# Independent Monopoly Size In Graphs

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1 Available at Appl. Appl. Math. ISSN: Vol. 10, Issue (December 015), pp Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM) Independent Monopoly Size In Graphs Ahmed Mohammed Naji and N. D. Soner Department of Studies in Mathematics University of Mysore, Manasagangotri Mysuru , India Received: June, 015; Accepted: October 1, 015 Abstract In a graph G = (V, E), a set D V (G) is said to be a monopoly set of G if every vertex v V D has at least d(v) neighbors in D. The monopoly size of G, denoted mo(g), is the minimum cardinality of a monopoly set among all monopoly sets in G. The set D V (G) is an independent monopoly set in G if it is both a monopoly set and an independent set in G. The number of vertices in a minimum independent monopoly set in a graph G is the independent monopoly size of G and is denoted by imo(g). In this paper, we study the existence of independent monopoly set in graphs, bounds for imo(g), and some exact values for some standard graphs are obtained. Finally we characterize all graphs of order n with imo(g) = 1, n 1 and n. Keywords: Vertex degree; monopoly set of a graph; independent monopoly set of a graph; independent monopoly size of a graph MSC 010 No.: 05C07; 05C69 1. Introduction We consider here a simple graph G = (V, E) that is finite, having no loops, and no multiple and directed edges. We denote by n = V and m = E the number of vertices and edges of G, respectively. For a vertex v V, the open neighborhood of v in G, denoted N(v), is the set of all vertices that are adjacent to v and the closed neighborhood of v is N[v] = N(v) {v}. The 738

2 AAM: Intern. J., Vol. 10, Issue (December 015) 739 degree of vertex v in G, denoted by d(v), is the number of its neighbors in G. By an isolated vertex we mean the vertex of degree 0 and an end-vertex is a vertex of degree 1. We denote by and δ the maximum and minimum degree among the vertices of G, respectively. For a non-empty subset S V and a vertex v V we denote by d S (v) the degree of v in S, i.e. d S (v) = N(v) S. A graph H is a subgraph of a graph G if V (H) V (G) and E(H) E(G). We denote by S the induced subgraph of G that is induced by vertex set S V such that E( S ) = {uv E(G) u, v S}. A complete graph on n vertices, denoted by K n, is a graph that contains exactly one edge between each pair of distinct vertices. A complete bipartite graph, denoted by K n,m, is a graph that has its vertex set partitioned into two subsets V 1 of size n and V of size m such that there is an edge from every vertex in V 1 to every vertex in V. A star graph is K 1,n complete bipartite graph. The graph W n = K 1 + C n 1, for n 4, is called the wheel graph of order n. A k-regular graph is a graph where each vertex has k degree. If G does not contain a graph F as an induced subgraph, then we say that G is F -free. In particular, we say that a graph is claw-free if it is K 1,3 -free. We denote by G the complement graph of G, rg is the r disjoint copy of G, x is the smallest integer number greater than or equal to x, and x is the greatest integer number smaller than or equal to x. Definition. In a graph G, the clique C is a subset of vertices such that C is complete. The clique number of G, denoted ω(g), is the number of vertices in the largest clique in G. For more terminologies and notations in graph theory not defined here, we refer the reader to books by Bondy et al. (008) and Harary (1969). Independent (or stable) sets of vertices in graphs is one of the most commonly studied concepts in graph theory. Definition. A set I V is independent if no two vertices in I are adjacent. The independent sets of maximum cardinality are called maximum independent sets. The number of vertices in a maximum independent set in a graph G is the independence number (or vertex independence number) of G and is denoted by α(g). The maximum independent sets are the independent sets that have received the most attention. There are also certain independent sets of minimum cardinality that are of interest. Ordinarily, a graph contains many independent sets. Definition. An independent set of vertices that is not properly contained in any other independent set of vertices is a maximal independent set of vertices. The minimum number of vertices in a maximal independent set is denoted by i(g). The parameter i(g) is also called the independence domination number as it is a smallest cardinality of an independent set of vertices that dominate all vertices of G. Some graphs contain independent set D such that every vertex v V D has at least d(v) neighbors in D. The goal of this paper is to study the existence of such independent sets in graphs and, when they exist, to investigate the minimum cardinality of such a set. Definition. A subset S V is called a dominating set of G if every vertex in V S is adjacent to some vertex in S. The domination number γ(g) of G is the minimum cardinality of a dominating set in G.

