1. Hydrobromic acid reacts with aqueous lithium sulfide Molecular Equation

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1 NAME Hr Chapter 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Chemistry Practice B (Part 1 = Obj. 1-3) (Part 2 = Obj. 4-6) Objective 1: Electrolytes, Acids, and Bases a. Indicate whether each of the following is strong, weak, or non-electrolyte. 1. magnesium hydroxide 2. hydrophosphoric acid 3. ethanol, CH 3 CH 2 OH 4. hydrochloric acid 5. lithium hydroxide 6. barium sulfate 7. potassium iodide 8. methane gas, CH 4 9. Nitric acid 10. ammonia, NH 3 b. Write, using symbols, the ions formed by the following electrolytes when they dissociate or ionize. Also indicate the quantity formed. 1. chromic acid 2. aluminum phosphate 3. sodium phosphide 4. ammonium sulfate 5. glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6 6. Perchloric acid 7. Ethanol, CH 3 CH 2 OH 8. Magnesium Chloride 9. Ammonium carbonate 10. copper II sulfate c. Identify the following substances as an acid, base, or salt. 1. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 COOH 2. MgCl 2 3. H 3 PO 3 4. NH 4 OH 5. H 2 S 6. NaC 2 H 3 O 2 7. MgI 2 8. H 2 C 2 O 4 9. Ca(OH) NH 3 1

2 Objective 2: Precipitation Reactions and Ionic Equations Predict the driving force of metathesis reactions, including both neutralization and precipitation reactions, and write balanced chemical equations for them. The use of the solubility rules is necessary to predict the precipitation product. 1. Hydrobromic acid reacts with aqueous lithium sulfide Equation Equation 2. Magnesium hydrogen carbonate reacts with hydrochloric acid Equation Equation: 3. Solutions of lead II acetate reacts with barium chloride Equation Equation 4. Calcium hydroxide reacts with acetic acid Equation Net ionic Equation 2

3 5. Ammonium sulfate reacts with barium chloride Equation : 6. Aluminum bicarbonate reacts with sulfuric acid 7. Solutions of mercury II acetate reacting with beryllium chloride. 8. sodium hydroxide reacts with sulfuric acid Net ionic Objective 3: Oxidation and Reduction a. Assign oxidation numbers to atoms in molecules and ions. Determine the oxidation number for the indicated element in each of the following compounds: 1. Na in NaH S in SO 3 3. O in Li 2 O 2 4. Na in NaH P in PO 3 6. Mn in KMnO 4 3

4 b. Use the activity series to predict whether a reaction will occur when a metal is added to an aqueous solution of either a metal salt or an acid, and write the balanced molecular and net ionic equations for the reaction. Include adjectives! 1. Aluminum metal is added to nickel II sulfate solution 2. Potassium metal is added to water 3. Zinc metal is added to nickel II sulfate solution 4. Lithium is added to a solution to lead II acetate b. Identify the oxidizing agent and reducing agent in a redox reaction. 1. Cu(s) + Cl 2 (g) CuCl 2 (s) Oxidizing agent Reducing agent 2. 3 Ni(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2Al(s) 3Ni(s) + 2Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) Oxidizing agent Reducing agent 3. 2Na(s) + PbCl 2 (g) 2NaCl (aq) + Pb (s) Oxidizing agent Reducing agent 4. Ni(s) + 4 HClO 3 (aq) Ni(ClO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) + 2 ClO 2 (g) Oxidizing agent Reducing agent 4

5 c. Balance simple redox reactions by the half reaction method. 1. NO 2-1 (aq) + Cr 2 O 7-2 (aq) Cr +3 (aq) + NO 3- (aq) (acidic soln) 2. I 2 (s) + OCl -1 (aq) IO 3-1 (aq) + Cl -1 (aq) (acidic soln) 3. H 2 O 2 + ClO 2 ClO O 2 (basic soln) 5

6 NAME Part 2 Partice Test A Objective 4: Concentrations of Solutions a. Calculate molarity, solution volume, or number of moles, and number of grams of solute given any two of these quantities. INCLUDE UNITS IN PROBLEM AND IN ANSWER. 1. What is the molarity of an ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) solution containing 50.0 g of ethanol in water with a total volume of 250 ml? 2. How many grams of chloric acid are contained in 750 ml of a M solution? 3. What is the molarity of Na + ions in a 0.75 M sodium sulfate solution? 4. What is the molarity of a magnesium sulfate dihydrate solution containing 7.25 g of the solid salt in enough water to make a total volume of 750 ml? 5. How many grams of aluminum chloride are contained in 500 ml of a 0.25 M aqueous solution? 6. What is the molarity of barium ions in a 10.0 M barium phosphate solution? b. Calculate the volume of a more concentrated solution that must be diluted to obtain a given quantity of a more dilute solution. 1. What is the molarity of a solution of NaOH formed by diluting 500 ml of a 5.0 M NaOH solution to 1 liter? 6

