INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH CARE SERVICES UTILISATION IN OECD COUNTRIES

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH CARE SERVICES UTILISATION IN OECD COUNTRIES"

Transcription

1 INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH CARE SERVICES UTILISATION IN OECD COUNTRIES Marion Devaux, OECD Health Division 2014 QICSS International Conference on Social Policy and Health Inequalities, Montreal, 9-May

2 Background (1/2) Policy objectives: reduction of inequalities in health status and equal access to health care based on need Equality and equity in health care use: Inequity: inequalities remaining after adjusting for needs for health care 2

3 Background (2/2) Evidence for inequity in health care use, especially for specialist and dentist visits, but less clear-cut for GP visits. Internatinal studies around the years 2000 (van Doorslaer & Masseria, 2004; Or et al., 2008; Bago d Uva et al., 2008), but no recent update. Evidence for inequality in preventive care Two studies aimed at gauging inequalities (Cervical cancer screening: McKinnon et al., 2011; European countries: Carrieri & Wubker, 2012) 3

4 Objective of the study 1. To update earlier results on inequity in health care use (van Doorslaer and Masseria, 2004) to extend the analysis to new preventive care services and to new OECD countries. 2. To examine inequalities in conjunction with health systems characteristics (with focus on financial barriers) 4

5 Methods Measuring inequities by income level in doctor visits by adjusting for differences in people s need for health care. Horizontal equity principle Measuring income-related inequalities in dentist visits and breast and cervical cancer screening. Concentration index to measure the degree of inequality/inequity. 5

6 Data Latest national health survey data for 19 OECD countries Doctor visits in the past 12 months Dentist visits Breast & cervical cancer screening Needs for health care Individual characteristics Income level of the household. 19 OECD countries Austria (EHIS 2006/7) Belgium (EHIS 2008) Canada 2007/08 Czech republic (EHIS 2008) Denmark 2005 Estonia (EHIS 2006/7) Finland 2009 France 2008 Germany 2009 Hungary( EHIS 2009) Ireland 2007 New Zealand Poland (EHIS 2009) Slovak republic (EHIS 2009) Slovenia (EHIS 2007) Spain 2009 Switzerland 2007 United Kingdom 2009 United States

7 GP visits in the past 12 months France Belgium New Zealand Austria Canada Slovak Republic Spain Hungary United Kingdom Ireland Czech Republic Poland Slovenia Estonia Switzerland Finland Denmark* Need-adjusted probability of a GP visit in last 12 months by income quintile (age 16-85) Lowest income quintile (*) in past 3 months in Denmark Average Highest income quintile Rates of GP visits in the past 12 months Small variations across income groups. Before need-adjustment, low-income people are more likely to see a GP in 13 of 17 countries. After need-adjustment, low-income people are as likely as high-income people to see a GP (in 8 of 17 countries). Once they go to visit a GP, low-income people are more likely to consult more often. Source: OECD Health Working Paper No 58. Devaux and de Looper,

8 Specialist visits in the past 12 months Large variations across income groups, low-income people being less likely to see a specialist in all countries. Need-adjusted probability of a specialist visit in last 12 months by income quintile (age 16-85) Hungary Czech Republic France Canada Slovak Republic Spain Switzerland Belgium Poland Estonia Slovenia United Kingdom Finland New Zealand Denmark* Lowest income quintile Average Highest income quintile (*) in past 3 months in Denmark Rates of specialist visits in the past 12 months Source: OECD Health Working Paper No 58. Devaux and de Looper,

9 Inequity Index in GP and Specialist visits Inequity in GP visits Inequity in Specialist visits Pro-rich inequity Pro-rich inequity Pro-poor inequity (*) in past 3 months in Denmark Source: OECD Health Working Paper No 58. Devaux and de Looper,

10 Dentist visits in the past 12 months Czech Republic United Kingdom Slovak Republic Switzerland Canada Austria Finland Belgium Slovenia Ireland New Zealand Estonia Spain United States Poland Hungary Probability of a dentist visit in last 12 months by income quintile (age 16-85) Lowest income quintile Average Highest income quintile People with higher incomes are also more likely to visit a dentist Main reasons = Financial barriers Dental care not -or only partly- reimbursed under health insurance plans France* Denmark** Rates of dentist visits in the past 12 months (*) France past 24 months; (**)Denmark past 3 months. Source: OECD Health Working Paper No 58. Devaux and de Looper,

11 Pro-rich inequality in cancer screening United States Austria Spain Slovenia Canada New Zealand France Poland Denmark Belgium Czech Republic Hungary Slovak Republic United Kingdom Switzerland Estonia Ireland* Probability of cervical cancer screening in last 3 years by income quintile (age 20-69) Lowest income quintile Average Highest income quintile Rates of cervical cancer screening in the past 3 years (*) Ireland: in past 12 months Source: OECD Health Working Paper No 58. In countries with cancer screening programmes, services are made available to all at little or no cost Despite this, uptake varies among socioeconomic groups Often, geographic reasons such travelling distance or availability of screening facilities create many barriers Lower levels of awareness of programmes, symptoms or risks, especially among women with low incomes or from minority groups 11

