragab (1991), Hussain et al. (1999), El-Metwally (2005)). In most of these studies it is attempted to estimate the global radiation from sunshine duration measurements (i.e. the reverse problem of this study). This is done, because in many countries sunshine duration is measured (mostly with Campbell-Stokes recorders) at more locations than the global radiation. Knowledge of the global radiation is desired for the design and prediction of systems which use solar energy. 13

16 Since solar radiation data is not available for all locations where solar energy devices may be used, different correlations between global radiation and sunshine duration have been suggested. Ångström was the first to propose an empirical relation estimating the monthly mean daily global radiation on a horizontal surface (Ångström, 1924; Iqbal, 1983). The Ångström-Prescott relation (Iqbal (1983), and references therein) is a slightly adjusted form of this empirical relation, linearly relating the monthly mean daily global radiation on a horizontal surface to the relative sunshine duration. The exact form of this relation depends on the location and climate, but, once derived, it may be used for locations with similar climatological and geographical characteristics at which solar data is not available. Many other correlations relating global radiation to sunshine have been suggested, station dependent as well as station independent, linear or non-linear, taking into account for example latitude, elevation, atmospheric water vapour concentration, cloud cover or temperature, beside sunshine duration. However, the Ångström-Prescott relation has been found to be widely applicable in determining global solar radiation for different locations around the world. This relation thus estimates the global radiation from sunshine duration measurements, while for the Netherlands, Slob and Monna (1991) attempted the opposite: the determination of sunshine duration from global radiation measurements. Besides, the Ångström-Prescott equation is valid for monthly means, while Slob and Monna proposed to estimate the sunshine duration per 10 minute interval, to obtain realistic estimates of the sunshine duration also during the day. For this purpose Slob and Monna developed an algorithm for estimating the sunshine duration from the mean, minimum and maximum of global radiation in a 10 minute interval. The pyranometric method that uses this algorithm to determine the sunshine duration is referred to as the Slob method and the sunshine duration determined with this method is given the symbol SD Slob The Slob algorithm In what follows, we will describe the Slob algorithm. First the parameterization of different radiation components is discussed, which will then be used in the description of the actual algorithm. The algorithm is separated into different solar elevation angle intervals and will be discussed according to this division. Parameterization of radiation components In the Earth s atmosphere, radiation is partly absorbed and scattered by air molecules, clouds and other particles in the atmosphere. The radiation that reaches the surface consists of a direct normal component (I) from the direction of the sun and a diffuse component (D) from all other directions. The global radiation (G) on a horizontal surface is partitioned into a direct and diffuse component: θ 0 γ 0 G µ I + D (3.1) = 0 Figure 3.1: Solar zenith angle (θ 0 ) and solar elevation angle (γ 0 ). Where µ 0 = cos(θ 0 ) = sin(γ 0 ), in which θ 0 is the solar zenith angle. For convenience, we also define the solar elevation angle (γ 0 ; Figure 3.1). µ 0 I is the 14

17 contribution of the direct radiation on a horizontal surface and D is the diffuse radiation on a horizontal surface. The basis of the Slob algorithm is the estimation of the direct and diffuse radiation for cloudless conditions: { T /( )} I = I0 exp L 4µ 0 (3.2) = µ (T L < 12.5; < µ 0 < 0.87) (3.3) D 0T L These estimates are based on a three year dataset (May 1986 to May 1989) of 10 minute means of I, D and G as well as the minimum and maximum values of G for each 10 minute interval. For the development of the sunshine duration algorithm itself, Slob used a dataset for the period October 1989 to April Measurements of the 10-minute mean direct irradiance were used as a reference for the sunshine duration estimation, using the WMO definition of sunshine duration. For the estimation of the direct irradiance for cloudless conditions (Equation (3.2)) the parameterization of Kasten (1980) is used. This parameterization takes into account both turbidity (T L ) and solar elevation (µ 0 ). The direct radiation reaching the ground, will depend on the solar elevation angle, because the higher the elevation of the sun above the horizon, the shorter the path length of the radiation through the atmosphere. If the path length is shorter, less absorption and scattering will take place in the atmosphere, and the direct radiation at the surface is what is left of the top of the atmosphere irradiance after scattering and absorption in the atmosphere. The Linke turbidity factor, T L (Linke, 1922), is a measure of the attenuation of solar radiation through extinction by aerosols and water vapour in the atmosphere. This is a dimensionless quantity, which represents the impact of the true atmosphere on radiation with respect to a clean and dry atmosphere without trace gases and aerosols. Equation (3.2) shows that a higher turbidity leads to less direct radiation at the surface. I 0 (in Equation (3.2)) is the solar irradiance at the actual Earth-Sun distance. The solar constant is the solar irradiance at mean Earth-Sun distance on a surface perpendicular to the solar beam and integrated over the whole spectrum, and equals 1366 Wm -2 (Liou, 2002). At the mean Earth-Sun distance I 0 thus equals the solar constant, while it can vary from this value by about 3.5% due to the elliptical orbit of the Earth around the Sun. This effect is taken into account in the algorithm. For the diffuse irradiance (Equation (3.3)), the Linke turbidity factor and the solar elevation angle are also the most important parameters. A simple relationship between D, T L and µ 0 is assumed, in which D is proportional to µ 0 T L. By means of linear regression, Slob found the expression given in Equation (3.3) for the diffuse component for cloudless periods between May 1986 and May Since I 0 and µ 0 are known for a given situation, (3.1), (3.2) and (3.3) show that when also T L is known, D and I can be determined from a measurement of the global radiation. In the algorithm I, D and G will be normalised with G 0, which is the radiation on a horizontal surface, outside the atmosphere: G 0 = µ 0I0 (3.4) An advantage of this dimensionless form is the to a first approximation independence of µ 0, so that values from different times and different seasons can be easily compared. Some 15

