Chapter 7 The American Revolution

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1 Chapter 7 The American Revolution Essential Question: How was it possible that American Patriots gained their independence from the powerful British Empire? 1

2 Section 1 The Early Years of the War 2

3 Americans Divided 3

4 Americans Divided American society was divided over the issue of separating from Britain. 3

5 Americans Divided American society was divided over the issue of separating from Britain. About 20-30% of Americans were loyalists, 40-45% were Patriots, and the rest were neutral 3

6 Americans Divided American society was divided over the issue of separating from Britain. About 20-30% of Americans were loyalists, 40-45% were Patriots, and the rest were neutral New England and Virginia had many Patriots 3

7 4

8 Loyalists were numerous in cities, New York State, and the South 4

9 Loyalists were numerous in cities, New York State, and the South Judges, councilors, governors, clergy, and some Quakers were active Loyalists. 4

10 Loyalists were numerous in cities, New York State, and the South Judges, councilors, governors, clergy, and some Quakers were active Loyalists. Many Quakers were also pacifists (people opposed to all war) 4

11 Loyalists were numerous in cities, New York State, and the South Judges, councilors, governors, clergy, and some Quakers were active Loyalists. Many Quakers were also pacifists (people opposed to all war) Patriots drew support from Congregationalists, Presbyterians, and Baptists 4

12 5

13 Many Southern states did not allow slaves to enlist for fear of revolt 5

14 Many Southern states did not allow slaves to enlist for fear of revolt The British offered enslaved people their freedom if they joined the British forces 5

15 Many Southern states did not allow slaves to enlist for fear of revolt The British offered enslaved people their freedom if they joined the British forces Many slaves ran away to fight for the British, but there were about 5,000 African Americans that served in the Continental Army in the North 5

16 6

17 All Native Americans east of the Mississippi were caught up in the Revolution, making it the largest Indian war in American history 6

18 All Native Americans east of the Mississippi were caught up in the Revolution, making it the largest Indian war in American history Native Americans were split between the British and the colonists. 6

19 Preparing for War 7

20 Preparing for War In June, 1775, Congress named George Washington as commander of the Continental Army 7

21 Preparing for War In June, 1775, Congress named George Washington as commander of the Continental Army Initially, the army was made up militia from the various states. They were untrained, part-time, and were not truly prepared for war. 7

22 8

23 At the start of the war, Congress only asked men to enlist for one year, and when the soldier s time was up, they went home 8

24 At the start of the war, Congress only asked men to enlist for one year, and when the soldier s time was up, they went home As a result, Washington never had more than 17,000 men in his army, and it was never a consistent group of men 8

25 At the start of the war, Congress only asked men to enlist for one year, and when the soldier s time was up, they went home As a result, Washington never had more than 17,000 men in his army, and it was never a consistent group of men Soldiers also lacked blankets, food, and sometimes even guns and ammunition 8

26 9

27 Women helped the army by stepping in to cook, do laundry, and serve as nurses to the sick and wounded 9

28 Women helped the army by stepping in to cook, do laundry, and serve as nurses to the sick and wounded Some women disguised themselves so they could help in the fight. 9

29 Women helped the army by stepping in to cook, do laundry, and serve as nurses to the sick and wounded Some women disguised themselves so they could help in the fight. Other women helped by managing farms and businesses while men were off fighting 9

30 10

31 Many British thought the Americans were so disorganized that they would be easily defeated 10

32 Many British thought the Americans were so disorganized that they would be easily defeated The British army had troubles of their own. For personal and political reasons, many British officers refused to fight the Americans, and others simply did not support the war, so they had trouble finding soldiers 10

33 Many British thought the Americans were so disorganized that they would be easily defeated The British army had troubles of their own. For personal and political reasons, many British officers refused to fight the Americans, and others simply did not support the war, so they had trouble finding soldiers British soldiers signed up for life, which discouraged enlistment 10

34 11

35 Because of these problems, the British had to hire mercenaries (professional soldiers hired to fight for a foreign country) 11

36 Because of these problems, the British had to hire mercenaries (professional soldiers hired to fight for a foreign country) The British mercenaries were called Hessians because many came from the German region of Hesse 11

37 War in the Middle States 12

38 War in the Middle States In July 1776, Britain s General Howe arrived in New york with a large army 12

39 War in the Middle States In July 1776, Britain s General Howe arrived in New york with a large army Americans were defeated at the Battle of Long Island 12