12 Comparison with earlier findings Country ranking remained rather stable Size of inequality remained very stable for doctor and GP visits. Some discrepancies found for specialist (Finland) and dentist visits (Finland and Spain) mainly due to differences in survey methodology and wording of questions. 12

13 Inequality index (CI) Inequity index (HI) Inequity index (HI) Comparison with earlier findings Panel A. GP visits: probability Panel B. Specialist visits: probability project Van Doorslaer & Masseria (2004) 2011 project Van Doorslaer & Masseria (2004) 0.2 Panel C. Dentist visits: probability project Van Doorslaer & Masseria (2004) 13

14 Which health system features characterise countries with lower levels of inequity? Organisation of health systems Financing of health care services Cultural and information barriers 14

15 Gatekeeping system --Preliminary data- Required Primary care physicians referral to access secondary care Required Denmark, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Incentives No requirement, no incentive Czech Republic, Register with a primary care physician Incentives Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Belgium, France, Switzerland No requirement, no incentive Canada, Chile, United Kingdom Mexico Austria, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Israel, Japan, Korea Source: OECD Health System Characteristics Survey 2012 and Secretariat s estimates. 15

16 Acute Inpatient Czech Rep. Out-patient primary care Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Outpatient specialist care Pharmaceuticals Ireland Israel Italy Japon Korea Clinical Lab Tests Diagnostic Imaging Physiothe rapy Eye products Dental care Dental prosthesis Level of coverage for different types of care --Preliminary data-- Australia Austria Belgium Canada Chile Czech Rep. Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Iceland Ireland Israel Italy Japan 100% 99-95% 94-85% 84-65% 64-40% 40-0% Note: coverage for an adult not subject to any exceptions Source: OECD Health System Characteristics Survey 2012 and Secretariat s estimates

17 Cost-sharing arrangements --Preliminary data- Country Cost-sharing arrage me nts, 2012 Austria Mostly free at the point of use for contracted physicians Be lgium Per-visit co-payments for outpatient care Canada Free at the point of care Cze ch Re public Per-visit co-payments for outpatient care E stonia n.a. F inland Per-visit co-payments for outpatient care F rance Per-visit co-payments for outpatient care Germany Free at the point of care H ungary Per-visit co-payments for outpatient care Ire land Free for medical card holders (40% of pop) and full cost for nonmedical card holders. New Zealand Cost-sharing for outpatient primary care, no cost-sharing for specialist care Poland Free at the point of care Slovak Re public n.a. Slove nia Cost-sharing Spain Free at the point of care Switze rland Cost-sharing after general deductible United Kingdom Free at the point of care USA n.a. Source: OECD Health System Characteristics Survey 2012 and Secretariat s estimates 17

18 Health system features likely associated with larger inequalities Universal health coverage not achieved Large share of private financing and out-ofpocket payments Care not free at the point of delivery No gatekeeping system Mostly private provision of health care Non-existence of public screening programmes 18

19 Inequity in specialist visits Inequality in dental visits Out-of-pocket payments (OOP) A greater share of OOP is associated with greater inequity in specialist and dental care. Weak correlation possibly because countries with high OOP have introduced measures to offset the negative effects on access Belgium Canada Estonia Poland Hungary Spain R² = Belgium Finland Spain Poland Switzerland Slovenia R² = France Austria Czech Republic Finland Slovak Republic New Zealand 0 Slovenia Hungary Czech Republic Out-of-pocket payment as % of total expenditure on specialist care Out-of-pocket payment as % of total dental expenditure Source: OECD Health Working Paper No

20 Concluding remarks Update of previous work Inequities in health care utilisation persist across OECD countries For the same level of needs, the better-off are more likely to visit doctors - especially specialists and dentists - than those with lower incomes. Need for strengthening equity 20

21 Possible policy actions to strengthen equal access to care Reducing financial barriers Targeting population the most at risk (exemptions) Increasing coverage (e.g. dental and eye care) Trade-off with budgetary constraints Reducing non-financial barriers Geographic distribution of services Social dimension (education level, ethnic and language) 21

22 Thank you Contact: Read more about our work Follow us on Website: Newsletter:

UTILISATION IN OECD COUNTRIES

UTILISATION IN OECD COUNTRIES INEQUALITIES IN HEALTH CARE UTILISATION IN OECD COUNTRIES Marion Devaux, OECD Health Division EU Expert Group Meeting on Social Determinants and Health Inequalities, 21-Jan-2013 1 Equity OECD framework

More information

Cancer Care: Chart Set.

