Unit 6 Learning 7-9%

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Unit 6 Learning 7-9%"

Transcription

1 Unit 6 Learning 7-9%

2 Terms Students Make Mistakes On Unit 6 Role Playing and Learning Social Learning Theory Punishment e.g. quite gambling after loss Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Observation Most critical to learning Conditioned Response Negative Reinforcer Counter Conditioning Classical Conditioning B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Rapid Acquisition take occur immediately Latent Learning Rats wondering through a maze with food at the end Avoidance (Aversion) Training Warning

3 Unit 6 Confusing Pairs Classical Conditioning (involuntary) v. Operant Conditioning (voluntary)

4 Terms Students MUST KNOW for AP Exam Classical Conditioning Conditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Observational Learning Operant Conditioning Shaping Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus Generalization Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Learning Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Punishment Reinforcement Secondary Reinforcement Classical Conditioning Extinction Learned Helplessness Primary Reinforcement Fixed Ratio Law of Effect Variable Interval Schedule Variable Ratio Schedule Fixed Interval Schedule Partial Reinforcement Aversion Therapy Continuous Reinforcement Operant Conditioning Extinction Latent Learning Reflex Cognitive Map Discriminative Stimulus

5 People from Unit 6 You MUST KNOW John Garcia Robert Koelling Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner Edward Thorndike John Watson

6 Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Learning

7 Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience experience (nurture) is the key to learning

8 Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 yrs ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences

9 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Two related events: Stimulus 1 Lightning Stimulus 2 Thunder We learn to associate two stimuli Result after repetition Stimulus We see lightning Response We wince anticipating thunder

10 Operant Conditioning Response: Pushing vending machine button We learn to associate a response and its consequence Consequence: Receiving a candy bar

11 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli lightning and thunder tone and food begins with a reflex a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex

12 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions

13

14 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response. Unconditional Response (UCR): the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS.

15 Neutral Stimulus (NS): an unrelated stimulus that will become the Conditioned Stimulus

16 Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with the UCS, comes to trigger a response. Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.

17 Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today

18 Conditioning Acquisition the initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened in classical conditioning, the phase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

19 Conditioning Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced

20 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Strength of CR Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR Extinction (CS alone) Pause

21 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization tendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar responses

22 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Discrimination The stimuli similar to the CS no longer evokes a CR

23 Learned Taste Aversions When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. Even when food and sickness are hours apart. Food must be salient (noticeable.)

24 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

25 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior complex or voluntary behaviors push button, perform complex task operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning

26 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal

27 Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner ( ) elaborated Thorndike s Law of Effect developed behavioral technology Nurture guy through and through. Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts.

28 Operant Chamber Skinner Box soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a food or water reward contains a device to record responses

29

30 Reinforces A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: The addition of something pleasant. Negative Reinforcement: The removal of something unpleasant.

31 Operant Conditioning

32 Principles of Reinforcement Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus i.e., satisfies a biological need Conditioned / Secondary Reinforcer stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer

33 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement (Shaping) reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction

34 Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) Removal of something pleasant. Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!

35 Punishment Punishment aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior

36 Problems with Punishment Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's suppressed- behavior returns when punishment is no longer eminent Causes increased aggression- shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems- Explains why aggressive delinquents and abusive parents come from abusive homes

37 Problems with Punishment Creates fear that can generalize to desirable behaviors, e.g. fear of school, learned helplessness, depression Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior- reinforcement tells you what to do-- punishment tells you what not to do- Combination of punishment and reward can be more effective than punishment alone Punishment teaches how to avoid it

38 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) = Responses reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay

39 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability

40 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Interval (FI) = Time reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near

41 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz

42 Operant Conditioning Extinction & Generalization Extinction with Operant Conditioning occurs when you ignore the behavior (ignore a crying child when they want a candy bar), or change your response (do not laugh at a student looking for attention). Generalization with Operant Conditioning occurs when you expect a reward or punishment for something similar for the behavior trying to be changed (running away when your parents are proud of you and yell your first and middle name to get your attention).

43 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one s environment Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.

