Answer the questions as fully as possible. (20) Rainbow smelt could have migrated naturally or been used as live bait accidently.

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1 nswer Key: Species Introduction nswer the questions as fully as possible. (20) 1) Where did rainbow smelt come from (before entering Manitoba)? (1) Ontario 2) Where is rainbow smelt native to? (1) eastern coast of North merica 3) When was it introduced to Manitoba? (1) ) How was it introduced? (2) Rainbow smelt could have migrated naturally or been used as live bait accidently. 5) What was the reason for its introduction? (1) Either it was introduced naturally or by accidental so it s introduction was unintentional. 6) What are the predicted positive effects of its introduction? (3) Rainbow smelt could help the growth and survival of walleye. commercial fishery could be set up for them. They could be used for sport fishing. 7) What are the predicted negative effects of its introduction? (6) Rainbow smelt cause biomagnification and belly burn in their predators. They could cause the reduction and elimination of native species such as whitefish (compete with whitefish for food and space and prey on larvae). They compete with cisco larvae for food. Smelt may decrease the amount of zooplankton in Lake Winnipeg. They may decrease the stocks for commercial fishing and the profits of it. 8) What regulations have been implemented? Why? (2) People cannot use live or fresh rainbow smelt as bait. This will help stop the spread of rainbow smelt. 9) an you think of other regulations that would help the situation? (1) People shouldn t be allowed to catch or transport rainbow smelt. 10) From what you ve read and answered, can you make some generalizations about the effects of any introduced species? (2) Usually introduced species affect many other species negatively. Often, food chains are disrupted and resources depleted. 7 of 7

2 Pike and Perch Game NSWER KEY FOR QUESTIONS: 10 marks 1) Graph the results by plotting the number of perch and the number of pike as the dependent variables and the number of generations as the independent variable. Use different colored lines to distinguish between the populations. (5 marks) Use graph to answer the following questions. Population Dynamics of Pike and Perch (1 mark) number (1 mark) perch (1 mark) (1 mark) pike 2) Why does it make sense that there are more perch than pike? (1 mark) Since pike eat a lot of perch there needs to be many more perch than pike in order for the pike to survive. 3) How do changes of pike population relate to changes of population of the perch? (1 mark) The pike population responds to the population of perch. This means that an increase in perch population will cause an increase in pike population and vice versa. 4) What might happen to the prey population if the predators are completely removed? (1 mark) If there are no predators, the prey s population would continue to increase until they run out of food or die from stress due to over-crowding or disease. 5) In what ways are the presence of a predator beneficial to the prey? (2 marks) Predators are beneficial to prey because they can help control its population and prevent disease and over-crowding. 1 of 6 time (1 mark)

3 NSWER KEY: (Out of 35) 1) Out of the three graphs mentioned above, which graph best suits the Pike and Perch Game? (1) The best graph for this game is the delayed density dependence graph (predator/prey relationship). 2) What type of graph did you construct from the Pike and Perch Game? (1) nswers may vary but ideally they would have constructed the delayed density dependence graph. 3) Interpret the following three graphs. Describe what is happening at each lettered point and predict what will happen next. Provide a reason for each statement and prediction. The first one has been done for you. (22) Graph 1 Point Describe Reason slowly few animals are available to reproduce faster exponentially more are able to reproduce all animals are healthy and reproducing? population crash cannot continue to grow forever, will experience some form of environmental resistance Graph 2 Point Describe Reason? slowly quickly equillibrium continue at equilibrium few are reproducing more are able to reproduce at the carrying capacity of the ecosystem remain at equilibrium until environmental resistance changes it Graph 3 Point Describe Reason? equilibrium decrease quickly equilibrium remain or increase at the carrying capacity of the ecosystem some form of environmental resistance has caused the population to decrease at a new carrying capacity of this ecosystem may remain at this carrying capacity or increase again to the higher carrying capacity 5 of 6

4 4) Using the following data, construct a population dynamics graph. (11) Yellow Perch in Lake Winnipeg Year Population Yellow Perch In Lake Winnipeg Population Year 6 of 6

5 QUESTIONS: 1) Explain the difference between density independent and density dependent limiting factors. (2 marks) Density independent factors are limiting factors that affect all populations regardless of their densities whereas density dependent factors only affect populations when they reach a specific density. 2) From the previous article Yellow Perch in Lake Winnipeg, identify and describe as many limiting factors as possible and classify them as density independent or density dependent. (10 marks) Density Independent Limiting Factors: - depth of Lake Winnipeg (affects amount of sunlight in water, and space available in lake) - temperature of water (affects which fish will live in the lake) - turbidity of water (affects which fish will live in the lake) - migration of yellow perch (depends on which fish are strong enough to travel) - eyes (helps yellow perch to hide from predators and hunt for prey) - drought (natural disasters affect water temperature, levels and turbidity) Density Dependent Limiting Factors: - stunting (due to lack of food or over-abundant population of yellow perch, they will stunt their growth instead of dying) - predation (yellow perch are eaten by northern pike and walleye) - parasitism (chestnut lampreys attach to yellow perch and feed of body fluids) - competition (rainbow smelt compete for space and food) - crowding (rainbow smelt crowd yellow perch) 6 of 7