Cancer Care: Chart Set. Cancer Care: Chart Set www.oecd.org/health/health-systems/cancer-care.htm 110 123 129 120 130 146 143 138 144 164 167 163 156 163 162 166 156 149 172 172 175 166 167 179 182 173 138 187 189 178 192 186

More information

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates

relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates Gini Coefficient The Gini Coefficient is a measure of income inequality which is based on data relating to household s disposable income. A Gini Coefficient of zero indicates perfect income equality, whereas

More information

6 Social Welfare Payments

6 Social Welfare Payments 6 Social Welfare Payments Indicator 6.1 Indicator 6.2 Unemployment Benefits Compared to Earnings (OECD countries) Unemployment Benefits Compared to Earnings in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

More information

Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison

Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison Expenditure and Outputs in the Irish Health System: A Cross Country Comparison Paul Redmond Overview This document analyzes expenditure and outputs in the Irish health system and compares Ireland to other

More information

Waiting times and other barriers to health care access

Waiting times and other barriers to health care access Dr. Frank Niehaus Wissenschaftliches Institut der PKV (Scientific Research Institute of the Association of German Private Health Insurers) Waiting times and other barriers to health care access 31.8 %

More information

Cross-country comparison of health care system efficiency

Cross-country comparison of health care system efficiency Cross-country comparison of health care system efficiency Isabelle Joumard, OECD, Economics Department IMF conference, June 21, 2011 Public Health Care Reforms: Challenges and Lessons for Advanced and

More information

TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division

TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS. Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division TOWARDS PUBLIC PROCUREMENT KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS Paulo Magina Public Sector Integrity Division 10 th Public Procurement Knowledge Exchange Platform Istanbul, May 2014 The Organization for Economic

More information

Private Health insurance in the OECD

Private Health insurance in the OECD Private Health insurance in the OECD Benefits and costs for individuals and health systems Francesca Colombo, OECD AES, Madrid, 26-28 May 2003 http://www.oecd.org/health 1 Outline Background, method Overview

More information

Private Health insurance in the OECD

Private Health insurance in the OECD Private Health insurance in the OECD Benefits and costs for individuals and health systems Francesca Colombo, OECD AES, Madrid, 26-28 May 2004 http://www.oecd.org/health 1 Outline Q Background, method

More information

Health Care Systems: Efficiency and Policy Settings

Health Care Systems: Efficiency and Policy Settings Health Care Systems: Efficiency and Policy Settings Summary in English People in OECD countries are healthier than ever before, as shown by longer life expectancy and lower mortality for diseases such

More information

Survey on Strategic Human Resource Management

Survey on Strategic Human Resource Management Survey on Strategic Human Resource Management in Central Governments of OECD countries (2010) Preliminary Results Paris, 07 November 2011 Cornelia Lercher Main focus: Background and Aim of the Survey Scope

More information

How many students study abroad and where do they go?

How many students study abroad and where do they go? From: Education at a Glance 2012 Highlights Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eag_highlights-2012-en How many students study abroad and where do they go? Please cite this chapter

More information

Preventing fraud and corruption in public procurement

Preventing fraud and corruption in public procurement Preventing fraud and corruption in public procurement CRIM, European Parliament 24 September 2012 Brussels János Bertók Head of division Public Sector Integrity OECD Data on trends in procurement Size

More information

OECD Countries Local Government Fiscal Context [DRAFT ] Hal Wolman and Diana Hincapie, George Washington Institute of Public Policy

OECD Countries Local Government Fiscal Context [DRAFT ] Hal Wolman and Diana Hincapie, George Washington Institute of Public Policy OECD Countries Local Government Fiscal Context [DRAFT 1-29-133-31-14] Hal Wolman and Diana Hincapie, George Washington Institute of Public Policy Below we present a contextual overview of local government

More information

Delegation in human resource management

Delegation in human resource management From: Government at a Glance 2009 Access the complete publication at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264075061-en Delegation in human resource management Please cite this chapter as: OECD (2009), Delegation

More information

Higher education institutions as places to integrate individual lifelong learning strategies

Higher education institutions as places to integrate individual lifelong learning strategies Higher education institutions as places to integrate individual lifelong learning strategies Andrzej Krasniewski Warsaw University of Technology Bologna Expert QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORKS AS INSTRUMENTS

More information

What Is the Total Public Spending on Education?

What Is the Total Public Spending on Education? What Is the Total Public Spending on Education? Indicator On average, OECD countries devote 12.9% of total public expenditure to, but values for individual countries range from less than 10% in the Czech

More information

What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education?

What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education? Indicator What Proportion of National Wealth Is Spent on Education? In 2008, OECD countries spent 6.1% of their collective GDP on al institutions and this proportion exceeds 7.0% in Chile, Denmark, Iceland,

More information

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools (OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools SPOTLIGHT REPORT: NETHERLANDS www.oecd.org/edu/equity This spotlight report draws upon the OECD report Equity

More information

With data up to: May 2016. Monthly Electricity Statistics

With data up to: May 2016. Monthly Electricity Statistics With data up to: 216 Monthly Electricity Statistics Date of publication: 12 ust 216 Monthly Electricity Statistics TABLE OF CONTENTS Page # HIGHLIGHTS i ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL TABLES OECD Total 1

More information

On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent?