18 dependence on µ 0 is still present though, because of the relationship between µ 0 and the path length through the atmosphere. Separation into µ 0 -intervals In this subsection, the actual algorithm will be explained. The structure of the Slob algorithm is given in Figure 3.2. Estimation of global and direct radiation for cloudless conditions: - (G/G 0 ) gr = µ 0 I/G 0 + D/G 0 - µ 0 I/G 0 = exp(-t L /( µ 0 )) yes µ 0 < 0.1? fr = 0 no < 0.3? no T L = 10 D/G 0 = 0.3 yes T L = 6 D/G 0 = µ 0 /3 G/G 0 (G/G 0 ) gr? yes no fr = 1 fr = 0 G max /G 0 < 0.4? yes fr = 0 no G min /G 0 > (G/G 0 ) gr? yes fr = 1 no G max /G 0 -G min /G 0 < 0.1? yes G max /G 0 > (G/G 0 ) gr? yes fr = 1 no T L = 4 D/G 0 = 1.2 G min /G 0 no fr = G/G 0 D/G 0 µ 0 I/G 0 D/G fr 1 Figure 3.2: The Slob algorithm. When applying the algorithm, first the global irradiance under cloudless conditions, (G/G 0 ) gr, as given in the box at the top of Figure 3.2, should be considered. This involves an estimation of the direct and diffuse irradiance under clear skies. The direct irradiance is estimated by the 16

19 parameterization of Kasten, and depends on µ 0 and the Linke turbidity factor T L, which varies for the different µ 0 -intervals. After considering the box in Figure 3.2, the flowchart itself can be applied. Per 10 minute interval a choice is now made depending on the value of µ 0 and the flowchart is followed in a specific direction until a value for the fraction of sunshine (fr) has been found for this 10 minute interval, after which the next 10 minute interval can be considered. This way the algorithm can be applied to all 10 minute intervals of interest and of these 10 minute values of sunshine duration daily totals can be computed, for example. As shown in Figure 3.2, the algorithm distinguishes between different solar elevations. In the following, each µ 0 interval will be discussed in more detail. µ 0 < 0.1 (γ 0 < 5.7 o ) The fraction of sunshine is set to zero. This is done because the irradiance reaching the ground is reduced by the atmosphere to such an extend that the threshold I = 120 Wm -2 will only be reached under very clear skies. Besides, these elevation angles only occur for a short time of the day. The contribution of these elevation angles to the sunshine duration will thus be small, and is therefore neglected in the algorithm. 0.1 µ 0 < 0.3 (5.7 o γ 0 < 17.5 o ) The algorithm distinguishes between completely cloudy or completely sunny situations. This is quite a crude approximation, because within 10 minutes there can be a cloudy period next to some sunshine minutes. Slob chose this division, because it is difficult to classify the different situations at these elevation angles. In summer, for example, the elevation angle increases rapidly during sunrise, resulting in large differences between the minimum and maximum value of the global radiation within 10 minutes. Further, clouds can be illuminated from below, giving rise to a high value for the diffuse irradiance. This increases the global radiation, making it difficult to distinguish between a sunny and a partly cloudy sky. In the algorithm, a value for the global irradiance under cloudless conditions (G/G 0 ) gr is estimated. If the measured normalised global irradiance (G/G 0 ) exceeds this limit, it is assumed that the interval was completely sunny. Slob and Monna used radiation measurements from October 1989 to April 1990 to obtain the following estimate of D/G 0 : D / G0 = µ 0 /3 (3.5) Equation (3.5) differs from Equation (3.3), but is not in disagreement with (3.3). Equation (3.3) is fitted to data with γ 0 between 5 and 60, while (3.5) is only valid up to For small elevation angles D/G 0 increases with µ 0, but averaged over all angles, D/G 0 decreases slightly with µ 0. For these µ 0, T L = 6 is taken as mean atmospheric turbidity and the parameterization of Kasten is used to estimate the direct irradiance. Then I is multiplied by µ 0 to obtain the direct irradiance on a horizontal surface instead of on a surface perpendicular to the direction of the sun: { T /( )} µ + 0I / G0 = exp L 4µ 0 (3.6) With (3.1), the estimation of the global irradiance for cloudless conditions becomes: ( G / G0 ) gr 0I / G0 + D / G0 = µ (3.7) 17

20 And the fraction (fr) of sunshine duration in each 10 minute interval is given by: ( G / G ) fr 1 ( G / G ) 0 G / G0 0 gr = (completely sunny) (3.8a) G / G0 < 0 gr fr = (completely cloudy) (3.8b) The sunshine duration in minutes per 10 minute interval is achieved by multiplying the fraction by ten. µ (γ o ) The situations cloudy, sunny and partly cloudy are distinguished. A situation is said to be completely cloudy if G max /G 0 < 0.4, in which G max is the maximum measured value of the global radiation in the 10 minute interval. Slob found the value of G max /G 0 = 0.4 to be an upper limit for cloudy situations, since measurements showed that the direct irradiance vanishes below this value. Completely cloudy periods can thus be recognised by: G G < 0.4 fr 0 (completely cloudy) (3.9) max / 0 = To recognise completely sunny periods D/G 0 = 0.3 is assumed. 1 Again an estimation of the global irradiance is made with Equations (3.6) and (3.7), but now T L = 10 is chosen. In general this gives a limit (G/G 0 ) gr that can only be exceeded when there is direct radiation. So when G max /G 0 > (G/G 0 ) gr there was direct radiation in the 10 minute interval. When also G min /G 0 is larger than the limiting value (G/G 0 ) gr, direct radiation was present continuously and the period is said to be completely sunny: ( G / G ) 1 Gmin / G0 > 0 gr fr = (completely sunny) (3.10) Only in situations with much diffuse radiation, possibly in combination with some direct radiation this test does not work; then the global irradiance will be high and fr = 1 is found, even though there is hardly any direct radiation. The period is also determined as completely sunny when G max /G 0 exceeds the limit (G/G 0 ) gr and the difference between G max and G min is small, so when the following variability criterion is met: ( G / G ) and ( G / G G / G ) < Gmax / G0 > 0 gr max 0 min 0 fr = (3.11) (completely sunny) Large differences between G min and G max are an indication for the presence of clouds. When a cloud is in front of the sun, the direct radiation is blocked and the global radiation will decrease compared to the situation where the sun is visible. In the case of broken clouds there will also be periods during which the sun is visible, meaning that the global radiation will increase again. If this happens within 10 minutes, the differences between G min and G max can become quite large. And even if the sky stays cloudy within a 10 minute interval, the differences between G min and G max can still be larger than under clear skies, because the thickness of the clouds can vary. 1 This value for D/G 0 can be approximated from Equation (3.3): with I 0 = 1366 Wm -2 and T L = 10, D/G 0 lies between 0.3 and