40 War in the Middle States In July 1776, Britain s General Howe arrived in New york with a large army Americans were defeated at the Battle of Long Island The fight to control New York went on for months, until Washington was forced to retreat through New Jersey 12

41 13

42 After the retreat from New York, the American army suffered from low spirits. Washington knew he needed to attack the British quickly before most of his soldiers enlistments expired on 12/31 13

43 After the retreat from New York, the American army suffered from low spirits. Washington knew he needed to attack the British quickly before most of his soldiers enlistments expired on 12/31 Late on 12/25/1776, Washington s troops crossed the Delaware into NJ and marched into Trenton to surprise the Hessians 13

44 14

45 The Americans captured or killed more than 900 Hessians and gained needed supplies 14

46 The Americans captured or killed more than 900 Hessians and gained needed supplies They won another victory 8 days later in Princeton. 14

47 The Americans captured or killed more than 900 Hessians and gained needed supplies They won another victory 8 days later in Princeton. These victories proved Washington was better than many had thought and the army began to attract new recruits 14

48 Britain s Northern Strategy 15

49 Britain s Northern Strategy The British began pursuing a strategy to take over the Hudson River valley to cut off New England from all other states 15

50 Britain s Northern Strategy The British began pursuing a strategy to take over the Hudson River valley to cut off New England from all other states The British believed New England was the source of all rebellion 15

51 16

52 The plan was for Gen. John Burgoyne to lead a force south from Canada, while Lt. Col. Barry St. Leger would come down the Mohawk valley and Gen. Howe would follow the Hudson north from NYC 16

53 The plan was for Gen. John Burgoyne to lead a force south from Canada, while Lt. Col. Barry St. Leger would come down the Mohawk valley and Gen. Howe would follow the Hudson north from NYC Burgoyne was known for throwing elaborate parties after victories, but the Americans made it difficult for him to be victorious. 16

54 17

55 They would cut down trees to slow him down, burn crops and drive away cattle, leaving no food, and Burgoyne realized that they were not just fighting an army, but a nation. 17

56 They would cut down trees to slow him down, burn crops and drive away cattle, leaving no food, and Burgoyne realized that they were not just fighting an army, but a nation. Burgoyne was counting on the rendezvous with Howe, only to find out Howe had changed his plan and was going to attempt to take over Philadelphia. This left Burgoyne short on soldiers. 17

57 18

58 While Burgoyne realized he could no longer rely on Howe, he was not yet aware that St. Leger was having a difficult time reaching Albany. 18

59 While Burgoyne realized he could no longer rely on Howe, he was not yet aware that St. Leger was having a difficult time reaching Albany. In August 1777, Benedict Arnold led an army up the Mohawk River. 18

60 While Burgoyne realized he could no longer rely on Howe, he was not yet aware that St. Leger was having a difficult time reaching Albany. In August 1777, Benedict Arnold led an army up the Mohawk River. Arnold sent a captured Loyalist and some Iroquois to spread the word that he had a large army, and with this rumor, the British retreated to Fort Oswego, leaving no one to meet Burgoyne 18

61 Saratoga: A Turning Point 19

62 Saratoga: A Turning Point Burgoyne s army was running out of supplies, yet his army continued south 19

63 Saratoga: A Turning Point Burgoyne s army was running out of supplies, yet his army continued south American Gen. Horatio Gates blocked Burgoyne from entering into Saratoga, NY, where earthen walls had been built up 19

64 20

65 Burgoyne still attempted to attack. Benedict Arnold charged the British, trying to stop them from gaining ground, and on 10/7, Burgoyne was forced to retreat. 20

66 Burgoyne still attempted to attack. Benedict Arnold charged the British, trying to stop them from gaining ground, and on 10/7, Burgoyne was forced to retreat. The Battles of Saratoga include the series of conflicts that led to Burgoyne s surrender 20

67 Burgoyne still attempted to attack. Benedict Arnold charged the British, trying to stop them from gaining ground, and on 10/7, Burgoyne was forced to retreat. The Battles of Saratoga include the series of conflicts that led to Burgoyne s surrender The victory at Saratoga was a turning point because it prevented the British from dividing the states and isolating New England 20

68 21

69 It also showed the world that the Americans may actually win their battle for independence, which persuaded some European nations, who were already hostile toward Britain, to help the colonists. 21

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