# 10/11/07 1. d = 2 The speed of sound c (340 m/s) in air is given by. Range Sensors (time of flight) (2) Ultrasonic Sensor (time of flight, sound) (1)

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "10/11/07 1. d = 2 The speed of sound c (340 m/s) in air is given by. Range Sensors (time of flight) (2) Ultrasonic Sensor (time of flight, sound) (1)"

## Transcription

1 Range Sensors (time of flight) (1) Range Sensors (time of flight) (2) arge range distance measurement -> called range sensors Range information: key element for localization and environment modeling Ultrasonic sensors, infra-red sensors and laser range sensors make use of propagation speed of sound or electromagnetic waves respectively. The distance traveled by a sound or electromagnetic wave is given by d = c. t Where d = distance traveled (usually round-trip) c = speed of wave propagation t = time of flight. It is important to point out Propagation speed v of sound: 0.3 m/ms Propagation speed v of of electromagnetic signals: 0.3 m/ns, one million times faster. 3 meters is 10 ms ultrasonic system only 10 ns for a laser range sensor time of flight t with electromagnetic signals is not an easy task laser range sensors expensive and delicate The quality of time of flight range sensors mainly depends on: Uncertainties about the exact time of arrival of the reflected signal Inaccuracies in the time of fight measure (laser range sensors) Opening angle of transmitted beam (ultrasonic range sensors) Interaction with the target (surface, specular reflections) Variation of propagation speed Speed of mobile robot and target (if not at stand still) Ultrasonic Sensor (time of flight, sound) (1) Ultrasonic Sensor (time of flight, sound) (2) transmit a packet of (ultrasonic) pressure waves distance d of the echoing object can be calculated based on the propagation speed of sound c and the time of flight t. c.t d = 2 The speed of sound c (340 m/s) in air is given by where c =!. R. T! : ration of specific heats R: gas constant T: temperature in degree Kelvin Transmitted sound Analog echo signal Threshold Digital echo signal Integrated time Output signal Wave packet threshold integrator Time of flight (sensor output) 10/11/07 1

2 Ultrasonic Sensor (time of flight, sound) (3) Ultrasonic Sensor (time of flight, sound) (4) typically a frequency: khz generation of sound wave: piezo transducer transmitter and receiver separated or not separated sound beam propagates in a cone like manner opening angles around 20 to 40 degrees regions of constant depth segments of an arc (sphere for 3D) measurement cone 30 Other problems for ultrasonic sensors soft surfaces that absorb most of the sound energy surfaces that are far from being perpendicular to the direction of the sound -> specular reflection Amplitude [db] Typical intensity distribution of a ultrasonic sensor a) 360 scan b) results from different geometric primitives aser Range Sensor (time of flight, electromagnetic) (1) aser Range Sensor (time of flight, electromagnetic) (2) Transmitter Phase Measurement Transmitted and received beams coaxial Transmitter illuminates a target with a collimated beam Received detects the time needed for round-trip A mechanical mechanism with a mirror sweeps 2 or 3D measurement D P Target Time of flight measurement Pulsed laser measurement of elapsed time directly resolving picoseconds Beat frequency between a frequency modulated continuous wave and its received reflection Phase shift measurement to produce range estimation technically easier than the above two methods. 10/11/07 2

3 aser Range Sensor (time of flight, electromagnetic) (3) aser Range Sensor (time of flight, electromagnetic) (4) Phase-Shift Measurement Transmitter Phase Measurement # l = c/f D\$ = + 2 D = +! 2" Where c: is the speed of light; f the modulating frequency; D covered by the emitted light is Target for f = 5 Mhz (as in the A.T&T. sensor), l = 60 meters D P Distance D, between the beam splitter and the target # D =! 4" where θ: phase difference between the transmitted Theoretically ambiguous range estimates since for example if λ = 60 meters, a target at a range of 5 meters = target at 35 meters Amplitude [V] 0! " Phase [m] (2.33) aser Range Sensor (time of flight, electromagnetic) (5) aser Range Sensor (time of flight, electromagnetic) Confidence in the range (phase estimate) is inversely proportional to the square of the received signal amplitude. Hence dark, distant objects will not produce such good range estimated as closer brighter objects Typical range image of a 2D laser range sensor with a rotating mirror. The length of the lines through the measurement points indicate the uncertainties. 10/11/07 3

