2 Terms Students Make Mistakes On Unit 6 Role Playing and Learning Social Learning Theory Punishment e.g. quite gambling after loss Operant Conditioning Classical Conditioning Observation Most critical to learning Conditioned Response Negative Reinforcer Counter Conditioning Classical Conditioning B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Classical Conditioning Rapid Acquisition take occur immediately Latent Learning Rats wondering through a maze with food at the end Avoidance (Aversion) Training Warning
3 Unit 6 Confusing Pairs Classical Conditioning (involuntary) v. Operant Conditioning (voluntary)
4 Terms Students MUST KNOW for AP Exam Classical Conditioning Conditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Observational Learning Operant Conditioning Shaping Spontaneous Recovery Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus Generalization Unconditioned Response Unconditioned Stimulus Learning Negative Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Punishment Reinforcement Secondary Reinforcement Classical Conditioning Extinction Learned Helplessness Primary Reinforcement Fixed Ratio Law of Effect Variable Interval Schedule Variable Ratio Schedule Fixed Interval Schedule Partial Reinforcement Aversion Therapy Continuous Reinforcement Operant Conditioning Extinction Latent Learning Reflex Cognitive Map Discriminative Stimulus
5 People from Unit 6 You MUST KNOW John Garcia Robert Koelling Ivan Pavlov B.F. Skinner Edward Thorndike John Watson
6 Myers PSYCHOLOGY (6th Ed) Learning
7 Learning Learning relatively permanent change in an organism s behavior due to experience experience (nurture) is the key to learning
8 Association We learn by association Our minds naturally connect events that occur in sequence Aristotle 2000 years ago John Locke and David Hume 200 yrs ago Associative Learning learning that two events occur together two stimuli a response and its consequences
9 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Two related events: Stimulus 1 Lightning Stimulus 2 Thunder We learn to associate two stimuli Result after repetition Stimulus We see lightning Response We wince anticipating thunder
10 Operant Conditioning Response: Pushing vending machine button We learn to associate a response and its consequence Consequence: Receiving a candy bar
11 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Classical Conditioning organism comes to associate two stimuli lightning and thunder tone and food begins with a reflex a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that evokes the reflex neutral stimulus eventually comes to evoke the reflex
12 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Ivan Pavlov Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions
14 Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response. Unconditional Response (UCR): the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the UCS.
15 Neutral Stimulus (NS): an unrelated stimulus that will become the Conditioned Stimulus
16 Conditioned Stimulus (CS): an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with the UCS, comes to trigger a response. Conditioned Response (CR): the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus.
17 Behaviorism John B. Watson viewed psychology as objective science generally agreed-upon consensus today recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
18 Conditioning Acquisition the initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened in classical conditioning, the phase in which a stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response
19 Conditioning Extinction diminishing of a CR in classical conditioning, when a UCS does not follow a CS in operant conditioning, when a response is no longer reinforced
20 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Strength of CR Acquisition (CS+UCS) Extinction (CS alone) Spontaneous recovery of CR Extinction (CS alone) Pause
21 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Spontaneous Recovery reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR Generalization tendency for a stimuli similar to CS to evoke similar responses
22 Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning Discrimination The stimuli similar to the CS no longer evokes a CR
23 Learned Taste Aversions When it comes to food being paired with sickness, the conditioning is incredible strong. Even when food and sickness are hours apart. Food must be salient (noticeable.)
24 Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment Law of Effect Thorndike s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
25 Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior complex or voluntary behaviors push button, perform complex task operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Respondent Behavior occurs as an automatic response to stimulus behavior learned through classical conditioning
26 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer any event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of a desired goal
27 Operant Conditioning B.F. Skinner ( ) elaborated Thorndike s Law of Effect developed behavioral technology Nurture guy through and through. Used a Skinner Box (Operant Conditioning Chamber) to prove his concepts.
28 Operant Chamber Skinner Box soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal presses or pecks to release a food or water reward contains a device to record responses
30 Reinforces A reinforcer is anything the INCREASES a behavior. Positive Reinforcement: The addition of something pleasant. Negative Reinforcement: The removal of something unpleasant.