44 Latent Learning

45 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task

46 Operant vs Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning The Response Involuntary, automatic Voluntary, operates on environment Acquisition Associating events; Associating response with a CS announces UCS. Consequence (reinforcer or punisher). Extinction CR decreases when CS is Responding decreases when repeatedly presented alone. reinforcement stops. Cognitive Subjects develop expectation Subjects develop expectation that processes that CS signals the arrival of a response will be reinforced or UCS. Punished; they also exhibit latent learning, without reinforcement Biological Natural predispositions Organisms best learn behaviors predispositions contain what stimuli and similar to their natural behaviors; responses can easily be unnatural behaviors instinctively associated. drift back toward natural ones.

47 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Intrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments

48 Observational Learning Observational Learning learning by observing others Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior What is a Antisocial Behavior?

49 Observational Learning Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll We learn through modeling behavior from others. Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning Theory

50 Observational Learning Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy

51 CC is used in a range of different settings, many of which are concerned with therapeutic benefits. These include: Aversion therapy and systematic desensitisation.

52 Aversion Therapy Warning System When people develop behaviours that are habitual and harmful to themselves or to others, such as substance dependence, it is difficult to help them permanently stop the unwanted behaviour. Aversion therapy is a form of behaviour therapy that applies CC principles to inhibit or discourage undesirable behaviour by associating it with an aversive stimulus. The aim of aversion therapy is to suppress or weaken undesirable behaviour. E.g. to stop unwanted behaviour such as nail biting, we might paint our nails with a foultasting substance. The association between nail biting and the unpleasant taste is learned quickly.

53 When was aversion therapy first used? 1930s to treat alcoholism. Alcoholics were administered painful electric shocks whenever the could smell, see or taste alcohol. Today, nausea-inducing drugs are paired with alcohol consumption to make the alcoholic feel ill. Alcohol (CS) Nausea Drug (UCS) Nausea (UCR) Association becomes so strong that the person beings to anticipate nausea as an inevitable result of consuming alcohol.

54 Limitations of aversion therapy The learned aversion often fails to generalise. This may be due to conditioning being dependent on cues that indicate the aversive stimulus will follow. People may experience the aversion only when they know that the UCS is going to coincide with alcohol consumption.

55 Systematic Desensitisation Developed on the 1950s by psychiatrist Joseph Wolpe, systematic desensitisation is a kind of behaviour therapy that attempts to replace an anxiety or fear response with a relaxation response through a classical conditioning procedure. The client associates being relaxed with the anxiety or fear-arousing stimulus by means of a series of graded steps. Basic principle is that the client is gradually desensitised to anxiety or fear-arousing objects, activities or situations.

56 Wolpe s procedure: 1. Person is taught to relax. 2. Break down the fear arousing situation into a logical sequence of steps (steps are ranked from least to most fearinducing). Case study: fear of flying. Most frightening Experiencing mid air turbulence Taking off Taxiing down the runway Boarding the plane Waiting to get on the plane Travelling to the airport in a car Buying a place ticket. Least frightening

57 Procedure cont Once the steps are ranked, the therapist then teaches the person deep muscle relaxation and asks them to imagine the least frightening scene on the list and so on In the end the person learns to imagine the most frightening scene without becoming afraid. The best results seem to occur using real life desensitisation, such as the therapist sitting in a plane with the person or introducing them to the pilot for reassurance. By allowing the client to confront the phobia under such supportive circumstances, the fear of flying is eventually overcome.

58 Ethical issues in conditioning behaviour All research with human participants must abide by a set of ethical principles and guidelines called the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans. CC research demands particular attention as learning happens passively and a participant might unknowingly and unwillingly acquire new behaviours. Watson and Rayner s research with Little Albert would not be approved by an ethics committee today for various reasons, such as: Beneficence Respect for persons Participant s rights Voluntary participation Confidentiality With a partner, discuss and then outline in your exercise books, why each of the above dot points were not adhered to by Watson and Rayner.

59 One-trial Learning & Taste Aversion A taste-aversion is a conditioned response that results from a person or animal establishing an association between a particular food and being or feeling ill after having consumed it at some time in the past. The association is usually the result of a single experience & the particular food will be avoided in the future. Similar to CC as there is an association between a CS( smell/taste of food) and the UCS (nausea producing substance). This tends to happen with one trial. One-trial learning is a form of learning involving a change in behaviour that occurs with only one experience. Whether one-trial learning is a particular type of CC is still a topic of some debate.

