1 Educational Review, 2013 Vol. 65, No. 1, 56 69, Service learning and criminal justice: an exploratory study of student perceptions Alison S. Burke a * and Michael D. Bush b a Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Southern Oregon University, Ashland, OR, USA; b Department of Political Science & Criminal Justice, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY, USA In recent years, more university programs have been encompassing service learning components to augment their academic studies. Service learning engages students in activities that meet community needs. The students acquire a deeper understanding of course content, requirements within the discipline, and civic responsibilities. This paper will explore the attitudes and perceptions that Criminal Justice students have toward service learning. A sample of 54 undergraduate students from a liberal arts university in the Pacific Northwest were asked to reflect on their service learning classes, out of class activities, and discuss any barriers that made service learning classes more difficult. The results indicate that while students found service learning experiences beneficial to their undergraduate education, the barriers of time, money, and family obligations prevent many students from participating. Educators can utilize this insight when deciding if and when to utilize service learning in their courses. Keywords: service learning; student perceptions; higher education; learning Introduction The academic pedagogy of service learning has received increased attention as a valuable tool for encouraging critical thinking, student involvement, and more meaningful academic experiences (Madsen 2004; Love 2008). As the scholarship of engagement becomes more important within the learning process, recent research has shown a dramatic increase in the number of service learning programs being implemented at colleges and universities (Hinck and Brandell 2000; Ward and Wolf-Wendel, 2000; Steffes 2004). These innovative teaching strategies have become more appealing due to their capacity for increasing the quality of the undergraduate education. Service learning provides an opportunity to increase students level of breadth and depth of understanding of course material, which will better prepare undergraduates for their career, and ultimately, contribute to the evolution of the criminology discipline. Penn (2003) reminds us that service is at the core of any college or university and examples can be found on any campus in areas including the work of faculty, academic and social organizations, fraternities and sororities, service clubs, internships, work study, and graduate assistantships. The act of service in settings of *Corresponding author. Ó 2013 Educational Review
2 Educational Review 57 higher education is not lacking; however, these acts of service are not always integrated into the learning process and are often something that students and faculty approach separate from their courses. Typically, the university curriculum incorporates internships and practicum opportunities for involving students in real world experiences and for preparation for future career possibilities (Penn 2003). Unfortunately, these courses often are available for students during their junior or senior year when there is little time left to reflect and grow from their experiences. While this may allow them to apply more classroom material to their service learning experience, it does not afford them the time to apply their experience to their classroom endeavors. As a circular learning process, service learning can provide students with the requisite experiences to assist them with preparation for their careers. While service learning has received increased attention in recent years, it is still not fully embraced by all educators or students. The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitudes and perceptions that Criminal Justice students at a liberal arts university in the Pacific Northwest have toward service learning. Since the authors of this paper teach criminology and criminal justice classes, the authors were interested in assessing the utility of community based learning concepts in their curricula. It is hypothesized that students who participate in service learning will be more satisfied with their educational experiences than students who do not take service learning classes. Additionally, this paper explores whether students who do engage in service learning classes benefit from the experiences. In this way, the current study seeks to contribute to the literature on service learning and enhance higher education pedagogy. Literature review Service learning defined Service learning is defined as an academic tool that addresses real-life human and community needs through structured educational techniques that involve traditional educational format, active participation, and reflection (Penn 2003, 371; see also Jacoby 1996). Within service learning pedagogy, education in a classroom setting creates a basis for action in the community, which promotes reflection about the concepts taught within those educational settings. Penn (2003) uses the acronym EAR to express the core elements of service learning: Education, Action, and Reflection. Education may continue to take place in the traditional classroom environment and may continue to transfer course material and provide assessment through conventional methods (e.g. textbooks, lectures, discussions, assignments, tests). Action refers to the tangible service learning component of the course, or the type of service that a student will perform. Action may include direct service, indirect service, or civic action (Penn 2003). Direct service refers to working personally with community members in need while indirect service refers to working with agencies or organizations that help community members in need. Additionally, civic action refers to student-group collaborations designed to identify and target specific community problems. Dewey (1916, 147) identifies reflection as a sympathetic identification of our own destiny. Reflection has been referred to as the central component of service learning and involves thinking and analyzing experiences from the service learning site.