3 740 A. M. Naji & N. D. Soner For more details in domination theory we refer to Haynes et al. (1998). Definition. A subset D V is called a monopoly set in G if every vertex v V D has at least d(v) neighbors in D. The monopoly size, mo(g), of G is the minimum cardinality of a monopoly set among all monopoly sets in G. The concept of monopoly in graphs was introduced by Khoshkhak et al. (see Khoshkhak et al. (013)). In particular, monopolies are a dynamic monopoly (dynamos) that, when colored black at a certain time step, will cause the entire graph to be colored black in the next time step under an irreversible majority conversion process. Dynamos were first introduced by Peleg (00). For more details in dynamos in graphs we refer to Berger (001), Bermond et al. (003), Flocchini et al. (003), Mishra et al. (006), and Zaker (01) and references therein. Definition. A subset D V is called an independent monopoly set (shortly imo-set) of a graph G if D is both monopoly and independent set. The independence monopoly size, denoted by imo(g), is the cardinality of a minimum independent monopoly set in G. To illustrate this concept, consider the graph G in Figure 1. The set {v 1, v, v 4, v 6, v 8 } is a maximum independent set in G and so α(g) = 5. The set D 1 = {v 3, v 5, v 7 } is a minimum monopoly set in G and so mo(g) = 3, however, D 1 is not an independent monopoly set in G. The set D = {v 3, v 4, v 6, v 8 } is a minimum independent monopoly set in G. Hence, imo(g) = 4. v v 1 v 3 v 8 v 6 v 5 v 4 v 7 Figure 1: The graph G with α(g) = 5, mo(g) = 3 and imo(g) = 4. The following are some fundamental results which will be required for many of our arguments in this paper: Theorem 1. (Khoshkhak et al. (013)) Let G be a graph on n vertices with m edges whose maximum degree is (G). Then m 3 (G) mo(g) n.

4 AAM: Intern. J., Vol. 10, Issue (December 015) 741 Theorem. (Khoshkhak et al. (013)) Let G be any regular graph on n vertices. Then Theorem 3. (Naji et al. (015)) mo(g) n 3. Let G be a graph of order n and minimum degree δ 1. Then δ mo(g) n δ +. Observation 1: (Goddard et al. (013)) If G is a regular graph on n vertices with no isolated vertex, then i(g) α(g) n. Theorem 4. (Li et al. (1990)) For any claw-free graph on n vertices α(g) n +. Theorem 5. (Bondy et al. (008)) Any graph G contains a spanning bipartite subgraph H such that d H (v) d(v).. The independent monopoly size of a graph Not all graphs have an independent monopoly set, however, and so imo(g) is not defined for all graphs G. For example, the independent sets of a complete graph K n consist of only one vertex while a monopoly set of K n contains at least n vertices. Thus imo(k n) is not defined for every n 4. Figure shows two 3-regular graphs with order 6. A subset {v 1, v 3, v 6 } is a minimum monopoly set of G 1, while the subset {v 1, v 6 } is the maximum independent set, i.e. mo(g 1 ) = 3 and α(g 1 ) =. Then imo(g 1 ) is not defined in G 1. For a graph G = K 3,3, every partite set in G is a monopoly and also an independent set in same time. Hence, imo(g ) is defined. Furthermore, imo(g ) = 3. v 4 v 1 v 1 v 6 v5 G 1 : G : v v 3 v 3 v v 6 v 5 v 4 Figure : Two 3-regular graphs with 6 vertices. Since every independent monopoly set in G is a monopoly set, we have the following result.

