Chapter 2 Exam. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

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1 Class: Date: Chapter 2 Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons of an atom a. are found in the nucleus along with the protons. b. occupy the space surrounding the nucleus. c. are attached to the positive charge of neutrons. d. have a positive charge. 2. The shape of a protein is primarily determined by a. the type and sequence of its amino acids. b. its cell location. c. its size. d. None of the above 3. Which statement correctly describes how carbons s ability to form four bonds makes it uniquely suited to form macromolecules? a. It forms short, simple carbon chains c. It forms covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. b. It forms covalent bonds that can exist in a single plane. d. it forms large, complex, diverse molecules 4. Carbohydrates and proteins are two types of macromolecules. Which functional characteristic of proteins distringuishes them from carbohydrates? a. efficient storage of usable chemical c. ability to catalyze biochemical reactions energy b. large amount of stored information d. tendency to make cell membrances hydrophobic 5. Hydrogen ions, H +, react with hydroxide ions, OH, to form a. an acid. c. water. b. a base. d. None of the above 1

2 Base your answers to questions and on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. 6. Pepsin works best in which type of environment? a. neutral c. basic, only b. acidic, only d. sometimes acidic, sometimes basic 7. Neither enzyme works at a ph of a. 3 c. 13 b. 1 d Long chains of amino acids are found in a. lipids. c. sugars. b. proteins. d. carbohydrates. 2

3 9. What substance could be represented by the letter X in the diagram below? a. carbon dioxide c. carbohydrates b. ozone d. water 10. When organisms break the bonds of organic compounds, the organisms can a. use the energy obtained to digest molecules produced by respiration that uses oxygen b. use the smaller molecules to plug the gaps in the cell membrane to slow diffusion c. excrete smaller amounts of solid waste materials during vigorous exercise d. obtain energy or reassemble the resulting materials to form different compounds 11. An enzyme a. is not used up when catalyzing a reaction. b. lowers the activation energy of a reaction. c. bonds with a substrate molecule at the enzyme s active site. d. All of the above 12. Sharing of electrons in the outer energy levels of two atoms a. is found only among carbon atoms. b. only occurs if both are atoms of the same element. c. occurs in covalent bonds. d. results in ion formation. 13. Water is important to life because it a. influences the shape of the cell membrane. b. surrounds all cells. c. is found inside cells. d. All of the above 3

4 14. Refer to the illustration above. Reaction 3 in the graph a. requires more activation energy than Reaction 2. b. is the same as Reaction 1, but faster. c. is slower than Reaction 2. d. probably occurred in the presence of a catalyst. 15. Refer to the illustration above. Which of the following statements regarding the graph is true? a. Reaction 2 occurs faster than Reaction 3 because Reaction 2 requires more energy than Reaction 3. b. Reactant A contains more energy at the beginning of the reaction than product C has after the reaction. c. The difference between the graphs shown for Reaction 2 and Reaction 3 is because of a difference in the activation energy of these reactions. d. All of the above 16. An enzyme and four different molecules are shown in the diagram below. enzyme would most likely affect reactions involving a. molecules A and C b. molecule A, only c. molecule C, only d. molecules B and D The 4

5 17. The diagram below shows a portion of a graduated cylinder. What is the volume of the liquid in this cylinder? a. 22 ml c. 25 ml b. 24 ml d. 26 ml 18. The graph below shows the effect of temperature on the relative rate of action of enzyme X on a protein. Which change would not affect the relative rate of action of enzyme X? a. the removal of the protein when the reaction is at 30 C b. a decrease in temperature from 40 C to 10 C c. the addition of cold water when the reaction is at 50 C d. an increase in temperature from 70 C to 80 C 19. Polysaccharides are a. unsaturated fats. c. proteins. b. lipids. d. carbohydrates. 5