3 58 A.S. Burke and M.D. Bush Historical overview Throughout the early part of the 1900s, three different streams of thought were presented for determining what comprised a liberal education and, more importantly, how a liberal education should be disseminated; these streams of thought were the distribution system, the core curriculum, and experiential learning (Katz 2005). The distribution system, which obliges students to take courses in different groupings of disciplines, has been criticized for combining forced structured diversity with the deliberate rejection of specific courses, providing only the appearance of a diverse, or liberal, education. The second stream of thought was driven by a need to promote the ideals of Western civilization as the United States entered World War I. This stream of thought became known at Harvard as the core curriculum and was designed to broadly educate and integrate students across a wide range of courses. However, this system is typically reduced into a fragmented and compartmentalized approach from both students and faculty, with little integration of the wide range of material that a liberal education has to offer. Interestingly, the core curriculum system has become one of the unchallenged principles of general education at higher institutions. The third stream of thought, experiential learning, was introduced as a viable academic pedagogy by the likes of John Dewey, Jean Piaget, David Kolb, and other scholars (Steffes 2004). Experiential learning focused on cognitive development, personal growth, and reflection while emphasizing actual experience and individual learning. Theoretical overview The most prevalent theoretical model associated with service learning pedagogy is Kolb s experiential learning cycle (Madsen 2004; see also Kolb 1984), which draws from the works of Dewey s educational philosophy, Piaget s developmental psychology, and Lewin s social psychology. Kolb s (1984) four-stage model describes the relational process of learning that allows the transformation of information through experience. Learning begins when an individual becomes immersed within an experience, or feeling (Wyrick 2003). From this concrete experience (Stage 1 of the model) an individual may then enter into a stage of reflective observation, or Stage 2. The stage of reflective observation, or examination, leads the individual to develop an explanation about the concrete experience, which represents the third stage of the model, abstract conceptualization. In this stage, the individual attempts to make sense of the consequences that resulted from their initial action(s). The fourth and final stage, active experimentation, is when the individual applies the model of explanation developed in Stage 3 when presented with a new situation or experience. Three reflective-based questions are designed to guide students through the information-processing model in a service learning course: (1) What?; (2) So what?; and (3) Now what? The question What? requires students to reflect on a recent concrete experience from their service learning site (Stage 2 of Kolb s cycle reflective observation; the concrete experience represents Stage 1). The subsequent question So what? requires students to think about their past experiences at the service learning site and relate them to their lives in the present moment (Stage 3 of Kolb s cycle abstract conceptualization). The remaining question Now what? requires students to imagine how they will react to situations in the future given what they have experienced and conceptualized (hypothesizing about Stage 4 of Kolb s cycle active experimentation).
4 Educational Review 59 The model is designed to explain the process of learning within the environment. It is important to remember that this process can occur anytime an individual is in a situation where information can be processed, which often happens at the service learning site (Wyrick 2003). Dewey (1916) stated that this fundamental principle of education as a dynamic process is generally contradicted within our teaching methodologies and stressed the importance of individuals interacting with their environment. Benefits of service learning Many educators believe students learn best when they are actively engaged in the learning process (Bradford 2005). Thus, the formation of learning environments that use kinesthetic or experiential learning would assist students with integrating course content and real world scenarios. This may prove beneficial as many undergraduates entering the working world do not obtain the requisite skills necessary to perform their jobs effectively or efficiently (Levine 2005). Thus, it has been argued that educational experiences should increase student activities inside and outside the classroom; promote knowledge acquisition and educational performance; increase group-based and cooperative learning; and assist students in developing solutions to real-world, complex problems (Wells and Grabert 2004). A review of the literature reveals that an increasing number of teachers are incorporating service learning into their class curriculum; although, relatively few of these efforts have included criminal justice courses. While teaching a class that incorporates service learning takes planning and flexibility, the students experiences and outcomes appear to be quite favorable (Penn 2003). Penn (2003) used service learning to augment a course about crime control with the assistance of community organizations such as The Boys and Girls Club (which is an afterschool youth program) and campus police. A majority of students in this course reported that the service learning experience was a valuable component for learning about criminal justice issues. Academically speaking, the students were able to apply criminological theories to real life situations, thereby assisting them with comprehension of the material. Bordt and Lawler (2005) utilized experiential learning principles for a course about prisons when teaching both first year and upper class students. Students were provided opportunities to think critically and reflectively about societal institutions through the use of course readings, a reflection paper at the beginning of the term, film documentaries such as Quiet Rage: The Stanford Prison Experiment, guest speakers, and field trips to prisons. Hartmus, Cauthen, and Levine (2006) incorporated service learning in their classes to enhance students knowledge about courts. Students reported they were greatly satisfied with their experiences monitoring courts in New York City and indicated that both the service learning and guest speakers should be incorporated into future classes. For a class about juvenile justice, Hirschinger-Blank and Markowitz s (2006) integration of service learning resulted in experiences that changed students attitudes about service, decreased stereotypes, helped them work well with others, provided insight into career interests, and allowed them to apply criminological theories to the empirical world. Similarly, an evaluation of a service learning model for criminal justice revealed that students reported increases in intellectual development, theory application, their ability to examine issues from multiple perspectives and an increased capacity to
