PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS FOR IMPROVED THERMAL INDOOR COMFORT

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1 PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS FOR IMPROVED THERMAL INDOOR COMFORT Milan OSTRÝ contact: Veveří 331/95, Brno Czech Republic

2 Introduction envelopes of attic spaces are often made from light-weight materials; low thermal storage capacity is well-known property of light-weight materials and the thermal stability of indoor environment is serious problem; risk of overheating of indoor spaces in summer season; aim of our work to provide thermal comfort of buildings with light-weight envelopes without need to use air-conditioning in summer season design of passive cooling by structures with phase change materials

3 How to improve thermal stability of the room in summer season? to increase storage capacity of the envelopes; to design windows on the southern and western side of the object with sun blinds; to design envelopes in light colours; to install mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning; to design envelopes with ventilated air gap on the external surface; to install some kind of structure with phase change material.

4 Sensible heat storage Q T 2 T1 mcdt m c ( T T ) 2 1 where Q quantity of stored heat (J) m mass of the heat storage medium (kg) T 1 initial temperature (K) T 2 final temperature (K) c average thermal capacity (J.kg -1.K -1 )

5 Latent heat storage phase change materials (PCMs) Q Tm T1 mc p dt ml m h m T 2 Tm mc p dt m l m h m c ps ( Tm T1 ) c pl ( T2 T m ) where Q quantity of stored heat (J) m mass of the heat storage medium (kg) T 1 initial temperature (K) T 2 final temperature (K) T m melting temperature (K) c ps average thermal capacity solid phase (J.kg -1.K -1 ) c pl average thermal capacity liquid phase (J.kg -1.K -1 ) l m latent heat (J.kg -1 ) Δh m fraction melted (-)

6 Phase change materials required properties long working life; stable capacity; unlimited number of cycles (charge and discharge); minimum servicing and economy; ecology safety and recycling; suitable height of temperature of phase change; low volume change; upper most value of latent heat.

7 Phase change materials a) inorganic calcium chloride hexahydrate ( CaCl 2. 6H 2 O) calcium bromide hexahydrate ( CaBr 2. 6H 2 O) sodium sulfate decahydrate ( Na 2 SO 4. 10H 2 O) sodium carbonate decahydrate ( Na 2 CO 3.10H 2 O) b) organic paraffin polyethylene glycols high-density polyethylene (HDPE)

8 Commercial encapsulated PCMs PCMs encapsulated in plastic film; PCM-filled plastic pipes; PCM-filled metal cans; PCM-filled spheres; PCM-filled panels plastic or metal; PCM-filled pelets in plaster or plaster board;

9 Charging and discharging of PCM incorporated in building structures

10 Testing attic rooms

11 Material Gypsum wallboard Water vapor barrier Mineral wool View of referential room Thickness (mm) Gypsum wallboard 12.5 Composition of the external wall of testing rooms Thermal conductivity (W.m -1.K -1 ) View of experimental room floor area of each room is 14.9 m 2 volume of internal space is 29.7 m 3. skylight with total dimensions 740 x 1400 mm in each room.

12 Aluminium panels with PCMs Specifications Melting range Storage capacity Weight of panel Weight of PCM Dimensions Value between 22 and 28 C app. 150 kj/panel 360 g 1125 g 455 x 305 x 10 mm

13 in experimental room were installed totally 240 panels filled by salt hydrate; the panels were installed on the internal surface of three walls, on the horizontal suspended ceiling and sloped ceiling of the roof structure; double coated aluminium exhibits superior heat conduction; PCMs are stable under cycling and hermetically sealed in panel; the panels are statically stable and easy for cleaning.

14 Practical measurement in testing rooms first measurement started in the end of August 2008 after installation of panels the measurement is still running only with short interruptions for maintenance in July 2009 was installed HVAC for mechanical ventilation There were tested three scenarios: 1. natural ventilation only by windows and doors; 2. mechanical ventilation with night intensive ventilation by outdoor air; 3. mechanical ventilation with night time cooling of supply air.

15 Practical measurement in testing rooms View of testing rooms with ATREA unit

16 Practical measurement in testing rooms There were measured following values: temperatures of internal air in each room; temperatures of internal surfaces; operative temperatures in each room; outdoor temperature; heat flow.

17 Results from measurement with natural ventilation Internal operative temperatures Temperature C referential room experimental room outdoor temperature 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21: Date, time

18 Results from measurement with mechanical ventilation Operative temperatures referential room Temperature C experimental room inlet 5 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 outdoor temperature Date, time

19 Results from measurement with mechanical ventilation and cooled supply air Operative temperatures referential room experimental room Temperature C outdoor temperature inlet 5 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 0:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21: Date, time

20 Conclusions the summer measurement was successful because the heat storage capacity of PCMs had positive effect on the thermal stability; the discharging of energy stored in PCMs is serious problem especially in hot summer days; for good activation of PCMs is useful night ventilation by cooled supply air; using PCMs shifts energy consumption from day to the night.

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