21 When G max /G 0 is larger than (G/G 0 ) gr, but the differences between G min /G 0 and G max /G 0 are larger than 0.1, it is likely that that are clouds. It is possible though that these are broken clouds, so that only part of the 10 minute interval is cloudy and part is sunny. These situations are the last to contribute to the sunshine duration and are dealt with in the last part of the algorithm. D/G 0 is now given as a function of G min (derived from measurements used by Slob and Monna): D / G0 = 1.2G min / G0 (3.12) where D/G 0 is set to 0.4 when 1.2 G min /G D/G 0 is a function of G min, because when a cloud obscures the sun the direct radiation vanishes, D will equal G and G will reach its minimum value G min. This means that D equals G min when a cloud is in front of the sun. D will be a little larger when this cloud is not in front, but just next to the sun, because reflection at this cloud can then contribute to the diffuse radiation. D/G 0 is bounded at 0.4, because larger values would mark situations with direct radiation but relatively much diffuse radiation as cloudy, while there was possibly some sunshine. The fraction of sunshine duration is now estimated by dividing the true value of the direct irradiance by the value of the direct irradiance in case the sun would have shone continuously (Equation (3.6)). The true value is estimated by subtracting the estimated value for the diffuse irradiance (Equation (3.12)) from the measured global irradiance: ( G / G D / G ) 0 0 fr = where 0 fr 1 (broken clouds) (3.13) µ 0I / G0 The fraction sunshine has to lie between 0 and 1 by definition, therefore fr is set to zero when fr < 0 and to one if fr > 1. In this last part the relatively low value of T L = 4 is chosen to correct for the fact that all periods with direct irradiance count in estimating the sunshine duration, even when the DNSI is actually smaller than 120 Wm -2. Slob compared the results from his algorithm to the sunshine duration determined from measurements of the direct irradiance. He concluded that the accuracy of sunshine duration determined with the algorithm is comparable to the accuracy of Campbell-Stokes measurement of sunshine duration and is of the order ± 0.6 hours for daily totals Adjustments to the Slob algorithm After the Slob algorithm was developed, it was studied and adjusted by both Bergman (1993) and Schipper (2004). The Bergman algorithm is operationally in use by the KNMI to determine the sunshine duration. The Schipper algorithm has never been operationally used, but both adjustments to the original algorithm will be shortly discussed here. Bergman The method that uses the Slob algorithm as adjusted by Bergman for the determination of the sunshine duration is a second example of a pyranometric method, and will be referred to as the Bergman method. This method does not differ from the Slob method very much. It also uses an algorithm to estimate the sunshine duration in a 10 minute interval when the mean, minimum and maximum of the global irradiance are given. The only difference lies in the algorithm itself. 19

22 Bergman made some adjustments to the Slob algorithm to find more agreement with the Campbell-Stokes measurements. This was done because a long time series of Campbell-Stokes sunshine duration measurements already exists and it was desirable to guarantee homogeneity. The adjustments Bergman made are: (a) Minimal solar elevation γ 0 that contributes to the sunshine duration corresponds to µ 0 = 0.05 in stead of µ 0 = 0.1. (b) The interval 0.05 µ 0 < 0.3 is split in two: 0.05 µ with T L = 3.5 and < µ 0 < 0.3 with T L = 6. (c) For µ and partly cloudy conditions, T L = 8 is chosen in stead of T L = 4. These adjustments mainly concern the solar elevation angles that can possibly contribute to the sunshine duration. In the original Slob algorithm only the times when the sun was more than 5.7 o above the horizon could add to the sunshine duration. Bergman lowered this limit to 2.9 o, so that the contribution from times when the sun is low in the sky is also taken into account. The adjustments Bergman made to the algorithm are based on a statistical comparison of sunshine duration calculations with parallel Campbell-Stokes measurements during the period May 1991 to December 1991 on 3 different locations (De Bilt, Wilhelminadorp and Hupsel/Winterswijk) (Bergman, 1993). Schipper The third variation of a pyranometric method uses the algorithm developed by Slob, but with the adjustments of Schipper (2004), and is therefore called the Schipper method. Schipper used a dataset of 10 minute means, minima and maxima of the global irradiance from January 1995 to December Further also pyrheliometric measurements of the DNSI and measurements of a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder were used. This allowed Schipper to compare the sunshine duration as estimated with the Slob and Bergman method to each other, but also to the sunshine duration as determined directly from the DNSI measurements (pyrheliometric method) and to the sunshine duration as given by the Campbell-Stokes recorder. The sunshine duration as derived with the Slob method as well as that derived with the Bergman method differs from that derived with the Direct method. For the development of the Slob algorithm and also for the adjustments Bergman made to the algorithm, only a short dataset was used. Schipper used a longer dataset to adjust the parameterizations used in the algorithm through means of linear regression analysis. The adjustments Schipper made to the Slob algorithm are: (a) Minimal solar elevation γ 0 that contributes to the sunshine duration corresponds to µ 0 = 0.05 in stead of µ 0 = 0.1. (b) The interval 0.05 µ 0 < 0.3 is split in two: 0.05 µ with T L = 2.25 and < µ 0 < 0.3 with T L = (c) For the interval 0.05 µ 0 < 0.3, the diffuse radiation under cloudless conditions is estimated by D/G 0 = µ 0. (d) For µ and cloudless conditions T L = 4.36 and D/G 0 = 0.22, while for partly cloudy conditions, T L = and D/G 0 = 1.27 G min /G 0. Although the Schipper algorithm is based on a longer dataset than the Bergman algorithm, the Bergman algorithm is still used by the KNMI to determine the sunshine duration for climatological purposes. 20