60 CC vs. One-trial learning CC responses usually take a number of associations or pairings to occur & can extinguish relatively quickly. In CC, the CR occurs immediately after the CS is presented. One trial learning is quickly acquired & considerably resistant to extinction (because UCR, feeling sick, is very powerful. In one-trial learning, the CR could occur as much as a day or so after the food (CS) was consumed. *CC and one-trial learning both involve automatic, involuntary responses that are acquired in a passive manner, i.e., the person or animal does not make a deliberate decision to perform a behaviour for an intended outcome.

61 Garcia Effect John Garcia demonstrated that taste aversion is different from standard CC. Garcia and Koelling (1966) accidentally discovered the occurrence of a taste aversion when investigating the effects of radiation on rats. Their findings suggest that animals tend to associate aversive stimuli in certain ways that foster their survival, but do not associate aversive stimuli if these do not threaten their survival. Learned taste aversion based on just one exposure can be very adaptive (i.e. their chance of survival is high).

62 Garcia s 1 st Experiment Thirst rats were allocated to 1 of 2 experimental groups. Both groups offered saccharineflavoured water to drink from a tube. Whenever rats in either group licked the tube, a bright light was flashed and a clicking noise sounded. Later, rats in one group received a painful shock to their feet, while those in the other group received a dose of illnessinducing X-rays. Subsequently, when rats were offered saccharine flavoured water, they refused it. It seemed the rats had been classically conditioned to acquire a taste aversion to saccharine flavoured water. But had the rats learned to avoid all parts of the CS, or just some of them? (CS combo of saccharine flavoured water, bright light and clicking noise).

63 Garcia s 2 nd Experiment Tested same rats under a different condition. The rats were given either saccharineflavoured water that was not paired with either light or noise, OR unflavoured water that was paired with the same light and noise that had been present during the previous condition. Result: rats that had become ill because of the effects of the X-rays avoided the saccharine flavour, but were quite content to drink water accompanied by the same light and noise. In general, results indicate the UCS influenced what the rats had learned.

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Chapter 7 Learning Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence

More information

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience

Learning. Learning. relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience Association *We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years

More information

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience.

Definition Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience. EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers Chapter 7 How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Operant Conditioning Skinner s Experiments Contrasting Classical & Operant Conditioning

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience Classical Conditioning Type of learning where a stimulus gains the power to cause a response The stimulus

More information

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined

Chapter 6. Chapter 6 Preview. What is Learning? Learning defined Learning defined Chapter 6 Learning and Behavior Analysis Chapter 6 Preview The Study of Learning Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals Operant Conditioning: Learning About Consequences

More information

Learning. Classical Conditioning. Neutral stimulus (NS)- a stimulus that does not cause a response. Before Conditioning

Learning. Classical Conditioning. Neutral stimulus (NS)- a stimulus that does not cause a response. Before Conditioning Term Explanation Application/Example/Extension Classical conditioning is a type of learning where a previously neutral stimulus that is continuously paired with an unconditioned stimulus (a natural stimulus

More information

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D.

Chapter Outline. Learning. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Ch. 6 Learning and Behavior General Psychology Jeffrey D. Leitzel, Ph.D. Chapter Outline Types of Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning 2 Learning Learning: Relatively

More information

Visualizing Psychology

Visualizing Psychology Visualizing Psychology by Siri Carpenter & Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter 6: Learning Siri Carpenter, Yale University Karen Huffman, Palomar College Lecture Overview Classical

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 10: Operant & Cognitive Approaches. Module 10. Operant & Cognitive Approaches Module 10 Operant & Cognitive Approaches OPERANT CONDITIONING Thorndike s law of effect states that behaviors followed by positive consequences are strengthened, while behaviors followed by negative consequences

More information

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6

LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING MEYERS AND DEWALL CHAPTER 6 LEARNING OVERVIEW HOW DO WE LEARN? CLASSICAL CONDITIONING OPERANT CONDITIONING BIOLOGY, COGNITION, AND LEARNING LEARNING BY OBSERVATION LEARNING Learning the process

More information

Skinner and Operant Conditioning. Slide One:

Skinner and Operant Conditioning. Slide One: Skinner and Operant Conditioning Slide One: Two characteristics help us distinguish between the two forms of associative learning. As you learned in classical conditioning, the organism learns associations

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter in Review 1. Learning is difficult to define, but most psychologists would agree that: In learning the organism acquires some new knowledge or behavior as a result of experience; learning can

More information

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning

Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter 7 Conditioning and Learning Chapter Summary Definitions Learning is defined as a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience. A stimulus is anything that comes in through your senses.