5 60 A.S. Burke and M.D. Bush work with youth, as well as a reduced inclination to stereotype (Hirschinger-Blank, Simons, and Kenyon 2009). Students participating in the evaluation also reported they felt they were better able to make a positive difference in the lives of young people. According to a study by Strage (2004), students who participated in a service learning course outperformed other students who did not, scoring higher in the class overall and on the last two exams. Furthermore, it was reported that students in the service learning course were able to make more precise connections between course concepts and real world examples. Beyond the classroom, service learning inspires hope, promotes social justice, advocates agents of change, commitment to building community, and cultivating a universal recognition and respect (Leonard 2004, 62). Overall, service learning is able to enhance higher education. Research hypotheses Given the prior research finding that service learning classes help increase the quality of undergraduate education, the following hypothesis is examined: Hypothesis 1 (H1): Students who have taken service learning classes are generally more satisfied with their undergraduate experience and chosen major than students who have not taken service learning classes. The second hypothesis is derived from prior research which has found that students view service learning as a favorable experience for promoting real world experience and group participation (Bradford 2005; Levine 2006). This hypothesis is as follows: Hypothesis 2 (H2): Students who have taken service learning classes will view the experiences as beneficial. The following analysis examines these hypotheses to develop a better understanding of students perceptions and experiences of service learning. Methods The current research anonymously surveyed undergraduate students at a small liberal arts university in the Pacific Northwest. While it is recognized that the experiences and attitudes of such a small grouping of students may not be internationally generalizable, it is hoped the general themes and perceptions of student engagement might transcend the region where the data were collected. The survey contained both qualitative and quantitative questions and was administered to approximately 231 criminology and criminal justice majors via student . The qualitative research questions were used as a means of identifying influences and exploring context within the participants world (Maxwell 2005). These were open ended questions where participants were able to express their views and opinions without set parameters and established categories. In this way, the methods focus on representing the participants words and descriptions instead of numbers. The quantitative questions, however, use the set parameters and ask the students to identify prearranged categories. An advantage of qualitative research is that it seeks to uncover information regarding essential characteristics where quantitative methods may fall
6 Educational Review 61 short. An exploratory study about service learning can utilize qualitative research because of the diversity of students experiences within a college setting. There are myriad reasons that might explain students perceptions regarding service learning, barriers to service learning, and extracurricular activities. The current research utilized open ended questions to help extrapolate information about student perceptions. The questionnaire contained three major sections. First, respondents were asked to provide demographic and background information including gender, race, age, class standing, major, over-all grade point average (GPA), whether they were a full-time or part-time student, and their employment status (Table 1). Respondents were also asked to report why they chose their current major and what barriers they faced as an undergraduate student. The second section of the questionnaire focused on questions about service learning. Using McKinney et al. s (2004) exploratory study of out of class learning in sociology as a guide, the students in this study were asked to indicate how often they participated in various out-of-class opportunities (e.g. club participation, enrolling in independent studies, volunteer work, tutoring other students, or participating in academic field trips). The respondents used a five-point scale where 1 = never and 5 = very often (Table 2). The students were also asked to respond to questions regarding barriers to service learning and were asked to identify any additional barriers (Table 3). The third section of the questionnaire asked for students perceptions about their service learning experience (Table 4). Based on common themes and outcomes found to be salient in the literature, the respondents were asked to identify their perceptions regarding whether the service learning experience helped them work well with others, overcome stereotypes and increase appreciation for other cultures, to empower themselves, view themselves differently, and provide them with an experience to apply classroom knowledge to the real world. Results Due to the exploratory nature of the current study, the results are presented as descriptive statistics of the quantitative questions, which compare students who have taken service learning classes with students who have not, and a content analysis of the qualitative questions. The purpose of this study was to flesh out central themes within service learning and to ascertain whether or not students perceptions correspond with the literature. Of the 54 respondents, 16 (29.6%) were male and 38 (70.4%) were female. A large majority of respondents were Caucasian (83.3%) and 25% of the sample reported being 31 years of age or older (Table 1). Many of the respondents were in their senior year (45.3%) standing. The GPA ranged from 3.0 to 3.9 (71.2%) on a 4.0 scale. Additionally, a 94.3% of respondents were full-time students and 57.4% were employed either full or part time. Specifically, 27.8% reported having full-time employment (21 40 hours per week) and 29.6% reported part-time employment (20 hours or less per week). When asked how satisfied they were with their undergraduate education, 95.2% of students (N = 20) who had taken service learning classes reported they were satisfied or very satisfied; 84.2% (N = 28) of students who did not take service learning classes reported the same. Conversely, 100% (N = 33) of those who had not taken a service learning class reported being satisfied or very