4 Triangulation Ranging aser Triangulation (1D) D geometrical properties of the image to establish a distance measurement e.g. project a well defined light pattern (e.g. point, line) onto the environment. reflected light is than captured by a photo-sensitive line or matrix (camera) sensor device simple triangulation allows to establish a distance. e.g. size of an captured object is precisely known triangulation without light projecting x aser / Collimated beam ens D = f x P Target Position-Sensitive Device (PSD) or inear Camera Principle of 1D laser triangulation. distance is proportional to the 1/x D = f x Structured ight (vision, 2 or 3D) a b u b Structured ight (vision, 2 or 3D) One dimensional schematic of the principle aser / Collimated beam! b x fcot! -u Camera u f ens From the figure, simple geometry shows that: z H = D " tan! Eliminate the correspondence problem by projecting structured light on the scene. Slits of light or emit collimated light (possibly laser) by means of a rotating mirror. ight perceived by camera Range to an illuminated point can then be determined from simple geometry. (x, z) Target 10/11/07 4

5 Structured ight (vision, 2 or 3D) Range resolution is defined as the triangulation gain Gp : Influence of a: Baseline length b: Doppler Effect Based (Radar or Sound) a) between two moving objects the smaller b is the more compact the sensor can be. the larger b is the better the range resolution is. b) between a moving and a stationary object if transmitter is moving Note: for large b, the chance that an illuminated point is not visible to the receiver increases. Focal length f: larger focal length f can provide Doppler frequency shift if receiver is moving relative speed Sound waves: e.g. industrial process control, security, fish finding, measure of ground speed either a larger field of view or an improved range resolution Electromagnetic waves: e.g. vibration measurement, radar systems, object tracking however, large focal length means a larger sensor head Vision-based Sensors: Hardware Vision in General CCD (light-sensitive, discharging capacitors of 5 to 25 micron) When an image is recorded through a camera, a 3 dimensional scene is projected onto a 2 dimensional plane (the film or a light sensitive photo sensitive array). In order to try and recover some useful information from the scene, usually edge detectors are used to find the contours of the objects. From these edges or edge fragments, much research time has to been spent attempting to produce fool proof algorithms which can provide all the necessary information required to reconstruct the 3-D scene which produced the 2-D image. CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor technology) 10/11/07 Even in this simple situation, the edge fragments found are not perfect, and will require careful processing if they are to be integrated into a clean line drawing representing the edges of objects. The interpretation of 3-D scenes from 2-D images is not a trivial task. However, using stereo imaging or triangulation methods, vision can become a powerful tool for environment capturing. 5

6 Vision-based Sensors: Sensing Visual Range Sensors Depth from focus Stereo vision Depth from Focus (1) Motion and Optical Flow (won t talk about) Color Tracking Sensors (won t talk about) Depth from Focus (2) Stereo Vision Idealized camera geometry for stereo vision Disparity between two images -> Computing of depth From the figure it can be seen that Measure of sub-image gradient: 10/11/07 6

7 Stereo Vision (2) Stereo Vision Distance is inversely proportional to disparity closer objects can be measured more accurately Disparity is proportional to b. For a given disparity error, the accuracy of the depth estimate increases with increasing baseline b. However, as b is increased, some objects may appear in one camera, but not in the other. A point visible from both cameras produces a conjugate pair. Conjugate pairs lie on epipolar line (parallel to the x-axis for the arrangement in the figure above) Calculation of Depth The key problem in stereo is now how do we solve the correspondence problem? Gray-evel Matching match gray-level wave forms on corresponding epipolar lines brightness = image irradiance I(x,y) Zero Crossing of aplacian of Gaussian is a widely used approach for identifying feature in the left and right image Zero Crossing of aplacian of Gaussian Identification of features that are stable and match well Stereo Vision Example Extracting depth information from a stereo image aplacian of intensity image a1 and a2: left and right image Convolution with P: Step / Edge Detection in Noisy Image filtering through Gaussian smoothing P= b1 and b2: vertical edge filtered left and right image; filter = [ ] c: confidence image: bright = high confidence (good texture) d: depth image: bright = close; dark = far 10/11/07 7

