Name: Date: Period: Chapter 48: Nervous Systems. 1) Define a) Nerve net. b) Nerve. c) Cephalization. d) Ganglia

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1 Name: Date: Period: Chapter 48: Nervous Systems 1) Define a) Nerve net b) Nerve c) Cephalization d) Ganglia 2) For the animals sketched below, give the common name of the organism and its phylum. Also note the important features of its nervous system. 3) Review from taxonomy: a) Which phylum has a nerve net? b) Which phylum showed cephalization? c) Which phylum has a ventral nerve cord? d) Which phylum has a dorsal nerve cord? 4) The CNS is made up of a and 5) Label the following: stimulus, receptors (sensors), sensory neuron, interneuron, spinal cord, gray matter, white matter, motor neuron, effector (muscle).

2 6) What is a neuron? 7) Neurons can be placed into three groups, based on their location and function. Fill in the table below Type of Neuron Function Sensory Interneuron Motor 8) Label the following elements of this figure: cell body, dendrites, axon, synapse, presynaptic cell, postsynaptic cell, synaptic vesicles, synaptic terminal, and neurotransmitter. 9) What are glial cells? a) List the types below with a brief description of each 10) What is the typical resting potential of a neuron?

3 11) On the sketch below, label the following: outside cell, inside cell. Show where the concentrations of Na+ and K+ are highest. 12) In a resting neuron, the outside of the membrane is positively charged relative to the inside of the membrane. If positively charged ions flow out, the difference in charge between the two sides of the membrane becomes greater. What is the increase in the magnitude of the membrane potential called? 13) When a stimulus is applied, ion channels will open. If positively charged ions flow in, the membrane is said to depolarize. If depolarization causes the membrane potential to drop to a critical value, a wave of depolarization will follow. What is this critical value called? 14) What is an action potential? What is meant by an all or none response to a stimulus? 15) What are the two types of glial cells that produce myelin sheaths? 16) How does a myelin sheath speed impulse transmission?

4 17) In the disease multiple sclerosis, the myelin sheaths harden and deteriorate. How would this affect nervous system function? 18) Figure contains almost all you need to know about nerve impulse transmission, so it is worth some careful study time. Let s approach it in steps. a. Label Na+, K+, and their respective ion channels. b. Label the Resting state figure. Are the Na+ and K+ channels open, or closed? c. Label Depolarization. What triggers depolarization? What channels open? What occurs if the depolarization threshold is reached? d. Label Stage 4 in the figure Repolarization. How is the charge on the membrane reestablished? e. Label these regions of the graph: x- and y-axes, threshold, resting potential, depolarization, action potential, and repolarization.

5 19) When the wave of depolarization arrives at the synaptic terminal, calcium ion channels open. What occurs to the synaptic vesicles as the Ca2+ level increases? 20) What is contained within the synaptic vesicles? 21) Label the figure below: synaptic vesicle, neurotransmitter, calcium ion channel, presynaptic membrane, postsynaptic membrane, and synapse. 22) Explain how an action potential is transmitted from one cell to another across a synapse by summarizing what is shown above in six steps 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 23) There are many different types of neurotransmitters. Each neuron secretes only ONE type of neurotransmitter. Some neurotransmitters hyperpolarize the postsynaptic membrane. Are these excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters? 24) Define and explain summation.

6 25) A single postsynaptic neuron can be affected by neurotransmitter molecules released by many other neurons, some releasing excitatory and some releasing inhibitory neurotransmitters. What will determine whether an action potential is generated in the postsynaptic neuron? 26) Fill in the table below Neurotransmitter Overall Effect/Function Functional Class Acetylcholine Epinephrine Norepinephrine dopamine Serotonin GABA Glutamate glycine Substance P Endorphins Nitric oxide (NO) 27) What is the general function of the peripheral nervous system? 28) Figure shows the branches of the peripheral nervous system. Label these branches. Which branch is sometimes called the voluntary nervous system? Which one is often termed involuntary? Include these terms on the diagram below.

7 29) When the sympathetic nervous system is stimulated, what effect does it have on heart rate? When the parasympathetic nervous system is stimulated, what effect does it have on peristalsis? 30) Which division of your autonomic nervous system would likely be activated if you learned that an exam you had forgotten about would start in 5 minutes? Explain your answer. a. Describe the physiological responses that would occur. 31) Label the following structures on the figure of the brain, and give a primary function of each labeled structure. brainstem (includes pons, medulla) cerebrum cerebellum thalamus hypothalamus 32) Fill in the table below Lobe of cerebral cortex General functions 33) What is the limbic system? What parts of the brain make up the limbic system? What kinds of behaviors are connected to this part of the brain?