5 74 A. M. Naji & N. D. Soner Observation : Let G be a graph of order n, for which imo(g) is defined. Then 1 mo(g) imo(g) α(g) n. Since every monopoly set in a graph G is a dominating set (Naji et al. (015)), then any independent monopoly set in a graph G is an independent dominating set. Observation 3: Let G be a graph, for which imo(g) is defined. Then Lemma 1. γ(g) i(g) imo(g). For any graph G, if G = G 1 G... G r, where r n, then imo(g) = imo(g 1 ) + imo(g ) imo(g r ). Lemma. For any graph G. If every independent set in G is not a monopoly set, then the imo-set of G does not exist. Observation 4: For any graph G, if α(g) < mo(g), then imo(g) is not defined. In general, the inverse of the observation 4 is not true. For example, let {v 1, v, v 3, v 4 } be the vertex set of a graph K 4 and let G be a graph obtained from K 4 by join r end-vertices (say u 1, u,..., u r ) to a vertex v 1 in K 4. The set I = {v, u 1,..., u r } is a maximum independent set in G and so α(g) = r While the set S = {v 1, v 3 } is a minimum monopoly set in G. However, α(g) > mo(g) but imo(g) is not defined. Proposition 1. Let G be a graph and let D V be a monopoly set in G. If α( N(v) ) < d(v), for any v V D, then D is not independent. Let D be a monopoly set in a graph G and let α( N(v) ) < d(v) for v V D. Since D is a monopoly set and v / D it follows that N(v) D d(v). (1) On the other hand, since (N(v) D) N(v), then α( N(v) D ) α( N(v) ) < d(v). () From Equations (.1) and (.) we get α( N(v) D ) < N(v) D. Hence the subset N(v) D is not independent set in G. Accordingly, D is not an independent set.

6 AAM: Intern. J., Vol. 10, Issue (December 015) 743 Proposition. If G is a graph of order n 3, then imo-set of G exists. Furthermore, imo(g) = 1. Theorem 6. For any graph G with at least four vertices, if G contains two adjacent vertices v 1 and v with α( N(v i ) ) < d(v i), for every i = 1,, then imo(g) is not defined. Let G be a graph of order n 4 and let G contains two adjacent vertices v 1 and v with α( N(v i ) ) < d(v i), for every i = 1,. Then any independent set in G does not contain v 1 and v in same time. Let I be an arbitrary independent set in G. Then either v 1 / I or v / I or both not in I. Assume that v 1 / I. Since I is an independent set, then N(v 1 ) I = α( N(v 1 ) I ) α( N(v 1 ) ) < d(v 1). Hence, I is not a monopoly set in G. Since I is an arbitrary independent set in G, it follows that every independent set in G is not a monopoly set. Therefore, by Lemma imo(g) is not defined. The proof is similar if v / I or both v 1 and v not in I. Theorem 7. Let G be a graph and let C be a clique in G with C 4. If C contains two vertices v 1 and v with d C (v i ) d(v i) +, for every i = 1,, then imo(g) is not defined. Let C be a clique with C 4 in a graph G and let C contains two vertices v 1 and v with d C (v i ) d(v i) +, for every i = 1,. Since v 1, v C, it follows that v 1 and v are adjacent vertices in G and α( N(v i ) C ) = 1, for every i = 1,. Then, since N(v i ) (V C) = d V C (v i ) = d(v i ) d C (v i ), it follows that N(v i ) (V C) d(v i), for every i = 1,. Hence, α( N(v i ) ) = α( N(v i ) C ) + α( N(v i ) (V C) ) 1 + N(v i ) (V C) 1 + d(v i) = d(v i) 1 for every i = 1,. Accordingly, the vertices v 1 and v are adjacent in G with α( N(v i ) ) < d(v i) for i = 1,. By Theorem 6, imo(g) is not defined. Corollary 1. Let G be a graph and let C be a clique in G with C 4. If C contains two vertices v 1 and v with d(v i ) C 6, for every i = 1,, then imo(g) is not defined.