23 4. Solar radiation measurements In the previous sections different methods for the determination of the sunshine duration have been discussed, as well as the instruments needed to make the measurements for the application of these methods. In this section we will describe the radiation measurements used for the analysis of sunshine duration. Furthermore, we will discuss the quality of the measurements according to specific BSRN procedures. 4.1 Measurement period The construction of the BSRN site was completed by the end of 2004 and first measurements became available in January These first measurements, however, were not used for the present analysis, because of start-up problems. In order to consider a full year of measurements, data for the period March 2005 February 2006 are used for the analysis of sunshine duration presented here. Some data could not be used, because of problems with the data acquisition system, power loss or sun-tracking problems. During the year, problems occurred on 41 days (13 days in spring, 7 in summer, 13 in autumn and 8 in winter). The data of the days on which problems occurred are given in Table 4.1. Measurements made on these days will not be used in the analysis. Table 4.1: Days on which problems occurred. The data for these days are omitted from the analysis. Date Daynumber Reason for omitting data Mar Error in time because of summertime 7 Apr 97 Data incomplete (replacement SIAMs) 26 Apr 116 Data incomplete (working activities) Apr Data incomplete (power loss) 30 Apr-4 May Problems with data acquisition system (problems with SIAM) 11 May 131 Sun-tracker off track 20 Jun 171 Problems with SIAM because of heat Jun Problems because of heat 14 Jul 195 Replacement of pyranometer (CM22) (to try to suppress restterm) 7 Aug 219 Sun-tracker off track Aug Problems with data acquisition system 1-5 Sep Sun-tracker off track (due to bird of prey) 28 Sep-3 Oct Sun-tracker off track Nov Data incomplete (problems with data acquisition system) 3-5 Dec Data incomplete (problems with data acquisition system) 6 & 8 Dec 340 & 342 Data incomplete (due to sound campaign) 29 Dec 363 Sun-tracker off track 13 Jan 13 Unknown 8 Feb 39 Problems with data acquisition system 21

24 4.2 Quality checks Before using the data of the different radiation instruments for the analysis, the quality of the data is checked. This is done to make sure that differences in sunshine duration between the different methods are not caused by measurement errors Quality flags Long and Dutton (scientists of the BSRN community) developed quality control procedures in order to flag radiation data suspected of being erroneous. For the present study, the quality is checked by means of three quality checks: the first concerning physically possible limits of the radiation measurements, the second concerning extremely rare limits and the third concerning ratios of different radiation components. These quality checks are based on experience, empirical relations and model calculations. A diffuse irradiance larger than 700 Wm -2 has, for example, never been measured yet. And on the other hand, model calculations with a Rayleigh atmosphere provide the minimum possible value for the diffuse irradiance, since aerosols will scatter radiation thereby increasing the diffuse radiation. For the quality checks, 10 minute mean values of I, G, D and µ 0 are used. For the computation of the position of the sun (µ 0 ) at Cabauw the Astronomical Almanac s Algorithm is used (Michalsky, 1988). Physically possible limits (PPL) & extremely rare limits (ERL): If the value for G, D or I is not between the minimum and maximum as specified in Table 4.2, this measurement is flagged with the value that is mentioned in the last column of Table 4.2. If the values are between the minimum and the maximum, then the flag is given the value zero, meaning that the quality of the data is good. Ratios: Like for the physically possible and extremely rare limit checks the values are also flagged according to the ratios (Table 4.3). If the ratio condition is met (ratios between min and max) then this flag is set to zero, otherwise the value as specified in the last column of Table 4.3 is given to the flag. These checks are performed on every 10 minute interval, leaving every interval with a PPL, an ERL and a ratios-flag. For the analysis presented here, all data for which one of the flags does not equal zero were omitted, so only data of good quality are used for the analysis of sunshine duration. Table 4.2: Physically possible limits and extremely rare limits check (Long and Dutton, BSRN Global Network recommended QC tests, V2.0). Parameter Minimum (Wm -2 ) Maximum (Wm -2 ) Flag Physically possible limits check 1.2 G I 0 µ D I 0 µ I -4 I 0 4 Extremely rare limits check G I 0 µ D I 0 µ I I 0 µ

25 Table 4.3: Ratios check: Ratio = G/(µ0I + D); Ratio_dif = D/G; Sum = µ0i + D. Parameter Ratio Ratio Ratio_dif Ratio_dif Minimum Maximum Restriction to data Flag θ0 < 75 and Sum > 50 Wm 75 < θ0 < 93 and Sum > 50 Wm-2 θ0 < 75 and G > 50 Wm-2 75 < θ0 < 93 and G > 50 Wm The effect of the quality checks on the data can be seen by plotting µ0i+d against G (Figure 4.1). Measurements for which all flags are zero are plotted in black, while measurements for which one of the flags is not zero are plotted in red. Most points are expected near the line µ0i+d = G, because this is the actual relation between the radiation components. Figure 4.1 indeed shows that most points that are not on the line µ0i+d = G turn red and will be omitted in the analysis. For the period March 2005 February 2006, 1.1% of the 10 minute intervals do not meet the quality requirements. For small irradiances, some black points can be found off the line µ0i+d = G in Figure 4.1. It appeared that these points correspond to periods during which the DNSI measured by the pyrheliometer is too low, due to the presence of condense on the windows of the pyrheliometer. This happened in particular during spring and autumn mornings (µ0 < 0.2). Since the irradiances are low during the times when condense is present, Figure 4.1: Quality check: µ0i + D against G, both the sunshine duration will be hardly affected by it, in Wm-2. The red points indicate data for which one of the quality flags is not equal to zero. Data from the data associated with these periods are not omitted from the dataset. March 2005 to February 2006 is used Ten minute means instead of one minute means Originally the quality flags were determined for 1 minute mean values of G, D, I and µ0. In the present study 10 minute means are used in stead of 1 minute means. The reason for this lies in the movement of the pyranometer on July 14th Before July 14th the pyranometer was placed rather far from the pyrheliometer ( 15 m). During periods that were partly cloudy, it could be the case that the pyrheliometer was placed in the sun, while the pyranometer was in a shaded area. When this occurs, the pyrheliometer receives direct irradiance, while the pyranometer does not. The sum of the direct and diffuse irradiance will then differ significantly from the measured global radiation, and the ratio G/( µ0i+d) will not lie between the minimum and the maximum values specified in Table 4.3. Minutes during which this occurs are therefore flagged unequal to zero, even though there is no measurement error and these data are suitable for sunshine duration determination. On July 14th the pyranometer was moved, and placed closer to the pyrheliometer, so this problem would no longer occur and the pyranometer and pyrheliometer would be either both in the shade or both in the sun. 23

Solar Radiation Measurement. Bruce W Forgan, WMO RAV Metrology Workshop, Melbourne, Novemberr 2011

Solar Radiation Measurement. Bruce W Forgan, WMO RAV Metrology Workshop, Melbourne, Novemberr 2011 Solar Radiation Measurement Bruce W Forgan, WMO RAV Metrology Workshop, Melbourne, Novemberr 2011 Why Do We Need Data on Solar Energy? Global Climate System Climate Energy Balance Solar Exposure and Irradiance

More information

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0 Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

More information

We know the shape of the solar spectrum. Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick.