8 SVM Stereo Head Mounted on an All-terrain Robot Stereo Camera Vider Desing Robot Shrimp, EPF Application of Stereo Vision Traversability calculation based on stereo images for outdoor navigation Motion tracking Summary A whole host of different types of sensors. With varying characteristics. Basic distinctions: Active/passive Exteroceptive/proprioceptive Generally there is a tradeoff between sensor power and: Cost Processing For any given robot we typically use a range of different sensors. 10/11/07 8

### Robot Perception Continued

Robot Perception Continued 1 Visual Perception Visual Odometry Reconstruction Recognition CS 685 11 Range Sensing strategies Active range sensors Ultrasound Laser range sensor Slides adopted from Siegwart

### COS Lecture 8 Autonomous Robot Navigation

COS 495 - Lecture 8 Autonomous Robot Navigation Instructor: Chris Clark Semester: Fall 2011 1 Figures courtesy of Siegwart & Nourbakhsh Control Structure Prior Knowledge Operator Commands Localization

### E190Q Lecture 5 Autonomous Robot Navigation

E190Q Lecture 5 Autonomous Robot Navigation Instructor: Chris Clark Semester: Spring 2014 1 Figures courtesy of Siegwart & Nourbakhsh Control Structures Planning Based Control Prior Knowledge Operator

### Range sensors. Sonar. Laser range finder. Time of Flight Camera. Structured light. 4a - Perception - Sensors. 4a 45

R. Siegwart & D. Scaramuzza, ETH Zurich - ASL 4a 45 Range sensors Sonar Laser range finder Time of Flight Camera Structured light Infrared sensors Noncontact bump sensor (1) sensing is based on light intensity.

### Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors

Synthetic Sensing: Proximity / Distance Sensors MediaRobotics Lab, February 2010 Proximity detection is dependent on the object of interest. One size does not fit all For non-contact distance measurement,

### CSCI 445 Amin Atrash. Ultrasound, Laser and Vision Sensors. Introduction to Robotics L. Itti & M. J. Mataric

Introduction to Robotics CSCI 445 Amin Atrash Ultrasound, Laser and Vision Sensors Today s Lecture Outline Ultrasound (sonar) Laser range-finders (ladar, not lidar) Vision Stereo vision Ultrasound/Sonar

### LECTURE 4-1. Common Sensing Techniques for Reactive Robots. Introduction to AI Robotics (Sec )

LECTURE 4-1 Common Sensing Techniques for Reactive Robots Introduction to AI Robotics (Sec. 6.1 6.5) 1 Quote of the Week Just as some newborn race of superintelligent robots are about to consume all humanity,

### Robot Sensors. Outline. The Robot Structure. Robots and Sensors. Henrik I Christensen

Robot Sensors Henrik I Christensen Robotics & Intelligent Machines @ GT Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0760 hic@cc.gatech.edu Henrik I Christensen (RIM@GT) Sensors 1 / 38 Outline 1

### C4 Computer Vision. 4 Lectures Michaelmas Term Tutorial Sheet Prof A. Zisserman. fundamental matrix, recovering ego-motion, applications.

C4 Computer Vision 4 Lectures Michaelmas Term 2004 1 Tutorial Sheet Prof A. Zisserman Overview Lecture 1: Stereo Reconstruction I: epipolar geometry, fundamental matrix. Lecture 2: Stereo Reconstruction

### Chapter 24. Wave Optics

Chapter 24 Wave Optics Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric)

### Chapter Four: Interference

Chapter Four Interference CHAPTER OUTLINE 4.1 Superposition of Waves 4.2 Interference 4.2.1Theory of Interference 4.2.2Intensity Distribution 4.2.3Superposition of Incoherent Waves 4.2.4Superposition of

### Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Introduction Light, viewed classically, is a transverse electromagnetic wave. Namely, the underlying oscillation (in this case oscillating electric and magnetic fields) is along directions

### 12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY. Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by

12. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY Confocal microscopy can render depth-resolved slices through a 3D object by rejecting much of the out of focus light via a pinhole. The image is reconstructed serially, i.e. point

### Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72

Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Problem 25.7) A light beam traveling in the negative z direction has a magnetic field B = (2.32 10 9 T )ˆx + ( 4.02 10 9 T )ŷ

### Derek Schmidlkofer PH 464. Project: IR Sensors

Derek Schmidlkofer PH 464 Project: IR Sensors Robots need devices that allow them to interpret and interact with the world around them. Infrared sensors are an effective method of accomplishing this task.