31 Operant Conditioning
32 Principles of Reinforcement Primary Reinforcer innately reinforcing stimulus i.e., satisfies a biological need Conditioned / Secondary Reinforcer stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with primary reinforcer secondary reinforcer
33 Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous Reinforcement (Shaping) reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Partial (Intermitent) Reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition greater resistance to extinction
34 Punishment Meant to decrease a behavior. Positive Punishment Addition of something unpleasant. Negative Punishment (Omission Training) Removal of something pleasant. Punishment works best when it is immediately done after behavior and if it is harsh!
35 Punishment Punishment aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows powerful controller of unwanted behavior
36 Problems with Punishment Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's suppressed- behavior returns when punishment is no longer eminent Causes increased aggression- shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems- Explains why aggressive delinquents and abusive parents come from abusive homes
37 Problems with Punishment Creates fear that can generalize to desirable behaviors, e.g. fear of school, learned helplessness, depression Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior- reinforcement tells you what to do-- punishment tells you what not to do- Combination of punishment and reward can be more effective than punishment alone Punishment teaches how to avoid it
38 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Ratio (FR) = Responses reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses faster you respond the more rewards you get different ratios very high rate of responding like piecework pay
39 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Ratio (VR) reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses average ratios like gambling, fishing very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability
40 Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Interval (FI) = Time reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed response occurs more frequently as the anticipated time for reward draws near
41 Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Interval (VI) reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals produces slow steady responding like pop quiz
42 Operant Conditioning Extinction & Generalization Extinction with Operant Conditioning occurs when you ignore the behavior (ignore a crying child when they want a candy bar), or change your response (do not laugh at a student looking for attention). Generalization with Operant Conditioning occurs when you expect a reward or punishment for something similar for the behavior trying to be changed (running away when your parents are proud of you and yell your first and middle name to get your attention).
43 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Cognitive Map mental representation of the layout of one s environment Example: after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it Latent Learning learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
44 Latent Learning
45 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Overjustification Effect the effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do the person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task
46 Operant vs Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning The Response Involuntary, automatic Voluntary, operates on environment Acquisition Associating events; Associating response with a CS announces UCS. Consequence (reinforcer or punisher). Extinction CR decreases when CS is Responding decreases when repeatedly presented alone. reinforcement stops. Cognitive Subjects develop expectation Subjects develop expectation that processes that CS signals the arrival of a response will be reinforced or UCS. Punished; they also exhibit latent learning, without reinforcement Biological Natural predispositions Organisms best learn behaviors predispositions contain what stimuli and similar to their natural behaviors; responses can easily be unnatural behaviors instinctively associated. drift back toward natural ones.
47 Cognition and Operant Conditioning Intrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective Extrinsic Motivation Desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishments
48 Observational Learning Observational Learning learning by observing others Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Prosocial Behavior positive, constructive, helpful behavior opposite of antisocial behavior What is a Antisocial Behavior?
49 Observational Learning Albert Bandura and his BoBo Doll We learn through modeling behavior from others. Observational learning + Operant Conditioning = Social Learning Theory
50 Observational Learning Mirror Neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy
51 CC is used in a range of different settings, many of which are concerned with therapeutic benefits. These include: Aversion therapy and systematic desensitisation.
52 Aversion Therapy Warning System When people develop behaviours that are habitual and harmful to themselves or to others, such as substance dependence, it is difficult to help them permanently stop the unwanted behaviour. Aversion therapy is a form of behaviour therapy that applies CC principles to inhibit or discourage undesirable behaviour by associating it with an aversive stimulus. The aim of aversion therapy is to suppress or weaken undesirable behaviour. E.g. to stop unwanted behaviour such as nail biting, we might paint our nails with a foultasting substance. The association between nail biting and the unpleasant taste is learned quickly.
53 When was aversion therapy first used? 1930s to treat alcoholism. Alcoholics were administered painful electric shocks whenever the could smell, see or taste alcohol. Today, nausea-inducing drugs are paired with alcohol consumption to make the alcoholic feel ill. Alcohol (CS) Nausea Drug (UCS) Nausea (UCR) Association becomes so strong that the person beings to anticipate nausea as an inevitable result of consuming alcohol.
54 Limitations of aversion therapy The learned aversion often fails to generalise. This may be due to conditioning being dependent on cues that indicate the aversive stimulus will follow. People may experience the aversion only when they know that the UCS is going to coincide with alcohol consumption.