We know the shape of the solar spectrum. Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick. We know the shape of the solar spectrum. How is this spectral shape and irradiance of the solar light affected by the earth s atmosphere? Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick. The

More information

Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008)

Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008) Typical Climatic Data for Selected Radiation Stations (The Data Period Covered : 1986-2000) Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008) A joint Project of Solar Energy Centre, MNRE Indian Metrological Department

More information

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

More information

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

More information

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.

More information

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION The sun is the source of most energy on the earth and is a primary factor in determining the thermal environment of a locality. It is important for engineers to have a working

More information

2 Absorbing Solar Energy

2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could

More information

Chapter 7 Measurement of Sunshine Duration and. Solar Radiation

Chapter 7 Measurement of Sunshine Duration and. Solar Radiation CONTENTS Chapter 7 Measurement of Sunshine Duration and Solar Radiation 7.1 Measurement of Sunshine Duration... 1 7.1.1 Definition... 1 7.1.2 Sunshine Duration Measuring Instruments... 1 7.1.2.1 Campbell-Stokes

More information

1. Theoretical background

1. Theoretical background 1. Theoretical background We consider the energy budget at the soil surface (equation 1). Energy flux components absorbed or emitted by the soil surface are: net radiation, latent heat flux, sensible heat

More information

T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre

T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SURFACE SOLAR IRRADIANCES UNDER CLEAR-SKIES AND CLOUD COVER OBTAINED FROM LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION MEASUREMENTS IN THE RONDONIA REGION OF BRAZIL T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre Centro

More information

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz

Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz Sunlight and its Properties EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz The sun is a hot sphere of gas whose internal temperatures reach over 20 million deg. K. Nuclear fusion reaction at the sun's core converts hydrogen to

More information

1. Introduction Measurement of sunshine-duration is one of the oldest solar radiation measurements. Sunshine-duration

1. Introduction Measurement of sunshine-duration is one of the oldest solar radiation measurements. Sunshine-duration December 1986 H. Ikeda, T. Aoshima and Y. Miyake 987 Development of a New Sunshine-Duration Meter By Hiroshi Ikeda, Takeshi Aoshima and Yukiharu Miyake EKO Instruments Trading Co., Ltd. 21-8 Hatagaya 1-chome,

More information

For millennia people have known about the sun s energy potential, using it in passive

For millennia people have known about the sun s energy potential, using it in passive Introduction For millennia people have known about the sun s energy potential, using it in passive applications like heating homes and drying laundry. In the last century and a half, however, it was discovered

More information

Guidelines on Quality Control Procedures for Data from Automatic Weather Stations

Guidelines on Quality Control Procedures for Data from Automatic Weather Stations WORLD METEOROLOGICAL ORGANIZATION COMMISSION FOR BASIC SYSTEMS OPEN PROGRAMME AREA GROUP ON INTEGRATED OBSERVING SYSTEMS EXPERT TEAM ON REQUIREMENTS FOR DATA FROM AUTOMATIC WEATHER STATIONS Third Session

More information

Lectures Remote Sensing

Lectures Remote Sensing Lectures Remote Sensing ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION dr.ir. Jan Clevers Centre of Geo-Information Environmental Sciences Wageningen UR Atmospheric Correction of Optical RS Data Background When needed? Model

More information

Solar Radiation Calculation

Solar Radiation Calculation Solar Radiation Calculation Dr. Mohamad Kharseh E-mail: kharseh@qu.edu.qa mohkh3@hotmail.com 1 Solar Constant Solar Constant is the intensity of the solar radiation hitting one square meter of the Earth

More information

Broadband and Spectral Shortwave Calibration Results from ARESE II

Broadband and Spectral Shortwave Calibration Results from ARESE II Broadband and Spectral Shortwave Calibration Results from ARESE II Introduction J. J. Michalsky, P. W. Kiedron, and J. L. Berndt State University of New York Albany, New York T. L. Stoffel, D. Myers, I.

More information

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Spectrum of Radiation Intensity and Peak Wavelength of Radiation Solar (shortwave) Radiation Terrestrial (longwave) Radiations How to Change Air Temperature? Add

More information

BSRN Station Sonnblick

BSRN Station Sonnblick Spawning the Atmosphere Measurements, 22-23 Jan 2014, Bern BSRN Station Sonnblick Baseline surface radiation network station Sonnblick Marc Olefs, Wolfgang Schöner ZAMG Central Institute for Meteorology

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation.

Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. Lecture 1. The nature of electromagnetic radiation. 1. Basic introduction to the electromagnetic field: Dual nature of electromagnetic radiation Electromagnetic spectrum. Basic radiometric quantities:

More information

Solar Tracking Application

Solar Tracking Application Solar Tracking Application A Rockwell Automation White Paper Solar trackers are devices used to orient photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices toward the sun. Since the sun s position

More information

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

More information

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction

Chapter Overview. Seasons. Earth s Seasons. Distribution of Solar Energy. Solar Energy on Earth. CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction Chapter Overview CHAPTER 6 Air-Sea Interaction The atmosphere and the ocean are one independent system. Earth has seasons because of the tilt on its axis. There are three major wind belts in each hemisphere.