More information

Test Review Chapter 7

Test Review Chapter 7 Name: Test Review Chapter 7 Period: 1. An unconditioned stimulus: A) becomes a response to the conditioned stimulus. B) causes the conditioning to happen. C) is a previously neutral response that becomes

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning. Module 9. Classical Conditioning Module 9 Classical Conditioning THREE KINDS OF LEARNING 1. Classical conditioning a kind of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the ability to produce a response that was originally produced

More information

Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience

Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience 1 Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience What are some ways that you learn? Seeing Doing Associating Other ways? 3 Unlike some animals we are not necessarily born with a

More information

Operant Conditioning. PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers. Module 22

Operant Conditioning. PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers. Module 22 PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Operant Conditioning Module 22 2 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning

More information

Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg ) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: o Example:

Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg ) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: o Example: Koch AP Psych Unit VI Reading Guide Learning Module 26: How We Learn and Classical Conditioning (pg. 262-274) Learning: What does it mean that we learn by association? Habituation: Associative Learning:

More information

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning

Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Psychology Dr. Saman Lecture 2 - Learning Learning refers to relatively permanent changes in behavior resulting from practice or experience Observation can lead to learning Learning requires an operational

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur.

UNIT 6: LEARNING. 6. When the US is presented prior to a neutral stimulus, conditioning DOES NOT (does/does not) occur. UNIT 6: LEARNING HOW DO WE LEARN? OBJECTIVE 1: Define learning, and identify two forms of learning. 1. A relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience is called LEARNING. 2. More

More information

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment

Welcome to Psychology, The First Assessment Your first assessment task begins here!! Below you will find some reading about an approach in psychology called behaviourism. This is not the only type of psychology that we will consider but it was one

More information

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience.

Slide 1: What is Learning? Learning- a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Slide 1: What is? - a relatively durable change in behavior that is due to experience. Common examples- Language Sports Mastery Social Behavior Reading etc Types of to be studied Observational (Bandura)-

More information

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1

Introduction to Learning. Chapter 1 Introduction to Learning Chapter 1 A Definition of Learning Learning is: An experiential process Resulting in a relatively permanent change Not explained by temporary states, maturation, or innate response

More information

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov

Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? learning Conditioning II. Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli Ivan Pavlov Chapter 5: Learning I. Introduction: What Is Learning? A. Psychologists define learning as a process that produces a relatively enduring change in behavior or knowledge as a result of an individual s experience.

More information

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION

GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 LEARNING REVISION GCSE PSYCHOLOGY UNIT 2 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING LEARNING LEARNING= Is a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience Some behaviours are learnt, but

More information

Chapter 7: Learning. Learning. Learning. PSY 110: General Psychology

Chapter 7: Learning. Learning. Learning. PSY 110: General Psychology Chapter 7: Learning PSY 110: General Psychology Learning Monkeys beginning to wash their food before they eat it The rituals that athletes perform before/during contests Birds learning to flutter their

More information

Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning

Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning PSYC 1001 Page 1 Chapter 6 Phobias: Irrational fears of specific objects or situations, often the result of a type of learning called classical conditioning Learning: A relatively durable change in behaviour

More information

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process.

Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs through experience. It is a continuous process. It is a gradual process. Process of Learning A stimulus could be an event, situation,

More information

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions

Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions Chapter 6 Learning Objectives with SubQuestions #1) Describe Pavlov's demonstration of classical conditioning and the key elements in this form of learning (pp 170 171) What is classical conditioning?

More information

Learning. Learning. Associations 2/2/11. Classical Conditioning

Learning. Learning. Associations 2/2/11. Classical Conditioning Learning Classical Conditioning Learning Any relatively permanent change in the behavior, thoughts, and feelings of an organism Learning differs from reflex Our minds naturally connect events appearing

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning CHAPTER 8 Classical Conditioning 131. A group of ranchers attempts to discourage coyotes from attacking their sheep by placing a substance on the wool of the sheep that makes coyotes violently ill if they

More information

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date

Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice Quiz Name Period Date Chapter 5 CC (Classical Conditioning) Practice "Quiz" Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Conditioned taste aversions

More information

Unit VI: Learning. Ms. Justice AP Psychology

Unit VI: Learning. Ms. Justice AP Psychology Unit VI: Learning Ms. Justice AP Psychology 2014-2015 Unit VI - Overview 26 How We Learn & Classical Conditioning 27 Operant Conditioning 28 Operant Conditioning s Applications, and Comparison to Classical

More information

Section One: Classical Conditioning

Section One: Classical Conditioning Operational Definitions Learning Learning Page 1 of 8 o A relatively change in behavior (or behavior potential) due to Behaviorism experience o Research on learning has been influenced by this approach

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Aneeq Ahmad Henderson State University Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn?

