Valence Electrons: Compound Formulas - Ionic. Ionic. Definition

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1 Compound Formulas - Ionic Ionic 1 Valence Electrons: ELECTRONS AVAILABLE FOR BONDING 2 Definition Valence electrons are electrons in the outmost shell (energy level). They are the electrons available for bonding. 3

2 Group 1 (alkali metals) have 1 valence electron 4 Group 2 (alkaline earth metals) have 2 valence electrons 5 Group 13 elements have 3 valence electrons 6

3 Group 14 elements have 4 valence electrons 7 Group 15 elements have 5 valence electrons 8 Group 16 elements have 6 valence electrons 9

4 Group 17 (halogens) have 7 valence electrons 10 Group 18 (Noble gases) have 8 valence electrons, except helium, which has only 2 11 Transition metals ( d block) have 1 or 2 valence electrons 12

5 Lanthanides and actinides ( f block) have 1 or 2 valence electrons 13 Dot Notations An atom s valence electrons can be represented by Lewis dot notations. 1 valence e - 2 valence e - 3 valence e - 4 valence e - X X X X 5 valence e - 6 valence e - 7 valence e - 8 valence e - X X X X 14 Dot Notations Period 2 Lewis dot notations for the valence electrons of the elements of Period 2. lithium Li beryllium Be boron B carbon C nitrogen N oxygen O fluorine F neon Ne 15

6 Ionic Bonding 16 Bonds Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Ionic bonds transfer of electrons Covalent bonds sharing of electrons 17 The Octet Rule Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds form so that each atom, by gaining or losing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level. Metals lose electrons to form positively-charged cations Nonmetals gains electrons to form negativelycharged anions 18

7 Ionic Bonding: Sodium has 1 valence electron Chlorine has 7 valence electrons An electron transferred gives each an octet Na: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 1 Cl: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 19 Ionic Bonding: This transfer forms ions, each with an octet: Na + 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Cl - 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 20 Ionic Bonding 21

8 Ionic Bonding: The Formation of Sodium Chloride The resulting ions come together due to electrostatic attraction (opposites attract): Na + Cl - The net charge on the compound must equal zero 22 Sodium Chloride Crystal Lattice Ionic compounds form solid crystals at ordinary temperatures. Ionic compounds organize in a characteristic crystal lattice of alternating positive and negative ions. All salts are ionic compounds and form crystals. 23 Ions Cation: A positive ion Mg 2+, NH 4 + Anion: A negative ion Cl, SO

9 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 1: Lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions H + Li + Na + K + 25 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 2: Loses 2 electrons to form 2+ ions Be 2+ Mg 2+ Ca 2+ Sr 2+ Ba Predicting Ionic Charges B 3+ Al 3+ Ga 3+ Group 13: Loses 3 electrons to form 3+ ions 27

10 Predicting Ionic Charges Neither! Group 13 elements rarely form ions. Group 14: Lose 4 electrons or gain 4 electrons? 28 Predicting Ionic Charges N 3- P 3- As 3- Nitride Phosphide Arsenide Group 15: Gains 3 electrons to form 3- ions 29 Predicting Ionic Charges O 2- S 2- Se 2- Oxide Sulfide Selenide Group 16:Gains 2 electrons to form 2- ions 30

11 Predicting Ionic Charges F 1- Cl 1- Br 1- I 1- Fluoride Chloride Bromide Iodide Group 17:Gains 1 electron to form 1- ions 31 Predicting Ionic Charges Group 18: Stable Noble gases do not form ions! 32 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - Many 12: transition elements have more than one possible oxidation state. Iron(II) = Fe 2+ Iron(III) = Fe 3+ 33

12 Predicting Ionic Charges Groups 3 - Some 12: transition elements have only one possible oxidation state. Zinc = Zn 2+ Silver = Ag + 34 Metal Monatomic Ion name Lithium Cations Li + Lithium Sodium Na + Sodium Potassium K + Potassium Magnesium Mg 2+ Magnesium Calcium Ca 2+ Calcium Barium Ba 2+ Barium Aluminum Al 3+ Aluminum 35 Nonmetal Monatomic Ion Name Fluorine F - Anions Fluoride Chlorine Cl - Chloride Bromine Br - Bromide Iodine I - Iodide Oxygen O 2- Oxide Sulfur S 2- Sulfide Nitrogen N 3- Nitride Phosphorus P 3- Phosphide 36

13 Examples of Ionic compounds Mg 2+ Cl - 2 Na + 2 O2- Al 3+ 2 S2-3 Magnesium chloride: Magnesium loses two electrons and each chlorine gains one electron Sodium oxide: Each sodium loses one electron and the oxygen gains two electrons Aluminum sulfide: Each aluminum loses two electrons (six total) and each sulfur gains two electrons (six total) 37 Properties of Ionic Compounds Structure: Melting point: Boiling Point: Electrical Conductivity: Solubility in water: Crystalline solids Generally high Generally high Excellent conductors, molten and aqueous Generally soluble 38 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Barium nitrate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Ba 2+ - ( NO 3 ) 2 Not balanced! 39

14 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Ammonium sulfate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. + ( NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 2- Not balanced! 40 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Iron(III) chloride 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Fe 3+ Cl - 3 Not balanced! 41 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum sulfide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Al 3+ S Not balanced! 42

15 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Magnesium carbonate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. Mg 2+ CO 3 2- They are balanced! 43 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Zinc hydroxide 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. 3. Balance charges, if necessary, using subscripts. Use parentheses if you need more than one of a polyatomic ion. Zn 2+ ( OH - ) 2 Not balanced! 44 Writing Ionic Compound Formulas Example: Aluminum phosphate 1. Write the formulas for the cation and anion, including CHARGES! 2. Check to see if charges are balanced. Al 3+ PO 4 3- They ARE balanced! 45

16 Naming Ionic Compounds Cation first, then anion Monatomic cation = name of the element Ca 2+ = calcium ion Monatomic anion = root + -ide Cl = chloride CaCl 2 = calcium chloride 46 Naming Ionic Compounds (continued) Metals with multiple oxidation states some metal forms more than one cation use Roman numeral in name PbCl 2 Pb 2+ is cation PbCl 2 = lead(ii) chloride 47

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