More information

The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates

The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington

More information

Treasure Hunt. Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? EMR Principles and Properties. EMR and Remote Sensing

Treasure Hunt. Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? EMR Principles and Properties. EMR and Remote Sensing Lecture 2 How does Light Interact with the Environment? Treasure Hunt Find and scan all 11 QR codes Choose one to watch / read in detail Post the key points as a reaction to http://www.scoop.it/t/env202-502-w2

More information

Investigations of the measured solar radiation, relative humidity and atmospheric temperature and their relations at Dhofar University ABSTRACT

Investigations of the measured solar radiation, relative humidity and atmospheric temperature and their relations at Dhofar University ABSTRACT Investigations of the measured solar radiation, relative humidity and atmospheric temperature and their relations at Dhofar University *Aref Wazwaz 1), Hisham AlHabshi 2) and Yousef Gharbia 3) 1), 2) Chemical

More information

ENERGY METEOROLOGY. UNIT 1: Basics of Radiation. Energy transfer through radiation. Concept of blackbody radiation, Kirchhoff s law

ENERGY METEOROLOGY. UNIT 1: Basics of Radiation. Energy transfer through radiation. Concept of blackbody radiation, Kirchhoff s law UNIT 1: Basics of Radiation Energy transfer through radiation Concept of blackbody radiation, Kirchhoff s law Radiation laws of Planck, Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien Radiation quantities Examples Radiative

More information

Interactions Between Electromagnetic Wave and Targets

Interactions Between Electromagnetic Wave and Targets Interactions Between Electromagnetic Wave and Targets Electromagnetic radiation wavelength λ, frequency ν and the velocity υ have the following relation. λ = υ/ν by: Dr. Kiyoshi Honda Space Technology

More information

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions

1. Radiative Transfer. 2. Spectrum of Radiation. 3. Definitions 1. Radiative Transfer Virtually all the exchanges of energy between the earth-atmosphere system and the rest of the universe take place by radiative transfer. The earth and its atmosphere are constantly

More information

RADIATION (SOLAR) Introduction. Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant. Distribution of Solar Insolation at the Top of the Atmosphere

RADIATION (SOLAR) Introduction. Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant. Distribution of Solar Insolation at the Top of the Atmosphere RADIATION (SOLAR) 1859 Workshop Proceedings, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, pp. 45 53. Ulaby FT (1981)Microwave response of vegetation. In Kahle AB, Weill G, Carter WD (eds) Advances in Space Research,

More information

Solar Energy Resource. Samuel Luna de Abreu Fernando Ramos Martins

Solar Energy Resource. Samuel Luna de Abreu Fernando Ramos Martins Solar Energy Resource Assessment in Brazil Samuel Luna de Abreu Fernando Ramos Martins Summary Solar Radiation Mapping of Brazil brief review measurements - available and future ground data first mapping

More information

Basic Climatological Station Metadata Current status. Metadata compiled: 30 JAN 2008. Synoptic Network, Reference Climate Stations

Basic Climatological Station Metadata Current status. Metadata compiled: 30 JAN 2008. Synoptic Network, Reference Climate Stations Station: CAPE OTWAY LIGHTHOUSE Bureau of Meteorology station number: Bureau of Meteorology district name: West Coast State: VIC World Meteorological Organization number: Identification: YCTY Basic Climatological

More information

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact:

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact: Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

More information

The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research. A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology

The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research. A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology Testing and diagnosing the ability of the Bureau of Meteorology s Numerical Weather Prediction

More information

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun

CHAPTER 3. The sun and the seasons. Locating the position of the sun zenith 90 summer solstice 75 equinox 52 winter solstice 29 altitude angles observer Figure 3.1: Solar noon altitude angles for Melbourne SOUTH winter midday shadow WEST summer midday shadow summer EAST

More information

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

More information

RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR

RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR A. Maghrabi 1 and R. Clay 2 1 Institute of Astronomical and Geophysical Research, King Abdulaziz City For Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh 11442,

More information

Passive Remote Sensing of Clouds from Airborne Platforms

Passive Remote Sensing of Clouds from Airborne Platforms Passive Remote Sensing of Clouds from Airborne Platforms Why airborne measurements? My instrument: the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) Some spectrometry/radiometry basics How can we infer cloud properties

More information

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

More information

Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature

Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Summer REU Program Professor Tom Witten By Abstract There is a seasonal phase lag between solar heating from the sun and the surface

More information

Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding 2007 Page 1 Solar Heating Basics Reflected radiation is solar energy received by collectorsfrom adjacent surfaces of the building or ground. It depends a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

More information

CORRELATIONS FOR A MEDITERRANEAN CLOUD COVER MODEL

CORRELATIONS FOR A MEDITERRANEAN CLOUD COVER MODEL CORRELATIONS FOR A MEDITERRANEAN CLOUD COVER MODEL Angelo Spena* (a), Giulia D Angiolini (a), Cecilia Strati (a) (a) Tor Vergata University, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome, Italy ABSTRACT Relationship

More information

Introduction to Spectral Reflectance (passive sensors) Overview. Electromagnetic Radiation (light) 4/4/2014

Introduction to Spectral Reflectance (passive sensors) Overview. Electromagnetic Radiation (light) 4/4/2014 Introduction to Spectral Reflectance (passive sensors) Kelly R. Thorp Research Agricultural Engineer USDA-ARS Arid-Land Agricultural Research Center Overview Electromagnetic Radiation (light) Solar Energy

More information

Sunset Observation Project

Sunset Observation Project Sunset Observation Project Eric Withrow PHYS 2021-A November 20, 2006 Professor J.R. Sowell Withrow 2 Purpose: The objective of this experiment was to observe the motions and position of the Sun throughout

More information

GCOS science conference, 2 Mar. 2016, Amsterdam. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

GCOS science conference, 2 Mar. 2016, Amsterdam. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) GCOS science conference, 2 Mar. 2016, Amsterdam Status of Surface Radiation Budget Observation for Climate Nozomu Ohkawara Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Contents 1. Background 2. Status t of surface

More information

Emission Temperature of Planets

Emission Temperature of Planets Emission Temperature of Planets The emission temperature of a planet, T e, is the temperature with which it needs to emit in order to achieve energy balance (assuming the average temperature is not decreasing

More information

The Surface Energy Budget

The Surface Energy Budget The Surface Energy Budget The radiation (R) budget Shortwave (solar) Radiation Longwave Radiation R SW R SW α α = surface albedo R LW εσt 4 ε = emissivity σ = Stefan-Boltzman constant T = temperature Subsurface

More information

Overview of the IR channels and their applications

Overview of the IR channels and their applications Ján Kaňák Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Jan.kanak@shmu.sk Overview of the IR channels and their applications EUMeTrain, 14 June 2011 Ján Kaňák, SHMÚ 1 Basics in satellite Infrared image interpretation

More information

Installation and Commissioning of an Automatic Solar Radiation Monitoring System (ASRMS)

Installation and Commissioning of an Automatic Solar Radiation Monitoring System (ASRMS) Installation and Commissioning of an Automatic Solar Radiation Monitoring System (ASRMS) Ananta Joshi and R.J. Patel Refuelling Technology Division Good quality, reliable solar radiation data is extremely