7 62 A.S. Burke and M.D. Bush Table 1. Demographics. N =54 Community service Yes Community service Yes (N) Community service No Community service No (N) Gender Male Female Total % Race African American Asian Caucasian Hispanic American Indian Native Hawaiian Other Age older Class Freshman Sophomore Junior Senior Graduate student Other GPA Below Student Full time Part time Employed Full time Part time Not employed
8 Educational Review 63 Table 2. Participation in out of class activities. N = 54 (Yes, N = 21; No, N = 33) Participated in any clubs? Taken community service class Never Rarely Sometimes Often Very often Yes No Tutored other students? Yes No Enrolled in independent study? Yes No Gone on an academic field trip? Yes No Formed or participated in study group? Yes No Attended a campus event? Engaged in volunteer work? Yes No Yes No satisfied with their chosen major while 90.4% (N = 19) of those who had taken a service learning class were satisfied or very satisfied with their major. A number of respondents indicated their choice to major in criminal justice evolved from their interests in the field or because they simply find the subject interesting (59.4%), their innate desire to work in the field (16.2%), or because they have family working in law enforcement or have personal experience with the justice system (9%). Others reported they wanted to help people or their community (9%). When asked what challenges they face as undergraduate students, an overwhelming majority (30.6%) declared that time management was a problem; especially balancing work, family, and school. Also, 21.6% responded that money was a major challenge. Specifically, students expressed the challenge of finding the means to pay for college. One student wrote, financial issues: not being able to find a job, school is expensive. Others reported that the actual work load in school was challenging, Studying and doing a lot of homework, and staying on top of all the reading materials.
9 64 A.S. Burke and M.D. Bush Table 3. Barriers. N = 54 (Yes, N = 21; No, N = 33) Taken community service class Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree I do not have time to participate in activities outside the classroom Yes No I cannot afford to attend activities outside of the classroom Yes No The out of class activities are inconveniently located Yes No My teachers did not require outside activities as part of the course requirement Yes No I am not interested in out of class activities Yes No I do not believe that out of class activities are useful or beneficial to my education Yes No The students were also asked about their involvement in extracurricular activities. Interestingly, a majority of the students reported never participating in out of class activities, which is consistent with the results from the study conducted by McKinney et al. (2004). Of the list of out of class activities (see Table 2) the highest response rate was participation in volunteer work and attending campus events. Students who had taken a service learning class reported participating in volunteer work, whereas more students who had not taken a service learning class reported attending campus events. A majority of the students overall had never participated in any clubs, tutored other students, enrolled in an independent study, gone on an academic fieldtrip, or formed or participated in a study group. The students were additionally asked to identify barriers that impede their extracurricular activities (see Table 3). It is interesting to note that a majority think out of class activities are beneficial to their education but do not attend these activities because they cannot afford to or because their teacher did not require their attendance. When asked to elaborate on other barriers that impede students from participating in out of class activities, 40% responded that time is an issue: The only one I encountered was going to an arraignment. I had to work really hard to fit it into my schedule with work and school. I like to attend activities as often as possible, but I work two jobs and go to school for 17 credit hours it makes life a little hard.
10 Educational Review 65 Classes, home work, job, the volunteer work I do already, kids. There just isn t enough hours in the week. Work and two young kids. Other barriers mentioned included not having transportation/commuting long distances for school (27%), and mental/physical health issues (13%). Other students reported they had no interest in the activities that were offered (0.04%) or that there were too few courses offered (0.04%). Table 4. Service learning. N =19 Increase your appreciation for different cultures? Decrease any stereotypes that you may have had? Strongly disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree Help you work well with others? Help you view yourself differently? Did the experience empower you? Were you able to apply classroom material to your community based learning (CBL) activity? Did the experience help you challenge the material you learned in the classroom? Did it provide learning you would not have been able to get in the classroom? Did you find it helpful to your overall undergraduate experience? Was it helpful to your major? Will you be more inclined to be involved in your community after the experience? Do you view yourself as able to solve problems in the community? Do you feel more connected to the community after your experience? Did CBL impact your career goals? Would you recommend CBL to other students?