7 2. How many milliliters of 12.0 M sulfuric acid are needed to prepare 500 ml of 0.01M sulfuric acid solution? 3. What is the molarity of a solution of NaOH formed by diluting 300 ml of a 0.25 M NaOH solution to 1800 ml? 4. How many milliliters of 5.0 M sulfuric acid are needed to prepare 50 ml of 0.15 M sulfuric acid solution? Objective 5: Solution Stoichiometry a. Calculate the volume or mass of a solution required to react with a volume or mass of a different solution using molarity and the stoichiometry of the reaction. 1. How many liters of M HClO 3 (aq) are needed to react completely with 75 ml of a 0.15 M Al(NO 3 ) 3 (aq)? 2. What mass of lithium chloride is needed to precipitate the silver ions from 50 ml of M silver nitrate solution? 3. How many milliliters of M mercury II acetate solution are needed to react completely with 150 ml of a 1.50 M aluminum bromide solution? 7

8 4. What mass of magnesium bromide is needed to precipitate the lead IV ions from 500 ml of M Lead IV nitrate solution? b. Calculate the concentration or mass of solute in a sample from titration data. 1. In the laboratory 10.0 g of barium nitrate is dissolved in enough water to form 0.50 L. A L sample is withdrawn from this stock solution and titrated with a M solution of sodium sulfate. What volume of sodium sulfate solution is needed to precipitate the entire barium ion ion? 2. If 7.25 ml of acetic acid needs 75.2 ml of M Ba(OH) 2 to reach the equivalence point in a titration, how many grams of acetic acid are in a 500 ml sample? 3. In the laboratory g of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate is dissolved in enough water to form 750 ml. A L sample is withdrawn from this stock solution and titrated with a M solution of sodium phosphate. What volume of sodium phosphate solution is needed to precipitate the entire copper (II) ion? 8

9 4. A sample of solid sodium hydroxide is stirred in water at 30 C until the solution contains as much dissolved sodium hydroxide as it can hold. A 100 ml sample of this solution is withdrawn and titrated with 0.55 M hydroiodic acid. It requires 75.0 ml of the acid solution for neutralization. What is the molarity of the sodium hydroxide solution? What is the solubility of sodium hydroxide in water, at 30 C in grams of sodium hydroxide per 100 ml of solution? (work from problem above) Objective 6: Distributed Practice 1. Combustion analysis of toluene, a common organic solvent, gives 5.86 mg of CO 2 and 1.37 mg of water. If the compound contains only carbon and hydrogen, what is its empirical formula? 2. Caffeine, a stimulant found in coffee, contains 49.5% carbon, 5.15% hydrogen, 28.9% nitrogen, and 16.5% oxygen by mass and has a molar mass of about 195 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? 3. How many grams of copper II sulfate can form when 25 g of copper II chloride and 35 g sulfuric acid are allowed to react? 9

10 4. How many grams of lithium hydroxide form when 50 g of lithium and 70 g water are allowed to react? 5. When benzene (C 6 H 6 ) reacts with bromine (Br 2 ), bromobenzene (C 6 H 5 Br) and Hydrobromic acid (HBr) are produced. What is the theoretical yield of bromobenzene in this reaction when 50.0 g of benzene reacts with 75 g of bromine? If the actual yield of bromobenzene was 56.7 g, what was the percentage yield? 6. The decomposition of potassium chlorate is commonly used to prepare small amounts of oxygen gas in the laboratory. How many grams of oxygen can be prepared from 25.5 grams of potassium chlorate? What is the percent yield if your actual yield generated 1.50 g of oxygen gas? 10

11 Integrative exercise. 1. The arsenic in a 5.22 g sample of a pesticide was converted to AsO 4-3 by suitable chemical treatment. It was then titrated using Hg +2 to form Hg 3( AsO 4 ) 2 as a precipitate. i. What is the oxidation state of As in AsO 4-3? ii. Name Hg 3( AsO 4 ) 2 by analogy to the corresponding compound containing phosphorus in place of arsenic. iii. If it took ml of M Hg +2 to reach the equivalence point in this titration, what is the mass percentage of arsenic in the pesticide? 2. The mass percentage of chloride ion in a 25 ml sample of seawater was determined by titrating the sample with silver nitrate, precipitating silver chloride. It took ml of M silver nitrate to reach the equivalence point in the titration. What is the mass percentage of chloride ion in the seawater if its density if g/ml? 11

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