### LIST OF CONTENTS CHAPTER CONTENT PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK

vii LIST OF CONTENTS CHAPTER CONTENT PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ABSTRACT ABSTRAK LIST OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF NOTATIONS LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES

### Image Formation. Image Formation occurs when a sensor registers radiation. Mathematical models of image formation:

Image Formation Image Formation occurs when a sensor registers radiation. Mathematical models of image formation: 1. Image function model 2. Geometrical model 3. Radiometrical model 4. Color model 5. Spatial

### 3D Scanner using Line Laser. 1. Introduction. 2. Theory

. Introduction 3D Scanner using Line Laser Di Lu Electrical, Computer, and Systems Engineering Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute The goal of 3D reconstruction is to recover the 3D properties of a geometric

### Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

### Advancements in Laser Doppler Vibrometry for Ultrasonic Applications. Ultrasonics Industry Symposium Eric Lawrence, Polytec Inc.

Advancements in Laser Doppler Vibrometry for Ultrasonic Applications Ultrasonics Industry Symposium Eric Lawrence, Polytec Inc. Contents Introduction to Laser Vibrometry New PSV-500 Scanning Vibrometer

### 8.1 Lens Equation. 8.2 Image Resolution (8.1) z' z r

Chapter 8 Optics This chapter covers the essentials of geometrical optics. Radiometry is covered in Chapter 9. Machine vision relies on the pinhole camera model which models the geometry of perspective

### Sensors: Introduction

Sensors: Introduction Sensor is device that allows robot to interact with world Sensing must be considered as a module consisting of 1. Physical sensor 2. Software to extract relevant info from signal

### Demonstration Experiments: The Grating Spectrometer 27 September 2012

8 The Grating Spectrometer Introduction: A spectrometer is an instrument used to study the spectrum of light. The light source can be anything from a cryogenically cooled crystal to a superhot plasma or

### Diffraction and the Wavelength of Light

Diffraction and the Wavelength of Light Goal: To use a diffraction grating to measure the wavelength of light from various sources and to determine the track spacing on a compact disc. Lab Preparation

### Doppler. Doppler. Doppler shift. Doppler Frequency. Doppler shift. Doppler shift. Chapter 19

Doppler Doppler Chapter 19 A moving train with a trumpet player holding the same tone for a very long time travels from your left to your right. The tone changes relative the motion of you (receiver) and

### A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPRAOCH FOR AUTOMATIC TRAFFIC ASSESSMENT USING CONVENTIONAL CCTV CAMERA

A PHOTOGRAMMETRIC APPRAOCH FOR AUTOMATIC TRAFFIC ASSESSMENT USING CONVENTIONAL CCTV CAMERA N. Zarrinpanjeh a, F. Dadrassjavan b, H. Fattahi c * a Islamic Azad University of Qazvin - nzarrin@qiau.ac.ir

### High Resolution RF Analysis: The Benefits of Lidar Terrain & Clutter Datasets

0 High Resolution RF Analysis: The Benefits of Lidar Terrain & Clutter Datasets January 15, 2014 Martin Rais 1 High Resolution Terrain & Clutter Datasets: Why Lidar? There are myriad methods, techniques

### Robot Morphologies, Sensors, and Motors Spring 2014 Prof. Yanco

Robot Morphologies, Sensors, and Motors 91.450 Spring 2014 Prof. Yanco Robot morphology (shape) Some possibilities Humanoid Trashcan robots Reconfigurable Shape shifting Biped Quadruped Why does shape

### CCD TECHNOLOGY The CURE for the common Triangulation Laser

CCD TECHNOLOGY The CURE for the common Triangulation Laser Martin Dumberger Technical Director 3200 Glen Royal Rd Raleigh NC 27617 ph: 919 787 9707 fax:919 787 9706 microepsilon@mindspring.com The twenty

### Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, , 20 Nov.