8 34) Briefly describe each of the following: a) Schizophrenia b) Depression c) Alzheimer s disease d) Parkinson s disease Chapter 49: Sensory and Motor Mechanisms 1) What are the types of sensory receptors? What do they each detect? 2) Label the parts of the ear: 3) Describe how sound travels within the ear to the auditory nerve.

9 4) Describe how smell is interpreted by the brain by labeling the diagram below: 5) Label the parts of the eye: 6) What are the photoreceptors of the eye? What does each detect?

10 Nervous System Questions 1. Match the structure with the correct letter from the diagram below. Dendrites Schwann cell nucleus Axon Node of Ranvier Cell body Myelin sheath Nucleus Axon terminals Neurilemma End bulbs 2. Identify each of the following as true of the sensory neuron (SN) or the motor neuron (MN) anterior root posterior root has a ganglion lacks a ganglion carriers impulses from receptor to spinal cord carriers impulses from spinal cord to effector 3. Match the following parts with the correct letter from the diagram. Dorsal Root Dorsal Root Ganglion Effector Interneuron Receptor Ventral Root has a relatively long dendrite & short axon has relatively short dendrites & a long axon enters spinal cord exits spinal cord

11 4. Match the following parts with the correct letter from the diagram. Motor neuron axon Sensory neuron axon Sensory neuron cell body Sensory neuron dendrite 5. Match the description with the correct event. A. Depolarization C. Refractory Period B. Hyperpolarization D. Repolarization E. Resting potential More Na+ outside cell; more K+ inside cell Na+ ion gates open and Na+ rush into cell K+ gates open & Na+ gates close; K+ rush out of cell More K+ moved out of cell than necessary to reestablish charge across membrane Na+ pumped out of cell & K+ pumped into cell 6. How is the resting potential different from repolarization? 7. Answer the following questions regarding the transmission of a nerve impulse. a) What maintains the excess of Na+ outside the cell and an excess of K+ inside the cell during the resting potential stage? b) The resting potential of a neuron (-70mV) indicates that the inside of the cell is more negative than the outside. What two factors cause this negative charge? c) What causes Na+ channels (gates) to open? d) What causes Na+ to rush into the neuron during depolarization? e) What causes K+ to rush out of the neuron during repolarization? f) What causes the neuron to be hyperpolarized? g) What reestablishes the original distribution of K+ and Na+ during the refractory period?

12 8. Listed below is the distribution / movement of Na+ and K+ during the transmission of a nerve impulse. Put the following in the correct order. 1 More Na+ outside the neuron; more K+ inside the neuron Na+ gates open Na+ gates close & K+ gates open Na+ rushes into the neuron K+ rushes out of the neuron More K+ is outside the neuron; more Na+ is inside the neuron Na+ is pumped out of the cell & K+ is pumped into the cell 9. Match the structure with the correct letter from the diagram below. Neurotransmitter Postsynaptic membrane Presynaptic membrane Receptor site (protein) Synaptic cleft Synaptic end bulb Synaptic vesicle 10. Why was cephalization important in the evolution of the animal kingdom? 11. Use Figure to identify the autonomic nervous system division (Parasympathetic or Sympathetic) described in each of the following. Long preganglionic fibers Short preganglionic fibers Long postganglionic fibers Short postganglionic fibers Ganglia near the CNS Ganglia near the effector Originate from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine Originate from the brain and sacrum Constricts the pupil

13 Dilates the pupil Increases activity of the digestive system Decreases the activity of the digestive system Stimulates defecation and urination Constricts respiratory passageways Dilates respiratory passageways Reduces heart rate and the force of cardiac contractions Increases heart rate and the force of cardiac contractions Centers on relaxation, food processing, and energy absorption Prepares the body for emergencies; triggers the fight or flight response 12. Match the structure with the correct function. A) Brainstem D) Thalamus B) Epithalamus E) Hypothalamus C) Cerebellum F) Cerebral hemispheres Contains centers that control breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, digesting Helps coordinate large-scale body movements such as walking Contains centers for receipt and integration of several types of sensory information Most of descending axons cross from one side to CNS to the other; results in right side of brain controlling left side of body Medulla, pons, midbrain Coordination of movement Receives information about position of joints, length of muscles, information from auditory and visual systems, and information from motor pathways; uses information to provide automatic coordination of movements and balance Contains the pineal body and choroid plexus Major integration center; major input center for sensory information going to cerebrum; main output center for motor information leaving cerebrum Produces hormones; contains centers that regulate body temperature, hunger, thirst, fight-or-flight response, sexual responses, pleasure Center for higher thought processes; thinking, speech, vision, hearing

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