More information

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Increasing Global Temperature from www.giss.nasa.gov Increasing Greenhouse Gases from ess.geology.ufl.edu

More information

Sunlight and its Properties III. EE 446/646 Y. Baghzouz

Sunlight and its Properties III. EE 446/646 Y. Baghzouz Sunlight and its Properties III EE 446/646 Y. Baghzouz Hourly Clear Sky Insolation The previous insolation equations are instantaneous values (at a given specific time). These can be tabulated into hourly,

More information

Climatology of aerosol and cloud properties at the ARM sites:

Climatology of aerosol and cloud properties at the ARM sites: Climatology of aerosol and cloud properties at the ARM sites: MFRSR combined with other measurements Qilong Min ASRC, SUNY at Albany MFRSR: Spectral irradiances at 6 six wavelength passbands: 415, 500,

More information

Solar measurement / PyranometerApp App for iphone, ipad

Solar measurement / PyranometerApp App for iphone, ipad Solar measurement / PyranometerApp App for iphone, ipad USER MANUAL PyranometerAppmanualv1104 Edited & Copyright by: Hukseflux Thermal Sensors http://www.hukseflux.com e-mail: app@hukseflux.com S o l a

More information

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere

Energy Pathways in Earth s Atmosphere BRSP - 10 Page 1 Solar radiation reaching Earth s atmosphere includes a wide spectrum of wavelengths. In addition to visible light there is radiation of higher energy and shorter wavelength called ultraviolet

More information

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time.

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE Weather i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. ii) The daily or short term variations of different conditions of lower

More information

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence

Unit 2: Weather. ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns. some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence Unit 2: Weather Weather Lore: ways to keep track of common trends in weather patterns some have scientific facts, while others are more about coincidence weather lore may vary from place to place as different

More information

Properties of Radiation

Properties of Radiation Properties of Radiation Lecture outline Flux and intensity Solid angle and the steradian Inverse square law Global insolation Interaction of radiation with matter Flux or Flux density Flux (or flux density),

More information

Clouds and the Energy Cycle

Clouds and the Energy Cycle August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

More information

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Bent H Sass Danish Meteorological Institute 10 June 2009 As the horizontal grid size in atmospheric models is reduced the assumptions made

More information

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

More information

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere

Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere Lecture 2: Radiation/Heat in the atmosphere TEMPERATURE is a measure of the internal heat energy of a substance. The molecules that make up all matter are in constant motion. By internal heat energy, we

More information

Improvement in the Assessment of SIRS Broadband Longwave Radiation Data Quality

Improvement in the Assessment of SIRS Broadband Longwave Radiation Data Quality Improvement in the Assessment of SIRS Broadband Longwave Radiation Data Quality M. E. Splitt University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah C. P. Bahrmann Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies

More information

Solar Radiation. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2009 S. Bremner

Solar Radiation. ELEG620: Solar Electric Systems University of Delaware, ECE Spring 2009 S. Bremner Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Outline Properties of radiation: Summary of equations, terms, concepts Solar Spectra Terrestrial Solar Radiation: Effects of atmosphere, angular dependence of radiation,

More information

Blackbody radiation. Main Laws. Brightness temperature. 1. Concepts of a blackbody and thermodynamical equilibrium.

Blackbody radiation. Main Laws. Brightness temperature. 1. Concepts of a blackbody and thermodynamical equilibrium. Lecture 4 lackbody radiation. Main Laws. rightness temperature. Objectives: 1. Concepts of a blackbody, thermodynamical equilibrium, and local thermodynamical equilibrium.. Main laws: lackbody emission:

More information

Cloud Climatology for New Zealand and Implications for Radiation Fields

Cloud Climatology for New Zealand and Implications for Radiation Fields Cloud Climatology for New Zealand and Implications for Radiation Fields G. Pfister, R.L. McKenzie, J.B. Liley, A. Thomas National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Lauder, New Zealand M.J. Uddstrom

More information

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun

The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun The Sun Solar Factoids (I) The sun, a medium-size star in the milky way galaxy, consisting of about 300 billion stars. (Sun Earth-Relationships) A gaseous sphere of radius about 695 500 km (about 109 times

More information

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ASAE S580.1 NOV2013 Testing and Reporting Solar Cooker Performance American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ASABE is a professional and technical organization, of members worldwide, who

More information

FRESCO. Product Specification Document FRESCO. Authors : P. Wang, R.J. van der A (KNMI) REF : TEM/PSD2/003 ISSUE : 3.0 DATE : 30.05.

FRESCO. Product Specification Document FRESCO. Authors : P. Wang, R.J. van der A (KNMI) REF : TEM/PSD2/003 ISSUE : 3.0 DATE : 30.05. PAGE : 1/11 TITLE: Product Specification Authors : P. Wang, R.J. van der A (KNMI) PAGE : 2/11 DOCUMENT STATUS SHEET Issue Date Modified Items / Reason for Change 0.9 19.01.06 First Version 1.0 22.01.06

More information

EVALUATING SOLAR ENERGY PLANTS TO SUPPORT INVESTMENT DECISIONS

EVALUATING SOLAR ENERGY PLANTS TO SUPPORT INVESTMENT DECISIONS EVALUATING SOLAR ENERGY PLANTS TO SUPPORT INVESTMENT DECISIONS Author Marie Schnitzer Director of Solar Services Published for AWS Truewind October 2009 Republished for AWS Truepower: AWS Truepower, LLC

More information

Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7

Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7 Today s Lecture: Radiation Hartmann, Global Physical Climatology (1994), Ch. 2, 3, 6 Peixoto and Oort, Ch. 4, 6, 7 5 The climate system 1. Introduction 2. Atmosphere 3. Ocean 4. Land, biosphere, cryosphere

More information

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus

Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Venus Exploration Advisory Group Greenhouse Effect and Radiative Balance on Earth and Venus Dave Crisp November 5, 2007-1- Venus and Earth: An Unlikely Pair Most theories of solar system evolution assume

More information

Comparison of daily sunshine duration recorded by Campbell- Stokes and Kipp & Zonen sensors

Comparison of daily sunshine duration recorded by Campbell- Stokes and Kipp & Zonen sensors Comparison of daily sunshine duration recorded by Campbell- Stokes and Kipp & Zonen sensors Tim Legg National Climate Information Centre, Met Office, Exeter, UK Outline Our maps and statistics of UK weather