On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent? Indicator On What Resources and Services Is Education Funding Spent? In primary, secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary education combined, current accounts for an average of 92% of total spending in

More information

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50.

41 T Korea, Rep. 52.3. 42 T Netherlands 51.4. 43 T Japan 51.1. 44 E Bulgaria 51.1. 45 T Argentina 50.8. 46 T Czech Republic 50.4. 47 T Greece 50. Overall Results Climate Change Performance Index 2012 Table 1 Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 1* Rank Country Score** Partial Score Tendency Trend Level Policy 21 - Egypt***

More information

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools (OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools SPOTLIGHT REPORT: SPAIN www.oecd.org/edu/equity This spotlight report draws upon the OECD report Equity and Quality

More information

Trends in Digitally-Enabled Trade in Services. by Maria Borga and Jennifer Koncz-Bruner

Trends in Digitally-Enabled Trade in Services. by Maria Borga and Jennifer Koncz-Bruner Trends in Digitally-Enabled Trade in Services by Maria Borga and Jennifer Koncz-Bruner Digitally-enabled are those for which digital information and communications technologies (ICT) play an important

More information

A Comparison of the Tax Burden on Labor in the OECD

A Comparison of the Tax Burden on Labor in the OECD FISCAL FACT July 2015 No. 475 A Comparison of the Tax Burden on Labor in the OECD By Sam Jordan & Kyle Pomerleau Research Assistant Economist Key Findings Average wage earners in the United States face

More information

The U.S Health Care Paradox: How Spending More is Getting Us Less

The U.S Health Care Paradox: How Spending More is Getting Us Less The U.S Health Care Paradox: How Spending More is Getting Us Less Elizabeth H. Bradley Yale School of Public Health Lauren A. Taylor Harvard Divinity School 1 The paradox Then there's the problem of rising

More information

Expenditure on Health Care in the UK: A Review of the Issues

Expenditure on Health Care in the UK: A Review of the Issues Expenditure on Health Care in the UK: A Review of the Issues Carol Propper Department of Economics and CMPO, University of Bristol NIERC 25 April 2001 1 Expenditure on health care in the UK: The facts

More information

Reporting practices for domestic and total debt securities

Reporting practices for domestic and total debt securities Last updated: 4 September 2015 Reporting practices for domestic and total debt securities While the BIS debt securities statistics are in principle harmonised with the recommendations in the Handbook on

More information

A Comparison of the Tax Burden on Labor in the OECD By Kyle Pomerleau

A Comparison of the Tax Burden on Labor in the OECD By Kyle Pomerleau FISCAL FACT Jun. 2014 No. 434 A Comparison of the Tax Burden on Labor in the OECD By Kyle Pomerleau Economist Key Findings Average wage earners in the United States face two major taxes: the individual

More information

Going for Growth: Structural Surveillance in the OECD

Going for Growth: Structural Surveillance in the OECD Going for Growth: Structural Surveillance in the OECD OECD World Bank Conference on Innovation and Sustainable Growth in a Globalised World, Paris, 18-19 November 2008 Sven Blondal Sven Blondal, Economics

More information

THE ORGANISATION AND FINANCING OF HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN LATVIA

THE ORGANISATION AND FINANCING OF HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN LATVIA THE ORGANISATION AND FINANCING OF HEALTH CARE SYSTEM IN LATVIA Eriks Mikitis Ministry of Health of the Republic of Latvia Department of Health Care Director General facts, financial resources Ministry

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS HIGHLIGHTS. ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL TABLES OECD Total 1 OECD Americas 2 OECD Asia Oceania 3 OECD Europe 4 IEA Total 5

TABLE OF CONTENTS HIGHLIGHTS. ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL TABLES OECD Total 1 OECD Americas 2 OECD Asia Oceania 3 OECD Europe 4 IEA Total 5 tember Date of publication: 15 ember 216 Monthly Electricity Statistics TABLE OF CONTENTS Page # HIGHLIGHTS i ORGANISATIONAL AND REGIONAL TABLES OECD Total 1 OECD Americas 2 OECD Asia Oceania 3 OECD Europe

More information

Civil service pension schemes. Options for reform

Civil service pension schemes. Options for reform Civil service pension schemes Options for reform World Bank Core Course on Pensions Washington, DC, March, 2014 Agenda Institutional arrangements for public-sector workers pensions Demographic pressures

More information

Chile. Czech Republic

Chile. Czech Republic FIVE FAMILY FACTS AUSTRALIA... 2 AUSTRIA... 2 BELGIUM... 3 CANADA... 3 CHILE... 4 CZECH REPUBLIC... 4 DENMARK... 5 ESTONIA... 5 FINLAND... 6 FRANCE... 6 GERMANY... 7 GREECE... 7 HUNGARY... 8 ICELAND...