More information

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date

Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date Chapter 5 OC (operant conditioning) quiz practice Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Thorndike was known for his

More information

Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS

Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 Learning LEARNING TARGETS Psychology with Mr. Duez UNIT 3 "Learning" LEARNING TARGETS If you learn only 6 things from this chapter... 1. Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior based on experience. 2. Classical

More information

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience

Learning. Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning Relatively permanent behavior change that is acquired through experience Learning vs Maturation Not all behavior change is best described as learning Maturation (neuromuscular development) usually

More information

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview

CHAPTER TEN. SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism 10/14/08. Personality Psychology. Chapter Overview. Chapter Overview Personality Psychology Psychology 370 Sheila K. Grant, Ph.D. Professor California State University, Northridge CHAPTER TEN SKINNER AND STAATS: The Challenge of Behaviorism Chapter Overview RADICAL BEHAVIORISM:

More information

Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories

Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories Psychology Teach Yourself Series Topic 10: Learning Theories A: Level 14, 474 Flinders Street Melbourne VIC 3000 T: 1300 134 518 W: tssm.com.au E: info@tssm.com.au TSSM 2013 Page 1 of 6 Contents Learning

More information

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229

LEARNING. Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 LEARNING Chapter 6 (Bernstein), pages 194-229 What is LEARNING? LEARNING is the adaptive process through which experience modifies preexisting behavior and understanding; relatively permanent change in

More information

What is learning? - I

What is learning? - I What is learning? - I Learning is a continuous process of interaction between an organism and its environment. Learning involves the perception and processing of information at a number of levels. At a

More information

Learning. Exam 2 Results. Learning. Learning. Definition. Learning. Chapter 8. How Do We Learn? Operant Conditioning. Classical Conditioning

Learning. Exam 2 Results. Learning. Learning. Definition. Learning. Chapter 8. How Do We Learn? Operant Conditioning. Classical Conditioning Exam 2 Results Top Score: 49 Mean: 35.80 Bimodal: 34 and 37 Median: 36 Standard Deviation: 5.81 To calculate your approximate grade, divide 49 by your score. Example: 36/49 = 73.5% = C Chapter 8 1 2 How

More information

Programmed Learning Review

Programmed Learning Review Programmed Learning Review L-HO1-121907 Take another sheet of paper and cover the answers located in the right hand column. Then read through the unit filling in the blanks as you go. After filling in

More information

Learning CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER OUTLINE

Learning CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER OUTLINE CHAPTER 5 Learning CHAPTER OUTLINE Adaptation is adjustment to changes in the environment. The process of development, from birth to death, involves adapting to increasingly complex, ever-changing environments,

More information

Chapter 5. Learning. Outline

Chapter 5. Learning. Outline Chapter 5 Learning Outline I. What Is Learning? A. Learning is demonstrated by a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as the result of practice or experience. 1. Learning cannot be observed

More information

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440

Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 Behavioural Therapy A GUIDE TO COUNSELLING THERAPIES (DVD) Published by: J & S Garrett Pty Ltd ACN 068 751 440 All Case Histories in this text are presented as examples only and any comparison which might

More information

The Behavioral Approach

The Behavioral Approach The Behavioral Approach It s all about observable behavior! In order to understand another person, you must simply understand the consequences he/she experienced during a lifetime. Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner

More information

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION CORE COURSE OF BSc. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY LEARNING AND BEHAVIOUR MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Learning may be defined as a change in behavior that occurs

More information

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning

Outline. General Psychology PSYC 200. Definition. Habituation. Habituation. Classical Conditioning 3/17/2015. Learning /17/015 General Psychology PSYC 00 Outline 0) Definition of Learning 1) Habituation ) Classical Conditioning ) Operant Conditioning Learning Definition Learning = change in behavior or thought as a result

