The Cold War Divides the World

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1 Chinese Civil War Chiang kai-shek Mao Zedong Nationalists -vs- Communists Japanese Invade Mainland China Communists gain control of Mainland China Chinese Civil War Resumed

2 U.S. Agency formed In 1947 U.S. Military Alliance formed In 1949 C.I.A. NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization Soviet Agency formed In 1954 Soviet Military Alliance formed In 1955 K.G.B. Military & Intelligence Organizations Formed

3 New Weapon August 1957 Hydrogen Bomb ICBM s Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles Space Programs U.S. Explorer 1 Soviet Sputnik Space & Weapons Programs Developed

4 The Soviets proved the U.S. lied May 1960 U2 Spy Plan Incident in the USSR U.S. Claimed plane crashed & pilot killed Plane shot down & pilot survived Space & Weapons Programs Developed

5 Korean War (Conflict) June 1950: (Communist) North Korea Invaded (Democratic) South Korea Sept 1950: End of WWII U.S. led UN Military Landings at Inchon Oct 1950: Korea divided at the 38 th Parallel 300,000 Chinese Troops aid North Korea

6 Korean War (Conflict) Jan 1951: Chinese Push U.S. / UN Troops out of North Korea By 1952: U.S. / UN Troops Regain Control of South Korea In July 1953: Stalemate & Ceasefire Along DMZ (38 th Parallel)

7 In 1945: Japanese were forced out of Vietnam at the end of WWII : Viet-Minh Fought against French Control of Vietnam In 1954: French were Defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu Vietnam War (Conflict)

8 Vietnam War (Conflict) : UN divided Vietnam at the 17 th Parallel : (Communist) North Viet-Cong Threaten (Democratic) South Vietnam : U.S. Combat Troops enter the Vietnam War

9 Vietnam War (Conflict) By 1968: ½ Million US Soldiers were in Combat in Vietnam 1969: Richard Nixon Becomes President Elected based on Promise to bring US Troops Home : U.S. withdrew Troops from Vietnam

10 Suez Crisis in Egypt By : Egypt begins building the Aswan High Dam (on the Nile River) 1955 to 1956: Egypt lost Financing From Britain & U.S. Due to constant attacks against Israel By 1956: Soviet Union offered to provide Financing to Egypt With hopes of influencing the Spread of Communism in the Middle East Early 1956: Egypt seized control of the Suez Canal from Britain (Canal was built and managed by a private British owned company)

11 Suez Crisis in Egypt In Mid 1956: British, French and Israeli troops invade the Sinai Peninsula (taking back the Suez Canal) By Late 1956: The U.S. and U.S.S.R. Force both sides to sign a Peace Treaty Due to the vital economic and military importance of the Suez Canal

12 Cuban Crisis By the Late 1950 s: U.S. backed Cuban President (Dictator) Fulgencio Batista (Due to major American economic ties in Cuba) Between : In April 1961: CIA helped Cuban Counter- Revolutionaries Invade the Bay of Pigs (Mission failed) Fidel Castro led a Revolution to overthrow Batista (Eventually accepting military & economic support from the Soviets)

13 In July 1962: U.S.S.R. Placed 42 Missile sites in Cuba (Based on their promise to continue supporting Castro) Cuban Crisis 21 Oct 1962: Threats of Nuclear War arise between the U.S. & U.S.S.R. 14 Oct 1962: U.S. Spy Planes spot missile sites in Cuba

14 Cuban Crisis Many Americans build Bomb Shelters in their back yards Threat of Nuclear War Causes panic in the U.S. 28 Oct 1962: U.S. & U.S.S.R. Sign Missile Agreement (Soviets remove missiles in Cuba and the United States remove missiles in Turkey)

15 Threat of Nuclear War Nuclear Weapons Stockpiles in the United States and Soviet Union Between Primary Nuclear Strike Targets in the United States (By the Soviet Union) Between

16 Berlin Wall Winston Churchill Coined a new phrase to describe the Soviet Union in 1946 Iron Curtain In 1961: Soviets built a Wall to divide East from West (Built overnight between the 12th and 13th of August 1961, Between : Soviets extended a Wall and Fence around West Berlin (to prevent Easterners from escaping to the West)

17 Berlin Wall Between : Soviets built a new wall with watchtowers, electrified fences & minefields

18 Berlin Wall In 1989: The wall was torn down with the collapse of the Soviet Union (Re-unifying East & West Germany)

19 In 1968: Cold War Detente In 1975: Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was signed (by President Lyndon B. Johnson) 35 nations signed the Helsinki Accord for world Detente In 1972: Nixon and Brezhnev signed the SALT I Treaty (reducing the number of ICBM s) In 1979: Carter and Brezhnev signed the SALT II Treaty (reducing the number of ICBM s again)

20 Cold War Detente In 1983: President Reagan s Strategic Defense Initiative (Increased Tension with the U.S.S.R.) Satellite guided Laser Weapons Systems (Nicknamed STAR WARS )

21 1978 to 1981: Iranian Revolution Anti-U.S. Religious Fanatics overthrow the U.S. Backed Shah of Iran Surrogate or Substitute Wars Spiritual and Revolutionary Leader of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini

22 Surrogate or Substitute Wars : Soviet-Afghan War Anti-Soviet Revolution by U.S. backed Rebel Forces Key Rebel Organization: Mujahidin

23 Surrogate or Substitute Wars : Nicaraguan Civil War U.S. backed Contras fight Soviet backed Sandinistas Key Leader: Daniel Ortega

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