Holographically corrected telescope for high bandwidth optical communications (as appears in Applied Optics Vol. 38, No. 33, 6833-6835, 20 Nov. 1999) Geoff Andersen and R. J. Knize Laser and Optics Research

### Various Technics of Liquids and Solids Level Measurements. (Part 3)

(Part 3) In part one of this series of articles, level measurement using a floating system was discusses and the instruments were recommended for each application. In the second part of these articles,

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

### 3D/4D acquisition. 3D acquisition taxonomy 22.10.2014. Computer Vision. Computer Vision. 3D acquisition methods. passive. active.

Das Bild kann zurzeit nicht angezeigt werden. 22.10.2014 3D/4D acquisition 3D acquisition taxonomy 3D acquisition methods passive active uni-directional multi-directional uni-directional multi-directional

### Types of 3D Scanners and 3D Scanning Technologies.

Types of 3D Scanners and 3D Scanning Technologies. There are many types of 3D scanners and 3D scanning technologies. Some are ideal for short range scanning while others are better suited for mid or long

### PHYS2090 OPTICAL PHYSICS Laboratory Fresnel Zone Plate

PHYS2090 OPTICAL PHYSICS Laboratory Fresnel Zone Plate References Hecht Optics, Addison-Wesley Smith & King, Optics and Photonics: An Introduction, Wiley Higbie, Fresnel Zone Plate: Anomalous foci, American

### Measurement of Minimum Illumination (MMI) - The Axis Method

Measurement of Minimum Illumination (MMI) - The Axis Method Table of contents 1. Introduction...3 2. Light sensitivity...3 3. Physical concepts...4 4. The Axis MMI method: a summary...4 5. Concepts in

### INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.

### Miniature sensor applications

Miniature sensor applications Height measurement Distance to objects can be reliably measured regardless of the surface color, reflectivity or transparency with miniaturized ultrasonic sensors. Liquid

### Microwave Antennas and Radar. Maria Leonora Guico Tcom 126 2 nd Sem Lecture 8

Microwave Antennas and Radar Maria Leonora Guico Tcom 126 2 nd Sem Lecture 8 G P P directional isotropic Antenna Basics Isotropic Dipole High gain directional 0 db i 2.2 db i 14 db i Antenna performance

### SCAN IN A BOX Guide to the Ideal 3D Scan

SCAN IN A BOX Guide to the Ideal 3D Scan Part I General Considerations This document is a guide for the person that approaches for the first time to the world of 3D scanning. The advices contained in this

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### Laminar and Turbulent flow. Flow Sensors. Reynolds Number. Thermal flow Sensor. Flow and Flow rate. R = Mass Flow controllers

Flow and Flow rate. Laminar and Turbulent flow Laminar flow: smooth, orderly and regular Mechanical sensors have inertia, which can integrate out small variations due to turbulence Turbulent flow: chaotic

### Image acquisition. Autumn 2007 Mikko Liljeström

Image acquisition Autumn 2007 Mikko Liljeström Microscope Objective (Magnification, NA ) Light source Filters Image acquired can not be better than image generated by microscope (but it can be worse )

### Gregory Hollows Director, Machine Vision Solutions Edmund Optics

Imaging Optics Fundamentals Gregory Hollows Director, Machine Vision Solutions Edmund Optics Topics for Discussion Fundamental Parameters of your system Field of View Working Distance Sensor Sizes Understanding

### Relative Position Tracking for User Interface. Controls Using Doppler Shifted Ultrasound

Relative Position Tracking for User Interface Controls Using Doppler Shifted Ultrasound Justin Bradfield and Alex Mudd Cornell College Phy312, November 2012, Professor Derin Sherman Introduction As computers

### 2. Do Not use the laser without getting instructions from the demonstrator.

EXPERIMENT 3 Diffraction Pattern Measurements using a Laser Laser Safety The Helium Neon lasers used in this experiment and are of low power (0.5 milliwatts) but the narrow beam of light is still of high

### Construction and principles of operation of photoelectric sensors

Overview of functional principles The type, size, shape and surface characteristics of the objects to be recorded, the distance between the sensor and the object, and the environmental conditions determine

### Sensor Modeling for a Walking Robot Simulation. 1 Introduction

Sensor Modeling for a Walking Robot Simulation L. France, A. Girault, J-D. Gascuel, B. Espiau INRIA, Grenoble, FRANCE imagis, GRAVIR/IMAG, Grenoble, FRANCE Abstract This paper proposes models of short-range