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition, in Modules) David Myers PowerPoint Slides Worth Publishers, 2007 1 Classical Conditioning Module 21 2 Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments

More information

Psychology of Learning

Psychology of Learning Classical Conditioning Pavlov and the Dogs Little Albert UCS UCR Neutral stimulus CS CR Stimulus discrimination Stimulus generalization Extinction Spontaneous recovery Conditioned compensatory response

More information

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES

IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES IMPORTANT BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES BEHAVIOURISTIC THEORIES PAVLOV THORNDIKE SKINNER PAVLOV S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING I. Introduction: Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) was a Russian Physiologist who won Nobel Prize

More information

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice

Learning. Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice. Permanent Experience Practice Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice Permanent Experience Practice Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Russian Physiologist Father= Village Priest Father-in-law=

More information

Learning UNIT 6 UNIT PREVIEW UNIT GUIDE

Learning UNIT 6 UNIT PREVIEW UNIT GUIDE UNIT 6 Learning UNIT PREVIEW Learning helps us adapt to our environment. Pavlov explored classical conditioning, in which we learn to anticipate events, such as being fed or experiencing pain. In his famous

More information

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning

Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Psychology Behavior 01 Notes Classical (Pavlovian) Conditioning Behaviorism is essentially the study of how we learn. Humans are different from many animals in that we possess very little instinct, or

More information

Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego. The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego. The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning Classical Conditioning Notes by Dr. Ilija Gallego The Simplest Type of Learning: Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning Classical conditioning is based on Stimulus > Response A stimulus in anything you can

More information

Learning: Classical Conditioning

Learning: Classical Conditioning Learning: Classical Conditioning Outline Learning Overview Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov & his dogs Watson Terminology Applications Transitioning from classical conditioning to operant conditioning

More information

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning

Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning CHAPTER 9 Operant Conditioning and Cognitive Learning 151. What is one major difference between operant conditioning and classical conditioning? (A) Operant conditioning takes place as a result of some

More information

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics:

During this unit, we will be looking at the following topics: Unit 5: Learning and Conditioning For many species, including of course human beings, the ability to survive depends upon our ability to modify our behavior based upon experience. In other words, our survival

More information

HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS

HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS HONORS PSYCHOLOGY REVIEW QUESTIONS The purpose of these review questions is to help you assess your grasp of the facts and definitions covered in your textbook. Knowing facts and definitions is necessary

More information

GCSE Psychology Learning

GCSE Psychology Learning GCSE Psychology Learning Student: Tutor: Unit 2: Understanding other people 1 Learning What is classical conditioning? What do we mean when we say we have learnt something? Read the statements below and

More information

Practice. PSYCHOLOGY Practice

Practice. PSYCHOLOGY Practice PSYCHOLOGY Practice Practice Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by five suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning What is Classical Conditioning and how does it work... Conditioning involves learning associations between events that occur in an organism's environment. Classical Conditioning

More information

EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY. (8th Edition) David Myers. PowerPoint Slides by Aneeq Ahmad Modified by Leland Swenson

EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY. (8th Edition) David Myers. PowerPoint Slides by Aneeq Ahmad Modified by Leland Swenson EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (8th Edition) David Myers PowerPoint Slides by Aneeq Ahmad Modified by Leland Swenson 1 Learning Chapter 7 2 Learning How Do We Learn? Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending

More information

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING

UNIT 6: LEARNING A. SIMPLE FORMS OF LEARNING UNIT 6: LEARNING Learning: Stressing the lasting change/permanent Behaviorist Psychologists vs. Cognitive Psychologists Behavioral: Learning only occurs with behavior since they can observe behavior. Cognitive:

More information

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons

Today. Learning. Learning. What is Learning? The Biological Basis. Hebbian Learning in Neurons Today Learning What is Learning? Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Intro Psychology Georgia Tech Instructor: Dr. Bruce Walker What is Learning? Depends on your purpose and perspective Could be

More information

Study Test Chapter 6. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Study Test Chapter 6. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: _ Date: _ Study Test Chapter 6 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is

More information

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning

Learning from Experience. Definition of Learning. Psychological definition. Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Learning from Experience Overview Understanding Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Observational Learning Definition of Learning Permanent change Change in behavior or knowledge Learning

More information

Learning: Classical Conditioning

Learning: Classical Conditioning How Do We Learn? Learning Learning: Classical Conditioning Chapter 7 One way is through Classical Conditioning Pavlov s Experiments Extending Pavlov s Understanding Pavlov s Legacy Psy 12000.003 1 2 Definition

More information

The Adaptive Mind 4/15/15. Reflexes. Instincts. Reflexes are simple, inflexible (we can t stop them), and are not learned through experience.