More information

Methodology for Calculating Humidity

Methodology for Calculating Humidity Chapter 2 Methodology for Calculating Humidity SUMMARY The relationship between temperature and humidity and between humidity variables themselves is non-linear. There are various algorithms for converting

More information

SOLAR RADIATION AVAILABILITY FOR PLANT GROWTH IN ARIZONA CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS

SOLAR RADIATION AVAILABILITY FOR PLANT GROWTH IN ARIZONA CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS SOLAR RADIATION AVAILABILITY FOR PLANT GROWTH IN ARIZONA CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS Stephen Kania, Horticultural Engineer Gene Giacomelli, Professor & Director CEAC Controlled Environment

More information

The Effect of Tilt Angle on Solar Panels

The Effect of Tilt Angle on Solar Panels The Effect of Tilt Angle on Solar Panels Objectives Students become familiar with the concept of solar insolation: radiant energy that strikes the planet. They explore the relationship between the angle

More information

Sun Earth Relationships

Sun Earth Relationships 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

More information

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

More information

Testing and Reporting Solar Cooker Performance

Testing and Reporting Solar Cooker Performance ASAE Standard S-580.1 Testing and Reporting Solar Cooker Performance Initiated by the Test Standards Committee at the Third World Conference on Solar Cooking (Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India, 9 January 1997);

More information

Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida

Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida The orientation of architecture in relation to the sun is likely the most significant connection that we can make to place in regards to energy efficiency. In

More information

TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION

TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, DELHI DEPARTMENT OF ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE ASL720: Satellite Meteorology and Remote Sensing TERM PAPER TOPIC: CLOUD CLASSIFICATION Group Members: Anil Kumar (2010ME10649) Mayank

More information

Earth's Revolution and its Seasons

Earth's Revolution and its Seasons NAME PER PART 1 - Earth's Revolution: Earth's Revolution and its Seasons Examine the Figure 1 above. Answer these questions. 1. True/False: As Earth revolves around the Sun it is always tilted toward the

More information

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION

not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE Do you feel air around you? Do you know that we live at the bottom of a huge pile of air? We inhale and exhale but we feel the air when it is in motion. It

More information

REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN SOLAR ENERGY ESTIMATES

REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN SOLAR ENERGY ESTIMATES REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN SOLAR ENERGY ESTIMATES Mitigating Energy Risk through On-Site Monitoring Marie Schnitzer, Vice President of Consulting Services Christopher Thuman, Senior Meteorologist Peter Johnson,

More information

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING

ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING ES 106 Laboratory # 5 EARTH-SUN RELATIONS AND ATMOSPHERIC HEATING 5-1 Introduction Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular place for a short period of time. The condition of the atmosphere

More information

Propagation Effects & their Impact

Propagation Effects & their Impact Propagation Effects & their Impact Many phenomena causes lead signal loss on through the earths atmosphere: Atmospheric Absorption (gaseous effects) Cloud Attenuation (aerosolic and ice particles Tropospheric

More information

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

More information

The Climate of Caddo County

The Climate of Caddo County The Climate of Caddo County Caddo County is part of the Central Great Plains, encompassing some of the best agricultural land in Oklahoma. Average annual precipitation ranges from about 30 inches in western

More information

A system of direct radiation forecasting based on numerical weather predictions, satellite image and machine learning.

A system of direct radiation forecasting based on numerical weather predictions, satellite image and machine learning. A system of direct radiation forecasting based on numerical weather predictions, satellite image and machine learning. 31st Annual International Symposium on Forecasting Lourdes Ramírez Santigosa Martín

More information

Experimental Methods -Statistical Data Analysis - Assignment

Experimental Methods -Statistical Data Analysis - Assignment Experimental Methods -Statistical Data Analysis - Assignment In this assignment you will investigate daily weather observations from Alice Springs, Woomera and Charleville, from 1950 to 2006. These are

More information

Operational experienced of an 8.64 kwp grid-connected PV array

Operational experienced of an 8.64 kwp grid-connected PV array Hungarian Association of Agricultural Informatics European Federation for Information Technology in Agriculture, Food and the Environment Journal of Agricultural Informatics. 2013 Vol. 4, No. 2 Operational

More information

HOSPIRA (HSP US) HISTORICAL COMMON STOCK PRICE INFORMATION

HOSPIRA (HSP US) HISTORICAL COMMON STOCK PRICE INFORMATION 30-Apr-2004 28.35 29.00 28.20 28.46 28.55 03-May-2004 28.50 28.70 26.80 27.04 27.21 04-May-2004 26.90 26.99 26.00 26.00 26.38 05-May-2004 26.05 26.69 26.00 26.35 26.34 06-May-2004 26.31 26.35 26.05 26.26

More information

Development of a Southern California Fire Weather Severity Index. by Timothy Brown. Final Report

Development of a Southern California Fire Weather Severity Index. by Timothy Brown. Final Report Development of a Southern California Fire Weather Severity Index by Timothy Brown Final Report Submitted to The Wildfire Hazard Reduction Training and Certification Program Federal Emergency Management

More information

Influence of Solar Radiation Models in the Calibration of Building Simulation Models

Influence of Solar Radiation Models in the Calibration of Building Simulation Models Influence of Solar Radiation Models in the Calibration of Building Simulation Models J.K. Copper, A.B. Sproul 1 1 School of Photovoltaics and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of New South Wales,

More information

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He

More information

Geographic & Topographic features of the UAE

Geographic & Topographic features of the UAE Short description of UAE climate NCMS - UAE Geographic & Topographic features of the UAE UAE. UAE is a Gulf country located between latitudes 22.5-26 north and longitudes 51 51-56 56 east. east The UAE

More information

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature

Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature Period 14 Activity Solutions: Energy in Nature 14.1 The Earth-Sun System 1) Energy from the sun Observe the models of the Earth, Moon, and Sun in the room. a) Imagine that the distance between the Earth

More information

Siting of Active Solar Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules

Siting of Active Solar Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules SOLAR CENTER INFORMATION NCSU Box 7401 Raleigh, NC 27695 (919) 515-3480 Toll Free 1-800-33-NC SUN Siting of Active Solar Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules To install a solar energy system properly, it

More information