### Measurement of the Speed of Light in Air

Measurement of the Speed of Light in Air Speed of Light 1 Measuring the speed of something is a familiar process, just measure the time it takes to travel a given distance. But as Galileo discover, light

### Page 1 of ISSUE 3 EDCR21694

Page 1 of 15 503158 ISSUE 3 EDCR21694 Table of Contents 1 INTRODUCTION... 4 2 SAFETY, WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS... 5 2.1 WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS... 5 2.2 SAFETY FEATURES... 8 2.3 HAZARD AREAS... 8 3 OPERATING

### PHYS General Physics II Lab Diffraction Grating

1 PHYS 1040 - General Physics II Lab Diffraction Grating In this lab you will perform an experiment to understand the interference of light waves when they pass through a diffraction grating and to determine

### Objectives 450 CHAPTER 10 LIGHT AND OPTICAL SYSTEMS

Objectives Use wave properties to explain interference and diffraction of light. Explain how double slits, a diffraction grating, a single slit, and an aperture produce interference patterns. Use measurements

### Homography. Dr. Gerhard Roth

Homography Dr. Gerhard Roth Epipolar Geometry P P l P r Epipolar Plane p l Epipolar Lines p r O l e l e r O r Epipoles P r = R(P l T) Homography Consider a point x = (u,v,1) in one image and x =(u,v,1)

### Lasers Design and Laser Systems

Lasers Design and Laser Systems Tel: 04-8563674 Nir Dahan Tel: 04-8292151 nirdahan@tx.technion.ac.il Thank You 1 Measuring the width of a laser beam is like trying to measure the size of a cotton ball

### PHOTO-ELASTIC VISUALISATION OF PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC PULSES IN SOLIDS

PHOTO-ELASTIC VISUALISATION OF PHASED ARRAY ULTRASONIC PULSES IN SOLIDS E. Ginzel 1, D. Stewart 2 1 Materials Research Institute - Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; 2 Oceaneering Inspection, Edmonton, Alberta,

### DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT

Laboratory Exercise 4. DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT Diffraction Gratings. Determining the Wavelength of Laser Light Using a Diffraction Grating. Refraction. Observation of Atomic Spectra. Theoretical background:

### Lecture 5: X-ray measurement techniques

Lecture 5: X-ray measurement techniques Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Powder photographs 2 2.1 Debye-Scherrer method...................... 2 2.2 Focussing method......................... 4 2.3 Pinhole photographs.......................

### Scorpion 3D Stinger Camera

Scorpion 3D Stinger Camera Scope Scorpion Stinger is a family of machine vision components and products. They provide building blocks for OEM and system integrators. The Scorpion 3D Stinger Camera is designed

### TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE

TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE Double Slit and Diffraction Grating. THEORY: L P L+nλ Light d θ L 0 C nλ Wall Screen P Figure 1 If plane waves of light fall at normal incidence on an opaque wall containing

### Sensors for mobile robot systems

AARMS Vol. 5, No. 4 (2006) 645 658 TECHNOLOGY Sensors for mobile robot systems PÉTER KUCSERA Miklós Zrínyi National Defence University, Budapest, Hungary Mobile robotics is one of the progressive technological

### A low cost 3D scanner based on structured light. C. Rocchini, P. Cignoni, C. Montani, P. Pingi, R. Scopigno

A low cost 3D scanner based on structured light C. Rocchini, P. Cignoni, C. Montani, P. Pingi, R. Scopigno Introduction 3D Scanner + Software Claudio Rocchini, Visual Computing Group 2 Characteristics

### A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies. Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz

A comparison of radio direction-finding technologies Paul Denisowski, Applications Engineer Rohde & Schwarz Topics General introduction to radiolocation Manual DF techniques Doppler DF Time difference

### APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS

APPLICATION NOTE ULTRASONIC CERAMIC TRANSDUCERS Selection and use of Ultrasonic Ceramic Transducers The purpose of this application note is to aid the user in the selection and application of the Ultrasonic

### Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD

University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure

### Computer Vision - part II

Computer Vision - part II Review of main parts of Section B of the course School of Computer Science & Statistics Trinity College Dublin Dublin 2 Ireland www.scss.tcd.ie Lecture Name Course Name 1 1 2