7 744 A. M. Naji & N. D. Soner Theorem 8. Every graph G of order n contains a spanning subgraph H with imo(h) n. By Theorem 5, any graph G contains a spanning bipartite subgraph H such that d H (v) d(v). At least one of the partite sets of H has at most n vertices. Hence, each partite set forms an imo-set in G. By taken the partite set which has a smallest cardinality then the bound is held. Theorem 9. Let G be a connected graph with order n 3 and a clique number ω(g), for which imo(g) is defined. Then ω(g) imo(g) n ω(g) + 1. Let C m be a maximum clique in a graph G (i.e. C m = ω(g)) and let D be an imo-set in G. Then D C m 1 (by the independence of D) and since C m, then C m D φ. Also, N(v) D d(v) for every v (C m D) V D (by the monopoly of D). On the other hand, for every v C m, since then N(v) = (N(v) C m ) (N(v) (V C m ) D N(v) = [D (N(v) C m )] [D (N(v) (V C m )]. Thus, d(v) N(v) D (N(v) C m ) D + (N(v) (V C m ) D, for every v C m D. Then, d(v) 1+d(v) (ω 1). Sequentially, d(v) ω. Therefore, D N(v) D d(v) ω, for every v C m D. For upper bound, since n D = V D (V D) C m ω(g) 1, it follows that imo(g) = D n ω(g) + 1. The bounds in Theorem 9 are sharp. K achieves the upper bound and K 3 achieves both lower and upper bounds. Also, there is a graph G with order n = 5 and ω = 4 which achieves both lower and upper bounds, where G is a graph obtained from K 4 by joining three vertices from V (K 4 ) by a common vertex not in K 4. Theorem 10. Let G be a graph of order n 3 and minimum degree δ 1, for which imo(g) is defined. Then δ imo(g) n δ. Let G be a graph of order n 3 and δ 1, for which imo(g) is defined. By Observation, mo(g) imo(g) α(g) and by using the well-known result α(g) n δ and Theorem 3,

8 AAM: Intern. J., Vol. 10, Issue (December 015) 745 we get δ imo(g) n δ. The bounds in Theorem 10 are sharp. K 3 achieves the lower and the upper bounds. C 4 and K n, n achieve the upper bound. Corollary. Let G be a graph of order n 3 and δ n, for which imo(g) is defined. Then 3 imo(g) = n 3. Since every bipartite graph without isolated vertex is the union of two independent sets, each of which is a monopoly set, we have the following result on the imo-set of a bipartite graph. Theorem 11. For a bipartite graph G of order n without isolated vertex, The bound is sharp, and K n, n achieves it. imo(g) n. For some classes of k-regular graph we have the following results. Theorem 1. Let G be a k-regular graph of order n without isolated vertex and for which imo(g) is defined, then n n imo(g). 3 Let G be a k-regular graph of order n for which imo(g) is defined. Since, mo(g) imo(g) α(g), it follows by Theorem and Observation 1 that n n imo(g). 3 The bounds in Theorem 1 are sharp. The cycle graph C n for n 3 achieves the lower bound and K n, n achieves the upper bound. Theorem 13. For a claw-free k-regular graph G of order n, if k 5, then imo(g) is not defined.