More information

FDI IN FIGURES. April 2013

FDI IN FIGURES. April 2013 97 98 99 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 12 97 98 99 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11 12 p p FDI IN FIGURES April 213 According to preliminary estimates, global FDI flows have declined in 212 by 14% from 211 to USD 1.4 trillion

More information

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools

(OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools (OECD, 2012) Equity and Quality in Education: Supporting Disadvantaged Students and Schools SPOTLIGHT REPORT: AUSTRIA www.oecd.org/edu/equity This spotlight report draws upon the OECD report Equity and

More information

Insurance corporations and pension funds in OECD countries

Insurance corporations and pension funds in OECD countries Insurance corporations and pension funds in OECD countries Massimo COLETTA (Bank of Italy) Belén ZINNI (OECD) UNECE, Expert Group on National Accounts, Geneva - 3 May 2012 Outline Motivations Insurance

More information

How Many Students Finish Tertiary Education?

How Many Students Finish Tertiary Education? Indicator How Many Students Finish Tertiary Education? Based on current patterns of graduation, it is estimated that an average of 46% of today s women and 31% of today s men in OECD countries will complete

More information

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN BRITAIN AND GERMANY: TOWARDS CONVERGENCE?

HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN BRITAIN AND GERMANY: TOWARDS CONVERGENCE? HEALTH CARE DELIVERY IN BRITAIN AND GERMANY: TOWARDS CONVERGENCE? Background: Two different health care systems Generally speaking, the British and the German health care systems differ not only with respect

More information

Eliminating Double Taxation through Corporate Integration

Eliminating Double Taxation through Corporate Integration FISCAL FACT Feb. 2015 No. 453 Eliminating Double Taxation through Corporate Integration By Kyle Pomerleau Economist Key Findings The United States tax code places a double-tax on corporate income with

More information

SWECARE FOUNDATION. Uniting the Swedish health care sector for increased international competitiveness

SWECARE FOUNDATION. Uniting the Swedish health care sector for increased international competitiveness SWECARE FOUNDATION Uniting the Swedish health care sector for increased international competitiveness SWEDEN IN BRIEF Population: approx. 9 800 000 (2015) GDP/capita: approx. EUR 43 300 (2015) Unemployment

More information

VULNERABILITY OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS

VULNERABILITY OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS VULNERABILITY OF SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS 2 December 2014 Paris Seminar in Demographic Economics Falilou FALL Senior Economist OECD Economics Department 1 Introduction and outline Social institutions and the

More information

Health Care a Public or Private Good?

Health Care a Public or Private Good? Health Care a Public or Private Good? Keith Schenone December 09, 2012 Economics & Institutions MGMT 7730-SIK Thesis Health care should be treated as a public good because it is not an ordinary commodity

More information

OBESITY AND THE ECONOMICS OF PREVENTION: FIT NOT FAT

OBESITY AND THE ECONOMICS OF PREVENTION: FIT NOT FAT Rate of overweight OBESITY AND THE ECONOMICS OF PREVENTION: FIT NOT FAT KEY FACTS MEXICO, UPDATE 14 A. ADULTS 1. More than 70% of adults are overweight in Mexico, a higher proportion than in any other

More information

Internationalization and higher education policy: Recent developments in Finland

Internationalization and higher education policy: Recent developments in Finland Internationalization and higher education policy: Recent developments in Finland Seminar on Cooperation between Russian and Finnish Institutions of Higher Education St Petersburg 5.-7.2.2008. Rector Anneli

More information

LATVIA S PENSION SYSTEM: CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS. Monika Queisser Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD

LATVIA S PENSION SYSTEM: CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS. Monika Queisser Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD LATVIA S PENSION SYSTEM: CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE PROSPECTS Monika Queisser Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs, OECD Demographic challenges Major demographic trends in Latvia Declining

More information

PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA. Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D Economist, Montreal economic Institute CPBI, Winnipeg June 15, 2007

PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA. Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D Economist, Montreal economic Institute CPBI, Winnipeg June 15, 2007 PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D Economist, Montreal economic Institute CPBI, Winnipeg June 15, 2007 Possible private contribution Possible private contribution in the health

More information

Income-Related Inequalities in Health Service Utilisation in 19 OECD Countries, 2008-2009

Income-Related Inequalities in Health Service Utilisation in 19 OECD Countries, 2008-2009 Please cite this paper as: Devaux, M. and M. de Looper (2012), Income-Related Inequalities in Health Service Utilisation in 19 OECD Countries, 2008-2009, OECD Health Working Papers, No. 58, OECD Publishing.