55 Systematic Desensitisation Developed on the 1950s by psychiatrist Joseph Wolpe, systematic desensitisation is a kind of behaviour therapy that attempts to replace an anxiety or fear response with a relaxation response through a classical conditioning procedure. The client associates being relaxed with the anxiety or fear-arousing stimulus by means of a series of graded steps. Basic principle is that the client is gradually desensitised to anxiety or fear-arousing objects, activities or situations.
56 Wolpe s procedure: 1. Person is taught to relax. 2. Break down the fear arousing situation into a logical sequence of steps (steps are ranked from least to most fearinducing). Case study: fear of flying. Most frightening Experiencing mid air turbulence Taking off Taxiing down the runway Boarding the plane Waiting to get on the plane Travelling to the airport in a car Buying a place ticket. Least frightening
57 Procedure cont Once the steps are ranked, the therapist then teaches the person deep muscle relaxation and asks them to imagine the least frightening scene on the list and so on In the end the person learns to imagine the most frightening scene without becoming afraid. The best results seem to occur using real life desensitisation, such as the therapist sitting in a plane with the person or introducing them to the pilot for reassurance. By allowing the client to confront the phobia under such supportive circumstances, the fear of flying is eventually overcome.
58 Ethical issues in conditioning behaviour All research with human participants must abide by a set of ethical principles and guidelines called the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans. CC research demands particular attention as learning happens passively and a participant might unknowingly and unwillingly acquire new behaviours. Watson and Rayner s research with Little Albert would not be approved by an ethics committee today for various reasons, such as: Beneficence Respect for persons Participant s rights Voluntary participation Confidentiality With a partner, discuss and then outline in your exercise books, why each of the above dot points were not adhered to by Watson and Rayner.
59 One-trial Learning & Taste Aversion A taste-aversion is a conditioned response that results from a person or animal establishing an association between a particular food and being or feeling ill after having consumed it at some time in the past. The association is usually the result of a single experience & the particular food will be avoided in the future. Similar to CC as there is an association between a CS( smell/taste of food) and the UCS (nausea producing substance). This tends to happen with one trial. One-trial learning is a form of learning involving a change in behaviour that occurs with only one experience. Whether one-trial learning is a particular type of CC is still a topic of some debate.
60 CC vs. One-trial learning CC responses usually take a number of associations or pairings to occur & can extinguish relatively quickly. In CC, the CR occurs immediately after the CS is presented. One trial learning is quickly acquired & considerably resistant to extinction (because UCR, feeling sick, is very powerful. In one-trial learning, the CR could occur as much as a day or so after the food (CS) was consumed. *CC and one-trial learning both involve automatic, involuntary responses that are acquired in a passive manner, i.e., the person or animal does not make a deliberate decision to perform a behaviour for an intended outcome.
61 Garcia Effect John Garcia demonstrated that taste aversion is different from standard CC. Garcia and Koelling (1966) accidentally discovered the occurrence of a taste aversion when investigating the effects of radiation on rats. Their findings suggest that animals tend to associate aversive stimuli in certain ways that foster their survival, but do not associate aversive stimuli if these do not threaten their survival. Learned taste aversion based on just one exposure can be very adaptive (i.e. their chance of survival is high).
62 Garcia s 1 st Experiment Thirst rats were allocated to 1 of 2 experimental groups. Both groups offered saccharineflavoured water to drink from a tube. Whenever rats in either group licked the tube, a bright light was flashed and a clicking noise sounded. Later, rats in one group received a painful shock to their feet, while those in the other group received a dose of illnessinducing X-rays. Subsequently, when rats were offered saccharine flavoured water, they refused it. It seemed the rats had been classically conditioned to acquire a taste aversion to saccharine flavoured water. But had the rats learned to avoid all parts of the CS, or just some of them? (CS combo of saccharine flavoured water, bright light and clicking noise).
63 Garcia s 2 nd Experiment Tested same rats under a different condition. The rats were given either saccharineflavoured water that was not paired with either light or noise, OR unflavoured water that was paired with the same light and noise that had been present during the previous condition. Result: rats that had become ill because of the effects of the X-rays avoided the saccharine flavour, but were quite content to drink water accompanied by the same light and noise. In general, results indicate the UCS influenced what the rats had learned.
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