### Integrated sensors for robotic laser welding

Proceedings of the Third International WLT-Conference on Lasers in Manufacturing 2005,Munich, June 2005 Integrated sensors for robotic laser welding D. Iakovou *, R.G.K.M Aarts, J. Meijer University of

### Amplitude Y is the maximum value of the wave variable ( displacement in this case ).

NATURE OF VISIBLE LIGHT: Our current knowledge is that light exhibits a dual nature or behavior. It behaves as electromagnetic ( EM for short ) waves or as a particles ( photons ). General description

### Non-Destructive Evaluation of Weld Structure Using Ultrasonic Imaging Technique

Materials Transactions, Vol. 53, No. 4 (2012) pp. 604 to 609 Special Issue on APCNDT 2009 2012 The Japanese Society for Non-Destructive Inspection Non-Destructive Evaluation of Weld Structure Using Ultrasonic

### Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics

Bronx High School of Science Regents Physics 1. Orange light has a frequency of 5.0 10 14 hertz in a vacuum. What is the wavelength of this light? (A) 1.5 10 23 m (C) 6.0 10 7 m (B) 1.7 10 6 m (D) 2.0

### Sensors and Cellphones

Sensors and Cellphones What is a sensor? A converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument What are some sensors we use every

### : Choose the Right Object Detection Sensor. Rolf Agner, Sr Corp Trainer

: Choose the Right Object Detection Sensor Rolf Agner, Sr Corp Trainer Objectives : Selecting an industrial sensor can be daunting. With so many different sensing technologies and the endless variety of

### Part 3 tracking detectors material effects track models fitting with momentum

Part 3 tracking detectors material effects track models fitting with momentum passage of particles through matter particles traversing through a medium interact with that medium they loose energy ionization:

### Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

Analytical Technologies in Biotechnology Dr. Ashwani K. Sharma Department of Biotechnology Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Module 1 Microscopy Lecture - 2 Basic concepts in microscopy 2 In this

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

### Scanners and How to Use Them

Written by Jonathan Sachs Copyright 1996-1999 Digital Light & Color Introduction A scanner is a device that converts images to a digital file you can use with your computer. There are many different types

### Traffic Monitoring Systems. Technology and sensors

Traffic Monitoring Systems Technology and sensors Technology Inductive loops Cameras Lidar/Ladar and laser Radar GPS etc Inductive loops Inductive loops signals Inductive loop sensor The inductance signal

### Digital Signal Processing For Radar Applications

Digital Signal Processing For Radar Applications Altera Corporation Radar: RAdio Detection And Ranging Need a directional radio beam Measure time between transmit pulse and receive pulse Find Distance:

### ABM Non-Contact Level Devices MORE AT:

ABM Non-Contact Level Devices MORE AT: WWW.ABMSENSOR.COM Propagation of Ultrasonic and Electromagnetic Waves RADAR ANTENNA REFLECTOR (Water) ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER (Matched to AIR) Speed of Ultrasonic wave

### Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure

Northeastern University, PHYS5318 Spring 2014, 1 1. Introduction Experiment 5. Lasers and laser mode structure The laser is a very important optical tool that has found widespread use in science and industry,

### Modelling, Extraction and Description of Intrinsic Cues of High Resolution Satellite Images: Independent Component Analysis based approaches

Modelling, Extraction and Description of Intrinsic Cues of High Resolution Satellite Images: Independent Component Analysis based approaches PhD Thesis by Payam Birjandi Director: Prof. Mihai Datcu Problematic

### EL5223. Basic Concepts of Robot Sensors, Actuators, Localization, Navigation, and1 Mappin / 12

Basic Concepts of Robot Sensors, Actuators, Localization, Navigation, and Mapping Basic Concepts of Robot Sensors, Actuators, Localization, Navigation, and1 Mappin / 12 Sensors and Actuators Robotic systems

### < 15 Hz - infrasound 15 Hz - 20 khz (20000 Hz) - audible sound >20 khz - ultrasound. propagation speed = wavelength / frequency LECTURE 6

LECTURE 6 TOPIC: BIOPHYSICAL BASICS OF ULTRASOUND IMAGING TIME: 2 HOURS Ultrasound is a term given to inaudible, high frequency sound waves and is also the generic name given to the imaging modality that

### Beta-TX Laser Diode Module. T he Beta-TX is a complete self contained laser diode system

Laser Diode Module A HIGH SPEED MODULATABLE LASER WITH SPEEDS UP TO 50 MHZ Features Modulation speeds up to 50 MHz Visible and Infra red versions Powers from 1mW to 100 mw Flexible design accommodating

### Introduction of LDA. Last Class: 1. Matlab Programming 2. An example of PIV in Matlab code 3. EDPIV 4. PIV plugin for ImageJ 5.

