ACIDS AND BASES. Chapter 14, 15

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1 ACIDS AND BASES Chapter 14, 15

2 PROPERTIES Properties of Acids Properties of Bases 1. Sour taste (vinegar, lemon) 1. Bitter taste (soaps, detergents) 2. ph paper turns red 2. ph paper turns blue 3. Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas 3. Feel slippery Ba + H 2 SO 4 Ba(SO 4 ) + H 2 4. Acids react with Bases to produce salts and water** 4. Bases react with acids to produce salts and water** 5. Acids conduct electricity 5. Bases conduct electricity **When and acid reacts with a base and produces salt and water it is called a neutralization reaction

3 STRONG ACIDS STRONG acids and bases are considered to completely ionize in aqueous solution. Strong acids (memorize) HCl, HBr, HI, HNO 3, H 2 SO 4, HClO 3 What is common about the acid formulas?

4 STRONG BASES Strong bases: Group 1 and 2 metal Hydroxides (not Be or Mg) EX: NaOH, Ba(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 LiOH, KOH and NH 3 What do you notice about (most) of the base formulas?

5 ALL OTHER ACIDS/BASES ARE CONSIDERED WEAK WEAK acids and bases only partly ionize in water (aqueous solution)

6 NAMING INQUIRY Get with a partner and complete the naming acids and bases inquiry activity.

7 NAMING ACIDS Binary Hydro- Change anion name to -ic Acid on the end Ternary- Contains polyatomic ion -ate goes to ic -ite goes to ous Acid on the end I ate something icky A cat bites a mouse

8 NAMING BASES Name the metal Hydroxide

9 ACID AND BASE THEORIES There are different ways of defining what an acid and base is 1. Arrhenius 2. Bronstead Lowry

10 1. ARRHENUS ACIDS AND BASES Acids and Bases produce ions in solution Arrhenius Acid: Chemical compound that increases concentration of hydrogen ions H+ Compounds containing hydrogen H 2 SO 4 Arrhenius Base: Chemical compound that increases concentration of hydroxide ions (OH-) Compounds containg hydroxides NaOH

11 Issue: Arrhenius acids/bases must be in solution, but scientists found that some substances acted as acids or bases when they were NOT in a water solution so the definition had to revised

12 2. BRONSTEAD-LOWRY ACIDS AND BASES Bronstead Lowry Acids: A molecule or ion that is a proton donor Bronstead Lowry Bases: A molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor **Hydrogen is a proton!!

13 BRONSTEAD LOWRY REACTIONS Protons are transferred from one reactant (acid) to another (base) Acid + Base conjugate base + conjugate acid Conjugate Base of an acid: The remainder of an acid after H + is released Conjugate Acid of a base: The base formed by accepting a proton

14 LABEL THE FOLLOWING MOLECULES AS ACID, BASE, CONJUGATE ACID, CONJUGATE BASE Look at where the hydrogens are going!! HCl + H 2 O Cl - + H 3 O + HNO 3 + OH - H 2 O + NO 3 -

15 Type Acid Base Arrhenius H+ donor OH- donor Bronsted-Lowry Proton (H+) donor Proton (H+) acceptor

16 1. Monoprotic acids- acids donating 1 hydrogen Ex: HCl, HF, HNO 3 2. Diprotic acids- acids donating 2 hydrogens Ex: H 2 SO 4, H 2 CO 3 3. Triprotic acids- acids donating 3 hydrogens Ex: H 3 PO 4

17 SECTION 2: ACID-BASE REACTIONS Amphoteric: Any species that can react as either an acid or a base WATER!

18 ACID RAIN Burning of coal produces SO 2 which reacts with oxygen to form SO 3 SO 3 reacts with water to produce sulfuric acid Clean Air Act limits the amount of SO 2 that power plants are permitted to emit

19 CHAPTER 15 ph concept and titrations

20 CONCENTRATION Acids are considered concentrated if above 6M They are considered dilute if 6M or below Don t confuse the terms strong/weak with concetrated/dilute You can have a dilute strong acid (or base) 1M HCl vs 12M HCl

21 HOW CAN YOU COMPARE ACIDITY?? The ph scale! In 1909, a simple scale was created to compare acidity. ph means the power of hydrogen

22 Concentration of hydrogen ions [H + ] determines the acidity of a solution Concentration of hydroxide ions determine the basicity of solution. [ ] represent concentration

23 THE PH SCALES FROM O-14 Acidic solution: [H + ] is greater than [OH - ] Alkaline (basic) solution: [OH - ] is greater than [H + ] **[ ] represent concentration

24 [H + ] are usually small so we don t represent them like we normally would with molarity. Instead we use log to get the numbers between 0-14 (much easier!!)

25 EQUATIONS ph = -log [H + ] [H + ] = 10 -ph poh= -log [OH - ] ph + poh = 14

26 PRACTICE PROBLEMS 1) The hydrogen concentration of an acid is [H + ]=.1 M, find ph 2) If [H + ] 3.4 x 10-3 M HCl find ph 3) The ph of an acid was measured to be 5, what would the hydrogen concentration of this acid be? 4) If ph = 2.56; find [H + ]

27 5)If the poh = 5.12; find [OH - ] 7) What is the ph of [OH - ] = 2.3 x **Remember the ph + poh = 14

28 INDICATORS AND TITRATION Chapter 15 section 2

29 An indicator is a substance that changes color in an acid or base in a certain ph range It gives a quick rough estimate on the ph Examples: Litmus paper Acids: turns blue litmus paper red Bases: turns red litmus paper blue Phenophthalein (turns pink in presence of a base) Universal indicator Bromothymol blue (what we will use in the lab!!) Methyl orange

30

31 Methyl orange ph 2.0 ph 4.0 ph 6.0 Bromthymol blue ph 5.0 ph 9.0 ph 7.0

32 NEUTRALIZATION REACTION For Arrhenius acids and bases A. A neutralization reaction: Strong Acid + Strong Base Water + Salt B. Salts are ionic compounds consisting of an anion from an acid and a cation from a base. EX: HCl + NaOH NaCl + HOH H 2 SO 4 + Mg(OH) 2 MgSO 4 + 2HOH

33 PRACTICE, PREDICT THE PRODUCTS REMEMBER GROUP CHARGES! HCl + Ca(OH) 2 HNO 3 + Mg(OH) 2

34 TITRATIONS Titration: is a technique where a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution using a neutralization reaction!!

35 STEPS IN TITRATION B. Steps of a titration: 1. A measured volume of an acid or base solution of unknown concentration (the unknown ) is added to a flask. 2. Several drops of an appropriate indicator are added to the unknown solution 3. Using a buret, measured volumes of a base or acid solution of a known concentration ( the standard solution ) are mixed into the unknown solution until the indicator shows that neutralization has occurred 4. Stoichiometry is used to determine the concentration of the unknown

36 SOLVING TITRATION PROBLEMS Balanced neutralization reaction Stoichiometry Remember that Molarity, M = mol/l Liters of standard Molarity of standard ( mol) Mol ratio of unknown 1 1 L Mol ratio of standard L of unknown

37 IF the acid and base have a 1:1 mole ratio M 1 V 1 = M 2 V 2 can be used

38 EXAMPLE PROBLEM A 25 ml solution of H 2 SO 4 is completely neutralized by 18 ml of a 1.0 M NaOH solution. What is the concentration of the H 2 SO 4 solution? If 45 ml of 2.0 M of HCl are needed to neutralize 15 ml of NaOH, what is the concentration of the base?

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