More information

Review of R&D Tax Credit. Invitation for Submissions

Review of R&D Tax Credit. Invitation for Submissions Review of R&D Credit invitation for submissions Review of R&D Credit Invitation for Submissions February 2013 Economic and Fiscal Divisions Department of Finance Government Buildings, Upper Merrion Street,

More information

Foreign Taxes Paid and Foreign Source Income INTECH Global Income Managed Volatility Fund

Foreign Taxes Paid and Foreign Source Income INTECH Global Income Managed Volatility Fund Income INTECH Global Income Managed Volatility Fund Australia 0.0066 0.0375 Austria 0.0045 0.0014 Belgium 0.0461 0.0138 Bermuda 0.0000 0.0059 Canada 0.0919 0.0275 Cayman Islands 0.0000 0.0044 China 0.0000

More information

World Consumer Income and Expenditure Patterns

World Consumer Income and Expenditure Patterns World Consumer Income and Expenditure Patterns 2014 14th edi tion Euromonitor International Ltd. 60-61 Britton Street, EC1M 5UX TableTypeID: 30010; ITtableID: 22914 Income Algeria Income Algeria Income

More information

- 2 - Chart 2. Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates, 2010-2011

- 2 - Chart 2. Annual percent change in hourly compensation costs in manufacturing and exchange rates, 2010-2011 For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Wednesday, December 19, 2012 USDL-12-2460 Technical Information: (202) 691-5654 ilchelp@bls.gov www.bls.gov/ilc Media Contact: (202) 691-5902 PressOffice@bls.gov INTERNATIONAL

More information

Hong Kong s Health Spending 1989 to 2033

Hong Kong s Health Spending 1989 to 2033 Hong Kong s Health Spending 1989 to 2033 Gabriel M Leung School of Public Health The University of Hong Kong What are Domestic Health Accounts? Methodology used to determine a territory s health expenditure

More information

PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS

PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY WORKERS Australia Permanent worker: Permanent workers are employees with paid leave entitlements in jobs or work contracts of unlimited duration, including regular workers whose

More information

Government at a Glance 2015

Government at a Glance 2015 Government at a Glance 2015 Size of public procurement Strategic public procurement E-procurement Central purchasing bodies 135 Size of public procurement Public procurement refers to the purchase by governments

More information

PF3.2: Enrolment in childcare and pre-schools

PF3.2: Enrolment in childcare and pre-schools Definitions and methodology PF3.2: Enrolment in childcare and pre-schools The organisation of childcare provision differs greatly from country to country (see PF4.1). The enrolment rates presented here

More information

Education at a Glance. OECD Indicators. Annex: UOE Data Collection Sources

Education at a Glance. OECD Indicators. Annex: UOE Data Collection Sources Education at a Glance OECD Indicators Annex: UOE Data Collection Sources UOE DATA COLLECTION National Sources 2013 UNESCO/OECD/EUROSTAT (UOE) data collection on education statistics. Australia: The Commonwealth

More information

4/17/2015. Health Insurance. The Framework. The importance of health care. the role of government, and reasons for the costs increase

4/17/2015. Health Insurance. The Framework. The importance of health care. the role of government, and reasons for the costs increase Health Insurance PhD. Anto Bajo Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Zagreb The Framework The importance of healthcare, the role of government, and reasons for the costs increase Financing

More information

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ICTS

SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ICTS SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF THE ICTS Evidence from the on-going work of the OECD Dr. Andrea de Panizza Dr. Piotr Stryszowski The views expressed are those of the author in his private capacity and do not

More information

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT 2 OECD RECOMMENDATION OF THE COUNCIL ON THE PROTECTION OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT The OECD is a unique forum where the governments of

More information

Health Care Systems: An International Comparison. Strategic Policy and Research Intergovernmental Affairs May 2001

Health Care Systems: An International Comparison. Strategic Policy and Research Intergovernmental Affairs May 2001 Health Care Systems: An International Comparison Strategic Policy and Research Intergovernmental Affairs May 21 1 Most industrialized countries have established hybrid systems in which the public sector,

More information

CO1.2: Life expectancy at birth

CO1.2: Life expectancy at birth Definitions and methodology CO1.2: at birth at birth is the average number of years a newborn can expect to live if he or she experienced the age-specific mortality rates prevalent in a particular year.

More information

Number of retail outlets Number of retail outlets

Number of retail outlets Number of retail outlets Number 65708 of retail outlets Number of retail outlets Number of retail outlets Trends in total number of retail outlets 2002-2007 number / as stated number per million Table 2.3 % growth inhabitants

More information

Tax reform: Overview. Common elements. E.g., National Commission Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. E.g., Camp/Enzi. Eliminate tax preferences

Tax reform: Overview. Common elements. E.g., National Commission Fiscal Responsibility and Reform. E.g., Camp/Enzi. Eliminate tax preferences Tax reform: Overview Common elements Eliminate tax preferences Lower rates E.g., National Commission Fiscal Responsibility and Reform Individual rates: 8/14/23%; corporate rate: 26% Tax capital gains and

More information

32 nd National Conference on Law & Higher Education

32 nd National Conference on Law & Higher Education 32 nd National Conference on Law & Higher Education Improving the Quality of Student Learning Improving the quality of student learning and the level of degree attainment through common degree requirements

More information

STATISTICS FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY AND TRADE

STATISTICS FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY AND TRADE STATISTICS FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY AND TRADE Möbel Zahlen Daten STATISTICS FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY AND TRADE 01/36 Economical growth in the regions of the world-economy Changes of the gross domestic