The Adaptive Mind 4/15/15. Reflexes. Instincts. Reflexes are simple, inflexible (we can t stop them), and are not learned through experience. The Adaptive Mind What Is Classical Conditioning? What Is Operant Conditioning? What Is Observational Learning? Reflexes Reflexes are simple, inflexible (we can t stop them), and are not learned through

More information

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009

Behavioral Principles. S-R Learning. Pavlov & Classical Conditioning 12/2/2009 Behavioral Principles S-R Learning Classical conditioning The most basic form of learning; one stimulus comes to serve as a signal for the occurrence of a second stimulus (the response) Stimulus a physical

More information

Why do people like extra credit?

Why do people like extra credit? Why do people like extra credit? CLASS OBJECTIVES: What is Operant Conditioning? Ch.6-Learning 1 Classical Conditioning was a good start but B. F. Skinner believed that more behaviors can be explained

More information

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior.

A. Learning Process through which experience causes permanent change in knowledge or behavior. Woolfolk, A. (2010). Chapter 6: Behavioral Views of Learning. In A. Woolfook (Ed.), Educational psychology (11th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon. This chapter begins by defining learning and

More information

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism

Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING THEORIES - BEHAVIORISM CHAPTER 4 CHAPTER Learning Theories 4- Behaviorism LEARNING OUTCOMES After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the principles of classical conditioning,

More information

Chapter 5: Finishing up Classical Conditioning. Lecture Outline

Chapter 5: Finishing up Classical Conditioning. Lecture Outline Chapter 5: Finishing up Classical Practical Applications of Classical Lecture Outline Underlying processes in Pavlovian conditioning S-R vs. S-S learning Stimulus-substitution vs. Preparatory-response

More information

Learning It is all about Change. Important terms in Classical Conditioning. John Watson and Little Albert Jones Conditioning Emotional Responses

Learning It is all about Change. Important terms in Classical Conditioning. John Watson and Little Albert Jones Conditioning Emotional Responses Learning It is all about Change Humans as well as animals have instincts. Relatively consistent reactions to some stimuli or events in our environments. But it would not be adaptive to have all our responses

More information

Behaviorism & Education

Behaviorism & Education Behaviorism & Education Early Psychology (the use of nonobjective methods such as Introspection) Learning = behavior change movement toward objective methods Behaviorism Pavlov, Skinner (Focus on Sà R)

More information

PAVLOV S DOGS. BY: Yakkun

PAVLOV S DOGS. BY: Yakkun PAVLOV S DOGS BY: Yakkun General theory Classical Conditioning It is a type of mental conditioning, which associates a previously neutral stimulus, with an unconditioned stimulus to elicit the desired

More information

Thinking About Psychology

Thinking About Psychology Thinking About Psychology Charles T. Blair-Broeker & Randal M. Ernst PowerPoint Presentation Slides by Kent Korek Germantown High School Worth Publishers, 2012 Development and Learning Domain Drbimages/istockphoto

More information

Operant Conditioning. Skinner and Thorndike

Operant Conditioning. Skinner and Thorndike Operant Conditioning Skinner and Thorndike Operant Conditioning Organisms learn to do things, or not to do things, because of the consequences of their behavior Example: Avoid M&M s because they made you

More information

Exposure Therapy Primer. Classical Conditioning. History Pavlov s Dogs. Learning through associations (3 Steps)

Exposure Therapy Primer. Classical Conditioning. History Pavlov s Dogs. Learning through associations (3 Steps) Exposure Therapy Primer Classical Conditioning Learning through associations (3 Steps) Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response (UCSUCR) Conditioned Stimulus + Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned

More information

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual

REVISION NOTES. Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology LEARNING THEORIES. Understanding the Individual Intermediate 1 & 2 Psychology Understanding the Individual LEARNING THEORIES REVISION NOTES 1 www.curriculumpress.co.uk Number 55 Psychology Factsheets s 2 3 4 OPERANT CONDITIONING Trial and Error Learning