9 746 A. M. Naji & N. D. Soner Let G be a claw-free k-regular graph of order n with k 5. By Theorem 4, α(g) n + = n k + n 5 + < n 6 = n 3. But Theorem states that mo(g) n. Hence, mo(g) < α(g). This means that every independent set in G is not a monopoly set. By Observation 4, imo(g) is not defined. 3 Theorem 14. Let G be a cubic graph of order n 6, for which imo(g) is defined. Then n 5 imo(g) n. Let G be the cubic graph of order n 6. Since the cubic graph is 3-regular graph without isolated vertex, then by Theorem 1 the upper bound is held. Then 3n = v V d(v) = v V = v D d D (v) + v V d D (v) + v D for every v V (G) and for any D V (G). d V D (v) d V D (v) + v V D d D (v) + v V D d V D (v), Now let D be an imo-set in G. Then d D (v) = 0 and d V D (v) 1 for every v V D. v D Since d V D (v) = d D (v), it follows that v D v V D 3n = d V D (v) + d V D (v) v D v V D = d(v) + d V D (v) v D v V D v D v V D = 6 D + V D Therefore, D n 5. = 6 D + n D = 5 D + n. 3. The exact values of independent monopoly size in some standard graphs In this section, we obtain the exact values of independent monopoly size, imo(g), in some standard graphs.

10 AAM: Intern. J., Vol. 10, Issue (December 015) 747 Theorem 15. Let G be a graph of order n. (a) If G = K n, then imo(g) is defined if and only if n 3. Furthermore, imo(g) = 1. (b) If G = P n, then imo(g) = n 3. (c) If G = C n, then imo(g) = n 3. (d) If G = K 1,n, then imo(g) = 1. (e) If G = K r,s for r, s n, then imo(g) = min{r, s}. (f) If G = W n for n 4, then imo(g) = { n 1, if n is odd; Not defined, if n is even. Parts (a)-(e) in Theorem 15 are consequences of results from section 3. Thus, we will only verify part (f). In W n = K 1 + C n 1, let v 0 be the central vertex and let {v 1, v,..., v n 1 } be the vertex set of C n 1. There are two cases: Case 1:If n is odd, then α(w n ) = n 1. Clearly that the subset D = {v 1, v 3,..., v n } is an independent set in W n. Since N(v 0 ) D = D = n 1 = d(v 0) and N(v i ) D = > d(v i ) for every i =, 4,..., n 1, then D is also a monopoly set in W n. Furthermore, D is a minimum imo-set in W n. Therefore imo(w n ) = n 1 for n odd. Case :If n is even, then α(w n ) = n. Since d(v 0) = n 1, it follows that v 0 does not belong to any maximal independent set in W n. Thus for a maximum independent set I in W n, N(v 0 ) I = I = n < d(v 0). Hence any independent set in W n is not a monopoly set. On other hand, mo(w n ) = n 1. Hence, any monopoly set in W n is not independent. Therefore, imo(w n ) is not defined for n even. If G is a non-travail graph of order n, for which imo(g) is defined, then 1 imo(g) n. In the following results, we characterize all non-travail graphs G of order n for which imo(g) {1, n 1, n}. Theorem 16. Let G be a graph of order n for which imo(g) is defined. Then (1) imo(g) = 1 if and only if G has a vertex of degree n 1 and the degrees of all remaining vertices is at most. () imo(g) = n if and only if G = K n. (3) imo(g) = n 1 if and only if G = (n )K 1 K.

