1 Bluepilling the Xen Hypervisor Joanna Rutkowska & Alexander Tereshkin Invisible Things Lab Black Hat USA 2008, August 7th, Las Vegas, NV
2 Xen 0wning Trilogy Part Three
3 Previously on Xen 0wning Trilogy...
4 Part 1: Subverting the Xen Hypervisor by Rafal Wojtczuk (Invisible Things Lab) Hypervisor attacks via DMA TG3 network card manual attack Generic attack using disk controller Xen Loadable Modules framework :) Hypervisor backdooring DR backdoor Foreign backdoor
5 Part II: Detecting and Preventing the Xen Hypervisor Subversions by Rafal Wojtczuk & Joanna Rutkowska Latest Xen security features How they fail: Q35 exploit How they fail: FLASK exploit The need for hypervisor integrity checks! Introducing HyperGuard!
6 Now, in this part...
7 1 Nested virtualization ( Matrix inside Matrix ) 2 BluePillBoot 3 XenBP: Bluepilling the Xen hypervisor on the fly! 4 Bluepilled Xen detection
21 Hypervisors expect to have GIF=1 when VMEXIT occurs... They might not be prepared to handle interrupts just after VMEXIT from guests!... but when we resume the nested hypervisor CPU sets GIF=1, because we do this via VMRUN, not VMEXIT...
22 Getting around the GIF Problem We need to emulate that GIF is 0 for the nested hypervisor We stop this emulation when: The nested hypervisor executes STGI The nested hypervisor executes VMRUN How do we emulate it?
23 GIF0 emulation VMCB 1.V_INTR_MASKING = 1 Host s RFLAGS.IF = 0 Intercept NMI, SMI, INIT, #DB and held (i.e. record and reinject) or discard until we stop the emulation
24 Additional details Need to also intercept VMLOAD/VMSAVE Need to virtualize VM_HSAVE_PA ASID conflicts
25 Hypervisor: ASID = 0 Conflicting ASIDs! Nested Hypervisor: ASID = 1 (but thinks that has ASID = 0) Nested Guest: ASID = 1 (assigned by the nested hypervisor)
26 But we can always reassign the ASID in the VMCB prim that we use to run the nested guest.
27 Performance Impact One additional #VMEXIT on every #VMEXIT that would occur in a nonnested scenario One additional #VMEXIT when the nested hypervisor executes: STGI, CLGI, VMLOAD, VMSAVE Lots of space for optimization though
28 Intel VT-x
29 Nested virtualization on VT-x No GIF bit - no need to emulate GIF0 for the nested hypervisor :) No Tagged TLB - No ASID conflicts :) However: VMX instructions can take memory operands - need to use complex operand parser No tagged TLB - potentially bigger performance impact
30 Nested VT-x: Status We have that working! The VT-x nesting code cannot be published though :(
31 Who else does Nested (hardware-based) Virtualization?
32 IBM z/vm hypervisor on IBM System z mainframe Running z/vm in a virtual machine (that is, z/vm as a guest of z/vm, also known as second-level z/vm) is functionally supported but is intended only for testing purposes for the secondlevel z/vm system and its guests (called third-level guests). -- hcsf8b22.pdf IBM System z10, source: ibm.com
51 We allocate a block of memory for XBP inside Xen hypervisor -- this memory is used for both the XBP s code and data and heap
52 Demo: Bluepilling the Xen on the fly...
54 On Xen 3.3 we need to use Q35 exploit instead of direct hdd (see the talk #2)
55 Bluepilled Xen: Detection
56 Detecting a VMM is now not enough...
57 ... as we know there is already one VMM in the system already (i.e. the Xen)...
58 We can only try direct timing analysis to see if #VMEXITs will take longer time to execute... (then on non-bluepilled Xen)
59 Impact on PV domains
60 BluePill hypervisor #GP, not #VMEXIT! ring 3 PV domains #GP VMRUN Dom0 We don t need to intercept anything besides VMRUN (and optionally VMLOAD, VMSAVE, STGI, CLGI) -- all those instructions cause #GP when executed in PV guests (including Dom0)
61 On AMD! 0 On Intel we have obligatory intercepts (CPUID, INVD, MOV CR3).
62 Impact on HVM domains
63 HVM domains: impact on #vmexit time (RDMSR intercept on AMD) kcycles Full Nested Virtualization - VMCB rewriting - CLGI/STGI interception - VMLOAD/ VMSAVE interception Native Xen (baseline)
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