Data Networks Introduction Part 2-B NEN Layer 2 Technologies. Presented by, Jack Crowder - CCIE

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1 Data Networks Introduction Part 2-B NEN Layer 2 Technologies Presented by, Jack Crowder - CCIE

2 Agenda OSI Model review Layer 1 Connectivity: T1 Digital Subscriber Line Layer 2 Concepts review PVC and Oversubscription Layer 2 Switching Technologies Frame-Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode 2

3 OSI Model Layers 7 Application 6 5 Presentation Session Application Upper (within a system) Transport Network Data Link Physical Network Media Lower (between systems) 3

4 L1/L2 dependencies L2 Frame Relay DLCI HDLC PPP ph #, nonstnd PPP SDSL IDSL AAL5 SNAP ADSL HDLC AAL 1/2 VPI/VCI ARPA MAC SNAP CSMA/CD L1 T1: B8ZS, ESF (ft1, CT1, PRI) T3: c-bit, M13 (CT3, HSSI) 2B1Q G.DMT G.lite SONET OC-3 ATM DS-3, OC-3 10/100/1000 base 2,5,T,F ethernet 4

5 NEN Product Model 5

6 T1 (DS1) 24 Channels (DS0 s) Each channel 64Kbps (x 24 = Mbps) Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) Types: Channelized or Non-channelized Full or Fractional Layer 2 Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) 1 or more provisioned on [Non]Channelized Concerns: Oversubscription (a.k.a. playing the odds )* * Every service provider does it 6

7 24 Channels

8 Digital Subscriber Line Capabilities Last Mile ONLY! Frame-Relay or ATM out the back end *NO* PVC provisioning CURRENTLY Many flavors Based on Bandwidth needs last mile distance: environmental factors, cross-talk Installed equipment (DSL Access Multiplexer) Types ADSL: Asymmetric SDSL: Symmetric HDSL: High-bit-rate IDSL: ISDN 8

9 DSL Flavors ADSL: Asymmetric (based on ATM technology) Up to 8Mbps download / Up to 1Mbps upload 8000 ft ft. Supports data and analog phone line in same circuit SDSL: Symmetric Up to 2.3Mbps up and down 9500 ft ft. HDSL: High-bit-rate* Alternative to HDLC-T Mbps) IDSL: ISDN-DSL Up to ft. * Uses 4-wire (2 pair) instead of other flavors of DSL that use just 1 pair. 9

10 NEN Product Model 10

11 Layer 2 - Switching Defines Layer 2 Virtual Circuits (P or S - VC) Addressing: MAC (Ethernet) DLCI (Frame Relay) VPI/VCI (ATM) End-points: Layer 3 devices (routers) Interworking (bridging): Translation between different Layer 2 devices (i.e. FDDI and Ethernet, ATM and Frame Relay, ADSL and Ethernet) Security: Virtual Private Network (VPN) 11

12 Virtual Circuits Router Router ATM Router DSLAM Frame Relay Router Physical Virtual (Logical) 12

13 Frame-Relay Addressing: DLCI (Data Link Connection Identifier) Local to [CPE s physical] interface No global numbering capabilities Capabilities: Permanent Virtual Circuits (PVC) Reroute of PVC s on physical links Congestion control: FECN & BECN QoS: prioritize PVC Terms: User-Network-Interface, Network-to-Network-Interface Committed Information Rate (CIR) & Burst 13

14 Asynchronous Transfer Mode Addressing Globally capable never used Virtual Path Id & Virtual Circuit Id (VPI/VCI) Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) Capabilities Virtual Circuits: Permanent and Switched Bit Rate: CBR, VBR (RT & NRT), ABR, UBR QoS Reroute of PVC s on physical links Terms: User-Network-Interface, Network-to-Network-Interface Committed Information Rate (CIR) & Burst 14

15 ATM QoS Comparison Committed Bit Rate (CBR) Voice Variable Bit Rate (VBR) Real-Time (RT) for Video Non-Real-Time (NRT) for Frame-Relay Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) Best Effort Available Bit Rate (ABR) Better Best Effort 15

16 ATM QoS Comparison Bandwidth High - Priority - Low UBR - Unspecified Bit Rate ABR - Available Bit Rate VBR - Variable Bit Rate RT - Video NRT - Frame-Relay CBR - Committed Bit Rate Voice Time 16

17 End-to-End Connectivity Example Customer Ethernet (LAN) CSU/DSU ATM SONET Router MODEM DSLAM Frame Relay ATM Customer Ethernet (LAN) CSU/DSU ATM SONET Router PVC MODEM DSLAM Frame Relay ATM 17

18 L 7 L 3 L 2 L 1 Ethernet L 1 IW LAN - Users - Apps Router WAN WAN IP Subnet PVC Router WAN L 1 IW LAN IP Subnet - Content - L 1 Ethernet #VALUE! L 1 T 1, Wireless, OC-x Fiber, Copper 18

19 7 6 5 Application Presentation Session Customer Application RT/NRT, Secure, QoS Retail (PoS) back-office apps Internet connectivity 4 3 Transport Network NewEdge PVC, QoS, IP address / subnet LAN to LAN (i.e. WAN) connectivity 2 1 Data Link Physical Carrier access, PVC, QoS UNE, C.O., backbone fiber 19

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