More information

Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Human Development and Learning

Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Human Development and Learning Operant Conditioning EDS 248 Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D.,NCSP Classical vs. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning (R S RF ) A voluntary response (R) is followed by a reinforcing stimulus (S RF ) As a result,

More information

Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning Classical conditioning Video clips http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/videos/view/ 20609/ 2 and a half men clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ja96fba- WHk Big Bang theory clip positive reinforcement http://www.psychexchange.co.uk/_hotpotatoes/

More information

FREEDOM FROM DECISION The Psychology of B.F. Skinner. science. Many times while learning science, students are exposed to the notion that

FREEDOM FROM DECISION The Psychology of B.F. Skinner. science. Many times while learning science, students are exposed to the notion that FREEDOM FROM DECISION The Psychology of B.F. Skinner Adam Gallagher Learning Objectives The overall objective of this module is to illustrate the progression of an idea in science. Many times while learning

More information

9.00 Learning. Professor John Gabrieli

9.00 Learning. Professor John Gabrieli 9.00 Learning Professor John Gabrieli Recent Research on Effective Study Test First, Study Later Testing Yourself on Material More Useful Than Continued Study (ok to have wrong answers) LEARNING how behavior

More information

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING

A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING Chapter 10 Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning: The Story of Dogs and Little Albert A BEHAVIORAL VIEW OF LEARNING As you read below you may come to think that behavioral learning theories seem

More information

Classical Conditioning

Classical Conditioning Chapter 5 Learning Classical Conditioning Learning relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience Behaviorism emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment as determinant

More information

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7

Okami Study Guide: Chapter 7 1 Chapter Test 1. Knowing how to do something, like drive a car or play a sport, is referred to as a. explicit knowledge b. behavioral knowledge c. procedural knowledge d. implicit knowledge 2. All of

More information

Learning Processes: Operant Conditioning

Learning Processes: Operant Conditioning Learning Processes: Dr. K. A. Korb University of Jos Learning Goals Principles of operant conditioning Explain examples of,,, and Explain reinforcement schedules Applications of operant conditioning B.F.

More information

Behaviour Support for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

Behaviour Support for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Behaviour Support for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Parent Training Welcome Social Interaction Anxiety/emotional outbursts due to unpredictable nature of social interaction. Can lead to low self

More information

Classical Conditioning I

Classical Conditioning I Classical Conditioning I Pavlov s Discovery Basic Procedure Acquisition, Extinction, And Spontaneous Recovery Ivan Pavlov Russian Physiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 for work on the role of the nervous system

More information

Chapter 9 - Escape, Avoidance & Punishment. Lecture Outline

Chapter 9 - Escape, Avoidance & Punishment. Lecture Outline Chapter 9 - Escape, Avoidance & Punishment Lecture Outline Escape & avoidance Two-factor theory of avoidance Avoidance conditioning & phobias Avoidance conditioning & OCD Punishment Types of punishment

More information

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning

Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Overview of Ch. 6: Behavioral Views of Learning Understanding Learning The ABC s of Behavior Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Classroom Behavioral Interventions Problems & Issues Applied Behavior

More information

STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify the two types of conditioning shown by behaviorists to explain human behavior.

STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES. Identify the two types of conditioning shown by behaviorists to explain human behavior. PS1050i NAU Introduction to Psychology Student Study Guide Chapter 7 & 10 Week Seven Page 1 CHAPTER SEVEN: Learning and Conditioning STUDY GUIDE LEARNING OBJECTIVES Identify the two types of conditioning

More information

Choosing to Change Behavior

Choosing to Change Behavior Choosing to Change Behavior Operant Conditioning Module 18 1 Operant Conditioning Unlike Classical Conditioning, behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or weakened if followed by a punisher.

More information

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory

Chapter 15. Historical Perspective. How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Chapter 15 How the world creates who you are: behaviorism and social learning theory Learning 2 stimuli events, things, or people repeatedly experienced together will eventually come to elicit the same

More information

2. Which of the following would be an example of second-order conditioning?

2. Which of the following would be an example of second-order conditioning? Princeton-Learning 1. After having been struck by a car, a dog now exhibits fear response every time a car approaches. The dog also exhibits a fear response to the approach of a bus, a truck, a bicycle,

More information