11 66 A.S. Burke and M.D. Bush The last section of the questionnaire asked student about their service learning experiences (Table 4). From the 54 initial respondents, only 19 reported engaging in community based, service learning, or internship classes. Furthermore, 58% of the students classified their service learning experience as an internship, which entailed working for an outside agency. Also, 38% said their service learning experience involved classroom learning paired with community service and reflection. A majority of the students indicated that it was a positive experience that helped them connect to the community, apply classroom material to the real world, and influence career goals. One student wrote, It helped me decide this was the career that I wanted to be involved with. However, another student noted, my internship was where I was normally employed. Therefore, I learned nothing NEW. Looking back it would have been nice to do an internship where I would be more active in the community. Overall, nearly 80% of the students would recommend a service learning class to other students. Discussion The current study focused on students experiences and perceptions of service learning class. It was hypothesized that students who had taken service learning classes would have different academic experience than their counterparts who had not taken service learning classes. Unfortunately, the results did not support this. While a majority of the students who had taken a service learning class were satisfied with their undergraduate education, 100% of the students who had not taken a service learning class were satisfied with their chosen major. The satisfaction, it would appear, had nothing to do with service learning. Similarly, based on the literature, one would assume that the GPA of students who had taken service learning classes would be higher than those who had not, but both groups of student reported the same GPAs. Additionally, neither group was more inclined than the other to be involved in out of class activities, such as tutoring students, participating in independent studies, or going on academic field trips. This requires further investigation and perhaps a more detailed examination of the particular service learning classes. The results from this study indicate that students view service learning as a positive aspect of their education. This is supported by the literature. The problem, as noted by Penn (2003), is that most of the students take service learning classes later in their college careers, and therefore have less time to reflect upon the experience. The small sample of students who had taken a service learning course report that it was useful to their overall undergraduate experience, helpful with their major, and that they are likely to recommend a service learning class to other students. Additionally, a majority of the students indicated that they will be more inclined to be involved in their community after the experience. The fundamental purpose of a liberal arts education is to create well rounded, civically engaged students, who think critically about the world around them (Harris 1991). It might be beneficial to incorporate service learning classes earlier in the undergraduate curricula and have the students engaged for their entire educational experience rather than just the last year. This might also help the students participate more actively in out of class activities. The students in this study found the service learning experience beneficial, yet the barriers of time, money, and family obligations prevent many students from participation. The fact that students indicated time was an issue for service
12 Educational Review 67 learning is not too surprising given that a majority of the sample were older non-traditional students. However, the interesting result is that many of the students also indicated distance was an issue, which makes us interested to know how many students in this sample were distance education/online students and not on campus at all. This brings into question about designing service learning classes for online students and not just face-to-face students. Additionally, one of the barriers the students noted was mental/physical health. Specifically, one student responded to having PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), which was a barrier to service learning. The mental health of students might be an area of further study. The challenge then is for teachers to think about these barriers and the evolving nature of higher education and then creatively design service learning requirements into their curricula. This study was primarily intended as an exploratory endeavor and does provide some useful information about service learning; however, there are limitations that need to be addressed, such as a small sample size and selection bias. Although the questionnaire was sent to roughly 231 criminal justice majors, only 25% responded and even fewer had taken a service learning class. Additionally, the majority of respondents reported to be female students and good students with high GPAs. This is not representative of all of the students in the criminal justice department and cannot be generalizable to all students across all disciplines. Yet, despite these limitations, this study is important because it touches on the perceptions of service learning and adds to the foundation for further inquiry. It is necessary to continue to address the ever changing needs of students in order to facilitate engagement, critical thinking, and well rounded individuals. Conclusion Bringle, Phillips, and Hudson (2004) define service learning as a pedagogical practice that links students, communities, and institutions through service and citizenship (124). By engaging in service activities such as internships and volunteer services, students are encouraged to gain a deeper sense of social responsibility (129). There are several areas that are believed to be enhanced through the use of service education and service learning courses; these include achieving diversity, interpersonal development, personal development, intellectual development, and citizen behavior. These outcomes are meant to augment the information that students gain from traditional class settings and provide an avenue for synthesis of information obtained. The need for university educated criminal justice professionals is growing rapidly (Penn 2003). Theoretically, service learning is an academic pedagogy that allows students to digest and process information differently from traditional teaching strategies. The results of this study show more similarities than differences between the groups of students who had taken service learning classes and those who had not. However, the students who did take service learning classes said the experience helped them work well with others, helped view themselves differently, and provided them with learning they would not have been able to get in the classroom. These are important tools that will help the students after graduation as they enter the work force. Well developed interpersonal skills were listed by employers among the top 10 skills sought after in university graduates (Graduate Outlook Survey 2010).