6 20. A substance that is composed of only one type of atom is called a(n) a. nucleus. c. element. b. cell. d. molecule. 21. Lipids are a. nonpolar molecules. c. water soluble. b. polar molecules. d. similar to water molecules. 22. All of the following are examples of lipids except a. starch. c. earwax. b. cholesterol. d. saturated fats. 23. Carbohydrates and lipids have many carbon-hydrogen bonds; therefore, they both a. are easily dissolved in water. c. dissolve only in vinegar. b. store energy in these bonds. d. exist only in cells of plants. 24. A scientist observes that, when the ph of the environment surrounding an enzyme is changed, the rate the enzyme catalyzes a reaction greatly decreases. Which statement best describes how a change in ph can affect an enzyme? a. A ph change can cause the enzyme to c. A ph change can add new molecules to change its shape. b. A ph change can remove energy necessary to activate an enzyme the structure of the enzyme. d. A ph change can cause an enzyme to react with a different substrate. 25. Substance A is converted to substance B in a metabolic reaction. Which statement best describes the role of an enzyme during this reaction? a. It provides energy to carry out the reaction. c. It speeds up the reaction without being consumed. b. It adjusts the ph of the reaction medium. d. It dissolves substance A in the reaction medium 26. Which of the following is not an organic macromolecule? a. carbohydrate c. nucleic acid b. ice d. lipid 27. A molecule that has a partial positive charge on one side and a partial negative charge on the other side is called a a. nonpolar molecule. c. bipolar molecule. b. polar molecule. d. charged molecule. 28. Ionic bonds form between molecules that have a. the same charge. c. no charges. b. opposite charges. d. neutral charges. 6

7 29. The graph below illustrates the relative amounts of product formed by the action of an enzyme in a solution withe a ph of 6 at seven different temperatures. Which statement best expresses the amount of product that will be formed at each temperature if the experiment is repeated at a ph of 4? a. The amount of product formed will be less than that produced at ph 6. b. The amount of product formed will be equal to that produced at ph 6. c. The amount of product formed can not be accurately predicted. d. The amount of product formed will be greater than that produced at ph 6. Molecule A Molecule B 30. Refer to the illustration above. Molecules like Molecule B are found in a. proteins. c. nucleic acids. b. lipids. d. carbohydrates. 31. Which of the following organic molecules are classified as carbohydrates? a. nucleotides c. amino acids b. sugars d. fatty acids 32. All organic compounds contain the element a. calcium. c. nitrogen. b. sodium. d. carbon. 33. The smallest particle of matter that can retain the chemical properties of carbon is a(n) a. element. c. carbon atom. b. carbon macromolecule. d. carbon molecule. 34. The molecule on which an enzyme acts is called a(n) a. organic molecule. c. active site. b. substrate. d. inactive site. 7

8 35. All matter is composed of a. carbon. c. molecules. b. cells. d. atoms. 36. Water is a polar molecule because a. it contains two hydrogen atoms for each oxygen atom. b. it has a charge. c. different parts of the molecule have slightly different charges. d. it does not have a charge. 37. When placed in the same container, oil and water do not mix because a. water is polar and oil is nonpolar. c. they are both nonpolar. b. water is nonpolar and oil is polar. d. they are both polar. 38. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) stores energy for cells to use in the bonds between its a. phosphates. c. carbon atoms. b. nucleotides. d. amino acids. 39. Which statement best describes an effect of the low density of frozen water in a lake? a. When water in a lake freezes, it floats, providing insulation for organisms below. c. Water removes thermal energy from the land around a lake, causing the lake to freeze. b. When water freezes, it contracts, decreasing the water level in a lake. 40. Which statement concerning simple sugars and amino acids is correct? a. They are both stored as fat molecules in the liver. b. They are both needed for the synthesis of larger molecules. c. They are both building blocks of starch. d. They are both wastes resulting from protein synthesis. d. Water in a lake freezes from the bottom up, killing most of the aquaitc organisms. 41. The two types of nucleic acids are a. lipids and sugars. c. chlorophyll and retinal. b. DNA and RNA. d. glucose and glycogen. 8