Introduction of LDA Last Class: 1. Matlab Programming 2. An example of PIV in Matlab code 3. EDPIV 4. PIV plugin for ImageJ 5. JPIV Today s Contents: 1. Fundamentals of LDA 2. Turbulent Flow Properties

### Objectives. Understand various definitions related to sensing/perception. Understand variety of sensing techniques

Sensing/Perception Objectives Understand various definitions related to sensing/perception Understand variety of sensing techniques Understand challenges of sensing and perception in robotics Old View

Blackbody Radiation References 1) R.A. Serway, R.J. Beichner: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5 th Edition, Vol. 2, Ch.40, Saunders College Publishing (A Division of Harcourt

### Waves and Modern Physics PHY Spring 2012

Waves and Modern Physics PHY 123 - Spring 2012 1st Midterm Exam Wednesday, February 22 Chapter 32 Light: Reflec2on and Refrac2on Units of Chapter 32 Today we will cover: The Ray Model of Light Reflection;

### DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY

Experiment 8 Name: S.N.: SECTION: PARTNER: DATE: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Objectives To introduce and calibrate a diffraction grating, and use it to examine several types of spectra. To learn

### Photoelectric Beam Sensor ACTIVE INFRARED SENSOR. Instruction Manual

Photoelectric Beam Sensor ACTIVE INFRARED SENSOR Instruction Manual ABT-30 (Outdoor 30m., Indoor 90m.) ABT-60 (Outdoor 60m., Indoor 180m.) ABT-80 (Outdoor 80m., Indoor 240m.) ABT-100 (Outdoor 100m., Indoor

### How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer?

How can I tell what the polarization axis is for a linear polarizer? The axis of a linear polarizer determines the plane of polarization that the polarizer passes. There are two ways of finding the axis

### The benefits of using cameras with large pixel size in line scan vision applications.

The benefits of using cameras with large pixel size in line scan vision applications. Why to go against the trend and use smaller resolution and larger pixels? Jari Löytömäki JAI Finland jjl@jai.com 29

### Depth from a single camera

Depth from a single camera Fundamental Matrix Essential Matrix Active Sensing Methods School of Computer Science & Statistics Trinity College Dublin Dublin 2 Ireland www.scss.tcd.ie 1 1 Geometry of two

### (a) (i) Label the diagram of the human eye to show the lens, retina and optic nerve.

Practice Test: 28 marks (42 minutes) Additional Problem: 37 marks (56 minutes) 1. This question is about the human eye. (a) (i) Label the diagram of the human eye to show the lens, retina and optic nerve.

### CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS

CHAPTER 8 OBJECT REGISTERING SENSORS 8.1. Contact sensors for object registering Mechanical switches can be used as contact sensors for object registering. They generate signals of the on/off type as a

### Exampro GCSE Physics. P3 - Medical Applications of Physics Self Study Questions - Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 90.

Exampro GCSE Physics P3 - Medical Applications of Physics Self Study Questions - Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 90 Marks: 90 Comments: Page of 32 Q. The diagram shows a glass prism. (i) Explain

### Introduction to acoustic imaging

Introduction to acoustic imaging Contents 1 Propagation of acoustic waves 3 1.1 Wave types.......................................... 3 1.2 Mathematical formulation.................................. 4 1.3

### The Biometrics Fingerprint Sensor

AKME LOCK LLC The Biometrics Fingerprint Sensor There are two main types of sensors for inputting fingerprints. One is an optical sensor using a prism or hologram, and the other type is a non-optical sensor.

### Wholefield NDT of Porous Materials Using Digital Holography

Indian Society for Non-Destructive Testing Hyderabad Chapter Proc. National Seminar on Non-Destructive Evaluation Dec. 7-9, 2006, Hyderabad Wholefield NDT of Porous Materials Using Digital Holography B.P.