More information

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF HOURLY COMPENSATION COSTS

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS OF HOURLY COMPENSATION COSTS For release 10:00 a.m. (EST) Tuesday, March 8, 2011 USDL-11-0303 Technical Information: (202) 691-5654 ilchelp@bls.gov www.bls.gov/ilc Media Contact: (202) 691-5902 PressOffice@bls.gov INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS

More information

Exchange Rate Effects of a Potential Brexit on German-UK Bilateral Trade. What to expect 11/2016. Current report

Exchange Rate Effects of a Potential Brexit on German-UK Bilateral Trade. What to expect 11/2016. Current report Current report Exchange Rate Effects of a Potential Brexit on German-UK Bilateral Trade 11/2016 What to expect In this report we look at German-UK bilateral trade in goods and estimate the shortrun sensitivity

More information

THE LOW INTEREST RATE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON INSURANCE MARKETS. Mamiko Yokoi-Arai

THE LOW INTEREST RATE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON INSURANCE MARKETS. Mamiko Yokoi-Arai THE LOW INTEREST RATE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS IMPACT ON INSURANCE MARKETS Mamiko Yokoi-Arai Current macro economic environment is of Low interest rate Low inflation and nominal wage growth Slow growth Demographic

More information

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings

Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Appendix 1: Full Country Rankings Below please find the complete rankings of all 75 markets considered in the analysis. Rankings are broken into overall rankings and subsector rankings. Overall Renewable

More information

PUBLIC & PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA

PUBLIC & PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA PUBLIC & PRIVATE HEALTH CARE IN CANADA by Norma Kozhaya, Ph.D. Economist, Montreal Economic Institute before the Canadian Pension & Benefits Institute Winnipeg - June 15, 2007 Possible private contribution

More information

The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Hillsdale College

The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Hillsdale College Real Ways to Drive Down Healthcare Costs Scott E. Harrington The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania www.scottharringtonphd.com com Free Market Forum Hillsdale College October 1, 2010 Outline The

More information

Early Childhood Education and Care

Early Childhood Education and Care Early Childhood Education and Care Participation in education by three- and four-year-olds tends now to be high, though coverage is a third or less of the age group in several OECD countries. Early childhood

More information

Policy Brief. Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use Economics and Public Health Policy. Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs.

Policy Brief. Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use Economics and Public Health Policy. Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs. Policy Brief Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use Economics and Public Health Policy May 2015 Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs OECD s new flagship report examines the economic and public health

More information

Approaching health system financing policy decisions: objectives, instruments and the sustainability dilemma

Approaching health system financing policy decisions: objectives, instruments and the sustainability dilemma Approaching health system financing policy decisions: objectives, instruments and the sustainability dilemma Health Systems Financing Programme Division of Country Health Systems Tamás Evetovits Senior

More information

Public Sector Pensions An Overview Hazel Bateman Centre for Pensions and Superannuation Australian School of Business, UNSW

Public Sector Pensions An Overview Hazel Bateman Centre for Pensions and Superannuation Australian School of Business, UNSW Public Sector Pensions An Overview Hazel Bateman Centre for Pensions and Superannuation Australian School of Business, UNSW October 2011 Outline Background and stylised facts Public sector pensions across

More information

International comparisons of obesity prevalence

International comparisons of obesity prevalence International comparisons of obesity prevalence June 2009 International Comparisons of Obesity Prevalence Executive Summary Obesity prevalence among adults and children has been increasing in most developed

More information

What Are the Incentives to Invest in Education?

What Are the Incentives to Invest in Education? Indicator What Are the Incentives to Invest in Education? On average across 25 OECD countries, the total return (net present value), both private and public, to a man who successfully completes upper secondary

More information

Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC)

Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Encouraging Quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON: JOB TITLES, QUALIFICATIONS AND REQUIREMENTS Findings Job titles and qualifications Five job types are commonly

More information

2011 ICT Facts and Figures

2011 ICT Facts and Figures The World in 211 ICT Facts and Figures One third of the world s population is online 45% of Internet users below the age of 25 Share of Internet users in the total population Users, developed Using Internet:

More information

Creating the Future of Public Education: Graduation Requirements in New York State. NYS Board of Regents Regional Forum

Creating the Future of Public Education: Graduation Requirements in New York State. NYS Board of Regents Regional Forum Creating the Future of Public Education: Graduation Requirements in New York State NYS Board of Regents Regional Forum 2011 1 60 Why Do We Need To Change? % 70 U.S. college graduation rates have stagnated

More information

Social insurance, private insurance and social protection. The example of health care systems in some OECD countries

Social insurance, private insurance and social protection. The example of health care systems in some OECD countries Social insurance, private insurance and social protection. The example of health care systems in some OECD countries References OECD publications on Health care Swiss Re publications Sigma No 6/2007 on

More information

Health and welfare Humanities and arts Social sciences, bussiness and law. Ireland. Portugal. Denmark. Spain. New Zealand. Argentina 1.