13 68 A.S. Burke and M.D. Bush The students perceptions and attitudes toward service learning were very favorable, which makes us, as educators, consider the implementation of these classes. It is suggested that getting the students involved early in their undergraduate careers, while still being mindful of their limited time and other barriers, might help them to be more active and enhance their overall educational experience. Our job is to constantly strive for new and improved ways of delivering content and engaging our students in the pursuit of life-long learning. It is important for students to critically reflect on the world around them (Estes 2004). Consequently, students who gain real world experience, can work well with others, and have an appreciation of different cultures are better suited to the multidimensional and multi-faceted work inherent within the criminal justice system. Education is more than just the transmission of words or numbers; it is an interactive and developmental process (Dewey 1916). Therefore, the academic pedagogy of service learning can be a very effective framework for teaching undergraduate students. References Bordt, R., and M.J. Lawler Teaching a course on prisons: A design, some resources, and a little advice. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 16, no. 1: Bradford, M Motivating students through project-based service learning. The Journal 32, no. 6: Bringle, R.G., M.A. Phillips, and M. Hudson The measure of service learning: Research scales to assess student experiences. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Dewey, J Democracy in education: An introduction to the philosophy of education. New York: The Free Press. Estes, C.A Promoting student-centered learning in experiential education. Journal of Experiential Education 27, no. 2: Graduate Outlook Survey University of Canterbury. GoAustralia2011/resources/index.htm?referrerUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.graduateopportunities.com%2F (accessed September 4, 2011). Harris, R On the purpose of a liberal arts education. Virtusalt. com/libarted.htm [16 April 2010]. Hartmus, D., J. Cauthen, and J. Levine Enriching student understanding of trial courts through service learning. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 17, no. 1: Hinck, S.S., and M.E. Brandell The relationship between institutional support and campus acceptance of academic service learning. American Behavioral Scientist 43: Hirschinger-Blank, N., and M.W. Markowitz An evaluation of a pilot service-learning course for criminal justice undergraduates. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 17, no. 1: Hirschinger-Blank, N.B., L. Simons, and A. Kenyon An evaluation of a service learning model for criminal justice undergraduate students. Journal of Experiential Education 32, no. 1: Jacoby, B Service-learning in today s higher education. In Service-learning in higher education: Concepts and practices, ed. B. Jacoby and Associates. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Katz, S.N Liberal education on the ropes. 30b00601.htm [20 April 2005]. Kolb, D.A Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Leonard, A Service learning as a transgressive pedagogy: A must for today s generation. Cross Currents 54, no. 2:
14 Educational Review 69 Levine, M College graduates aren t ready for the real world. prm/weekly/v51/i24/24b01101.htm [25 February 2005]. Love, S.R Keeping it real: Connecting feminist criminology and activism through service learning. Feminist criminology 3, no. 4: Madsen, S.R Academic service learning in human resource management education. Journal of Education for Business 79, no. 6: Maxwell, J.A Qualitative research design: An interactive approach. 2nd ed Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. McKinney, K., M. Medvedeva, K. Vacca, and J. Malak Beyond the classroom: An exploratory study of out-of-class learning in sociology. Teaching Sociology 32, no. 1: Penn, E.B Service-learning: A tool to enhance criminal justice. Journal of Criminal Justice Education 14, no. 2: Steffes, J.S Creative powerful learning environments beyond the classroom. Change 36, no. 3: Strage, A Long-term academic benefits of service-learning: When and where do they manifest themselves? College Student Journal 38, no. 2: Ward, K., and L. Wolf-Wendel Community-centered service learning: Moving from doing for to doing with. American Behavioral Scientist 43, no. 5: Wells, C.V., and C. Grabert Service-learning and mentoring: Effective pedagogical strategies. College Student Journal 38, no. 4: Wyrick, D.A Understanding learning styles to be a more effective team leader and engineering manager. Engineering Management Journal 15, no. 1:
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