9 Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology. Great Effects on the Great Lakes due to Global Warming Trees such as the jack pine, yellow birch, red pine, and white pine may no longer be able to grow in the Great Lakes region because summers are becoming warmer. However, other trees such as black walnut and black cherry may grow in the area, given enough time. The change in weather would favor these new tree species. The Great Lakes region is the only place in the world where the endangered Kirtland s Warbler breeds. This bird species nests in young jack pine trees (5 to 23 years old). The vegetation must have specific characteristics or the birds will not nest. A specific area of Michigan is one of the few preferred areas. If the jack pines can no longer grow in this area, the consequences for the Kirtland s Warbler could be devastating. Recent research findings also suggest that algae production in Lake Ontario and several other Great Lakes will be affected as warmer weather leads to warmer lake water. An increase in water temperature reduces the ability of water to hold dissolved oxygen. These changes have implications for the entire Great Lakes food web. Changes in deep-water oxygen levels and other habitat changes may prevent the more sensitive cold-water fish from occupying their preferred niches in a warmer climate. All other factors being equal, climatic changes may not have a negative effect on every species in the Great Lakes region. This is because the length of the growing season would be increased. Some temperaturesensitive fish could move to cooler, deeper water when the surface water temperatures become too high. The total impact of global warming is difficult to predict. 42. Which graph best shows the relationship between changes in temperature in the Great Lakes waters and the amount of dissolved oxygen those waters can hold? a. 3 c. 1 b. 2 d Due to the polarity of water, compounds that dissolve best in water contain a. nonpolar bonds. c. polar bonds. b. ionic bonds. d. Both (b) and (c) 9

10 Completion Complete each statement. Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology. 44. State how the ph of these Adirondack lakes changed between 1880 and State the effect that the ph change in these Adirondack lakes had on lake trout, brown trout, smallmouth bass, and mussels.. 10

11 Essay 46. Proteins are a major part of every living cell and have many different functions within each cell. Carbohydrates also perform numerous roles in living things. Part A: Describe how the structures of proteins are different to the structures of carbohydrates. Part B: Describe how the structures of proteins are similar to the structures of carbohydrates. Part C: Describe how the functions of proteins differ from the functions of carbohydrates.. 11

12 Chapter 2 Exam Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 4. ANS: C PTS: 1 5. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: P 7. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: P 8. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: CH 10. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: P CH 11. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: III OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 3 REF: CH NOT: I am not 100% I have this right. I say that it is d because if A bound to C then it could change the shape of C, thus also affecting the enzyme because the molecule couldn't bind to it in that form. Right?...I think the answer is b. I don't see how A could bind to C.--JKOJr 17. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: P 18. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: P CH 19. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: ANS: C PTS: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: P CH 30. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ:

13 31. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 REF: CH 41. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: P E OBJ: 8a 43. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: COMPLETION 44. ANS: The ph decreased and the lakes became more acidic. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: P En 8b 45. ANS: The survival rate of all species decreased. PTS: 1 DIF: 2 REF: P En 8b 2

14 ESSAY 46. ANS: Part A: Proteins are polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. There are 20 different amino acids that make up essentially all proteins on earth. Each of these amino acids has a fundamental design composed of a central carbon (also called the alpha carbon) bonded to: a hydrogen a carboxyl group an amino group a unique side chain or R-group Part B: Carbohydrates composed mostly of the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O). The smallest carbohydrates are the simple sugars, also known as monosaccharides and disaccharides, meaning that they are made up of one or two sugar molecules. The larger carbohydrates are made up of these smaller simple sugars and are known as polysaccharides (many sugar molecules) or complex carbohydrates. These are usually made up of many linked glucose molecules Proteins are composed of the elements carbon (C), oxygen (O), hydrogen (H), and nitrogen (n). Proteins are formed by the linking of different combinations of the twenty common amino acids. The structure of proteins is often distinguished into four levels. These are called primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure. Part C: Proteins are essential to growth and repair of muscle and other body tissues. Carbohydrates are our main source of energy PTS: 1 3

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