Health and welfare Humanities and arts Social sciences, bussiness and law. Ireland. Portugal. Denmark. Spain. New Zealand. Argentina 1. Indicator to Which fields of education are students attracted? Women represent the majority of students and graduates in almost all OECD countries and largely dominate in the fields of education, health

More information

Development aid in 2015 continues to grow despite costs for in-donor refugees

Development aid in 2015 continues to grow despite costs for in-donor refugees OECD Paris, 13 April 2016 Development aid in 2015 continues to grow despite costs for in-donor refugees 2015 Preliminary ODA Figures In 2015, net official development assistance (ODA) flows from member

More information

SF3.1: Marriage and divorce rates

SF3.1: Marriage and divorce rates Marriage rates Definitions and methodology SF3.1: Marriage and divorce rates The crude marriage rate is the number of marriages formed each year as a ratio to 1 000 people. This measure disregards other

More information

Broadband Mapping 2013

Broadband Mapping 2013 Broadband Mapping 2013 Broadband Mapping 2013 Summary Publisher: The Danish Business Authority A full Danish edition can be downloaded from the website of the Danish Business Authority: www.erst.dk BROADBAND

More information

IMPROVING DENTAL CARE AND ORAL HEALTH A CALL TO ACTION EVIDENCE RESOURCE PACK

IMPROVING DENTAL CARE AND ORAL HEALTH A CALL TO ACTION EVIDENCE RESOURCE PACK IMPROVING DENTAL CARE AND ORAL HEALTH A CALL TO ACTION EVIDENCE RESOURCE PACK NHS England Dental Analytical Team February 14 Gateway reference: 01173 Introduction to this pack This data pack has been produced

More information

Health Care Reform in Korea: Key Challenges

Health Care Reform in Korea: Key Challenges Health Care Reform in Korea: Key Challenges IMF Conference October 3, 2011 Soonman KWON, Ph.D. Professor of Health Economics & Policy Sh School of fpbli Public Health Seoul National University, South Korea

More information

Determining OAS and GIS eligibility for people who come to Canada as adults

Determining OAS and GIS eligibility for people who come to Canada as adults Determining OAS and GIS eligibility for people who come to Canada as adults 2OAS and GIS eligibility Determining OAS and GIS eligibility for people who come to Canada as adults Are you close to age 65,

More information

HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS: GETTING MORE VALUE FOR MONEY

HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS: GETTING MORE VALUE FOR MONEY Please cite this paper as: OECD 2010, Health care systems: Getting more value for money, OECD Economics Department Policy Notes, No. 2. ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT POLICY NOTE No. 2 HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS: GETTING

More information

Private health care cost containment and supply-side regulation. CMS presentation to the Health Portfolio Committee 2014

Private health care cost containment and supply-side regulation. CMS presentation to the Health Portfolio Committee 2014 1 Private health care cost containment and supply-side regulation CMS presentation to the Health Portfolio Committee 2014 2 Contents Introduction Private hospital context Economic considerations Concentration

More information

HIP POCKET PAIN IS HITTING AUSTRALIANS HARD

HIP POCKET PAIN IS HITTING AUSTRALIANS HARD MEDIA RELEASE - EMBARGOED AND NOT FOR USE UNTIL MONDAY APRIL 29TH, 2013 HIP POCKET PAIN IS HITTING AUSTRALIANS HARD New Consumers Health Forum (CHF) campaign reveals Australia has among the highest out

More information

Monthly Gas Statistics

Monthly Gas Statistics 42491 With data up to: May 2016 Monthly Gas Statistics Next Release: 13 September 2016 Next Release: 13 September 2016 Date of publication: 11 August 2016 TABLE OF CONTENTS Charts 1 Gross consumption of

More information

What Is the Student-Teacher Ratio and How Big

What Is the Student-Teacher Ratio and How Big What Is the Student-Teacher Ratio and How Big Are Classes? The average class in primary education in OECD countries has more than 21 students. Among all countries with available data, this number varies

More information

Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2015: Different Developments

Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2015: Different Developments January 20, 2015 ShadEcEurope31_January2015.doc Size and Development of the Shadow Economy of 31 European and 5 other OECD Countries from 2003 to 2015: Different Developments by Friedrich Schneider *)

More information

Culture Change in the Workforce in an Aging America: Are We Making Any Progress?

Culture Change in the Workforce in an Aging America: Are We Making Any Progress? Culture Change in the Workforce in an Aging America: Are We Making Any Progress? Anne Montgomery Center for Elder Care and Advanced Illness Anne.Montgomery@altarum.org Altarum Institute integrates independent

More information

Indicator B1 How much is spent per student?

Indicator B1 How much is spent per student? Education at a Glance 2014 OECD indicators 2014 Education at a Glance 2014: OECD Indicators For more information on Education at a Glance 2014 and to access the full set of Indicators, visit www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm.

More information

Judicial performance and its determinants: a cross-country perspective

Judicial performance and its determinants: a cross-country perspective No. 05 JUNE 2013 Judicial performance and its determinants: a cross-country perspective A GOING FOR GROWTH REPORT Box 1. Description of the data The data used in this study come primarily from three

More information