11 748 A. M. Naji & N. D. Soner (1) Let G be a graph of order n and let v 0 V with d(v 0 ) = n 1 and d(v) for every v V {v 0 }. Clearly that G is connected and v 0 N(v) for every v v 0. thus, N(v) {v 0 } = 1 d(v) for every v / {v 0 }. Hence, {v 0 } is a minimum imo-set in G. Conversely, let the subset {w} V be an imo-set in G. Then since n, it follows that V {w} φ. Furthermore, V {w} = n 1. By the definition of the monopoly set in a graph G, 1 N(v) {w} d(v), for every v / {w}. Hence, d(v) for every v V {w}. Also, vw E(G) for every v w. Hence, d(w) = n 1, because if there is a vertex u w such that wu / E(G), then N(u) {w} = 0, a contradiction. () The proof is clear from the definition of monopoly. (3) Let G = (n )K 1 K. Then by Lemma 1 and Theorem 15, we get imo(g) = imo((n )K 1 ) + imo(k ) = n + 1 = n 1. Conversely, let imo(g) = n 1 and let D be an imo-set of G. Then V D = 1 and d(v) 1 for every v D. Let V D = {w}. On the contrary, assume that d(w) 1. Then we consider the following cases Case 1:d(w) = 0, then G = K n. Thus, by part (), imo(g) = n, a contradiction. Case :d(w) = a, then G = (n a+1)k 1 K 1,a. Let S = {v 1,..., v a } = V (k 1,a ) {w}. Then the subset H = D {w} S is an imo-set of G with H = n a n < n 1 = D, a contradiction. Therefore, d(w) = 1, and G = (n )K 1 K. Theorem 17. For a graph G of order n and, then imo(g) = i(g). The proof is similar to the proof of Theorem.3 in Naji et al. (015). 4. Conclusion In this paper, we introduced the concept of independence monopoly size in graphs. We found that not all graphs have independent monopoly set. We studied the existence of independent monopoly set in graphs and we established bounds for independence monopoly size, imo(g), of a graph G, for which imo-set exists, in terms clique number, number of vertices, independence number, and dominating number. We obtained the exact values of independence monopoly size imo(g) of some standard graphs. We characterized all non-trivial graphs of order n with imo(g) equal to 1, n 1 and n. Investigation of the independent monopoly of graphs is an open area of research. We conclude this paper with the following open problems:

12 AAM: Intern. J., Vol. 10, Issue (December 015) 749 Open Problem. Characterize all graphs G of order n with (1) imo(g) = mo(g). () imo(g) = α(g). Acknowledgments The authors wish to express their gratitude to the referees and the Editor-in-Chief Professor Aliakbar Montazer Haghighi for their useful comments and suggestions that certainly improved the original manuscript. REFERENCES Berger, E. (001). Dynamic monopolies of constant size, Journal of Combinatorial Theory, Series B, Vol. 83, pp Bermond, J., Bond, J., Peleg, D., and Perennes, S. (003). The power of small coalitions in graphs, Discrete Applied Mathematics, Vol. 17, pp Bondy, J. A. and Murty, U. S. R. (008). Graph Theory, Springer, Berlin. Goddard, W. and Henning, M. A. (013). Independent domination in graphs: A survey and recent results, Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 313, pp Flocchini, P., Kralovic, R., Roncato, A., Ruzicka, P., and Santoro, N. (003). On time versus size for monotone dynamic monopolies in regular topologies. Journal of Discrete Algorithms, Vol. 1, pp Harary, F. (1969). Graph Theory, Addison Wesley, Massachusetts. Haynes, T. W., Hedetniemi, S. T., and Slater, P. J. (1998). Fundamentals of Domination in Graphs, Marcel Dekker, New York. Khoshkhak, K., Nemati, M., Soltani, H., and Zaker M. (013). A study of monopoly in graphs, Graph and Combinatorial Mathematics, Vol. 9, pp Li, H. and Virlouvet, C. (1990). Neighborhhod conditions for claw-free Hamiltonian graph, Ars Combinatoria, Vol. 9A, pp Mishra, A. and Rao, S. B. (006). Minimum monopoly in regular and tree graphs, Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 306, No. 14, pp Naji, A. M. and Soner, N. D. (015). On the monopoly of graphs, Proceeding of the Jangjeon Mathematical Society, Vol., No. 18, pp Peleg, D. (00). Local majorities; coalitions and monopolies in graphs; a review, Theoretical Computer Science, Vol. 8, pp Zaker, M. (01). On dynamic monopolies of graphs with general thresholds, Discrete Mathematics, Vol. 31, pp

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