6 3) Each of the statements below involves a situation that will affect the growth of a population. lassify each of the statements as DD (density dependent) or DI (density independent) and give a reason for your choice. (18 marks - 2 each) a. Rainbow smelt and yellow perch attempt to occupy the same area. The more aggressive smelt survive; the perch do not. DD - competition between species only occurs at certain densities b. severe flood brings a lot of sediment and silt into Lake Winnipeg. The turbidity of the lake increases greatly. DI - natural disasters affect all populations regardless of density c. drought decreases the water level in Lake Winnipeg. The carrying capacity of the lake decreases. DI - natural disasters affect all populations regardless of density d. Due to the introduction of rainbow smelt, Lake Winnipeg becomes crowded and some fish species do not survive. DD - crowding only occurs at certain densities e. Since northern pike prey on yellow perch, an increase in the perch population causes an increase in the pike population. DD - predation only occurs at certain densities f. Many fish die due to an increase in water temperature. DI - temperature affects all population densities g. Due to over-fishing, the number of walleye in Lake Winnipeg decreases. DI - human activities affect all population densities h. population is growing quickly when parasites cause disease to spread quickly. DD - parasitism only affects certain population densities i. Since lake sturgeon migrate long distances to spawn, many do not survive the trip. DI - behaviours of organisms affect all population densities 7 of 7

7 RRYING apacity nswer Key: (20) 1) Write your own definition of carrying capacity. (2) nswers will vary. 2) On what does a carrying capacity depend? (3) arrying capacity depends on the amount of resources available, the size of the population and the amount of resources each individual is consuming. 3) an you think of other factors that may affect a carrying capacity? (2) nswers may vary. Some examples include: natural disasters, human activities, weather, temperature, etc. 4) Refer to the following statement when answering the next questions. (4) The carrying capacity of this lake equals 150 minnows. a) an less than 150 minnows live in this lake? Yes b) an more than 150 minnows live in this lake? No c) Let s say that there are 140 minnows in this lake when the amount of resources in this lake decreases and the carrying capacity drops from 150 to 100 minnows. What will happen to this minnow population? Why will this happen? This minnow population will decrease to at least 100 minnows. This will happen because the carrying capacity has decreased due to one of the following factors: fewer resources available or a larger population. 5 of 7

8 RRYING apacity 5) Refer to the following graphs for the next set of questions (9). 300 Graph 300 Graph number number year year FOR GRPH : a) What is the carrying capacity (approx.)? 250 b) pproximately during which year did this population reach the carrying capacity of its ecosystem? year 3 c) bout how many years did it stay at the carrying capacity? 4 FOR GRPH : a) What are the carrying capacities of this graph? 200 and 100 b) How many years did this population spend at the first carrying capacity? 2 c) During which year did it reach the next carrying capacity? year 4 d) Which carrying capacity is more stable? Why do you think so? The second one because the population is more stable at it (it stayed at the second carrying capacity longer). 6 of 7

9 IOUMULTION NSWER KEY: 1) to 3) You will have to create a chart of the class and the mercury content of each student. Then, you can use that information to create an answer key for these questions. (15 marks) 4) (8 marks) (30) Fish Species Unrestricted onsumption Limited onsumption 200g of fish per week 140g of fish per week No onsumption Walleye hannel atfish a) if these people never eat more than 140g of fish per week, how many of the fish they caught are safe for them to consume? 18 - one mark b) if these people eat more than 200 g of fish per week, how many of the catfish they caught is safe for them to consume? 4 - one mark c) if these people never eat more than 200 g of fish per week, how many of the walleye they caught is safe to eat? 8 - one mark d) how many of the fish they caught are totally unsafe to eat, no matter how much they eat per week? 2 - one mark 5) What happens to the amount of mercury in walleye if they choose to feed on rainbow smelt instead of minnows? Why and how does this occur? (3 marks) The amount of mercury increases. This occur because rainbow smelt feed at a higher trophic level than the minnows. Thus, they bioaccumulate the mercury from the minnows. Then, the walleye eat the smelt and their mercury level increases too. The key is that the higher the trophic level the more bioaccumulation occurs. (Note: you can refer to the food chain diagrams on page 1 when you are correcting this.) 8 of 8

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