# NH 4 (aq) + HS - 6.Calculate the molarity and normality of 3500 mls of solution that contains 45.0 grams of phosphoric acid, H PO.

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1 Honors Chemistry Study Guide for Acids and Bases 1. Calculate the ph, poh, and [H O ] for a solution that has a [OH - ] = 4.5 x 10-5? [H ] = 2.2 x M; ph = 9.65; poh = An aqueous solution has a ph of What are the [H ], [OH - ], and poh? poh = 5.15; [OH - ] = 7.08 x 10-6 M; [H ] = 1.41 x 10-9 M. Identify the acid, base, conjugate acid, and conjugate base in the following reaction. H O H O NH (aq) 2 (l) (aq) (aq) Acid Base Conjugate Acid Conjugate Base 4. Identify each of the following acids or bases as strong or weak. Next, write the reaction of each with water. a)hno b) NH Strong: HNO H - NO NH H 2 O NH 4 OH - 5. Provide the chemical formulas for the reactants in each of the following, then write the chemical formulas for each of the products. Finally, balance each reaction. a) aqueous sulfuric acid aqueous potassium hydroxide H 2 SO 4(aq) 2 KOH (aq) 2 H 2 O K 2 SO 4 b) aqueous ammonia aqueous hydrosulfuric acid NH (aq) H 2 S (aq) NH 4 (aq) HS - 6.Calculate the molarity and normality of 500 mls of solution that contains 45.0 grams of phosphoric acid, H PO. 4 NH g H PO 4 x 1 mol H PO 4 x 1 =.11 M 98.0 g H PO L.9 N 7. If 45.0 ml of N hydrochloric acid is required to neutralize 25.0 ml of an unknown base, what is the normality of the base? N A V A = N B V B N B =.018 N 8. How many milliliters of N sulfuric acid are required to neutralize 50.0 ml of N potassium hydroxide? 20.0 mls grams of calcium hydroxide is neutralized by 145 milliliters of a nitric acid solution of unknown concentration. What is the molarity of the nitric acid solution? Ca(OH) 2 2 HNO 2 H 2 O Ca(NO ) g.145 L? M 45.0 g Ca(OH) 2 x 1 mole Ca(OH) 2 x 2 mol HNO x 1 = 8.8 g 74.1 g Ca(OH) 2 1 mol Ca(OH) L 10.Provide the conjugate acid or the conjugate base for each of the following. a)cl HCl b)h 2 CO HCO c)no 2 HNO 2 d)hcn CN Determine the experimental equilibrium constant, K a, of an acetic acid solution if mole of acetic acid is dissolved in enough water to make 1.00 liter of solution which has a hydronium ion concentration of mole/liter. HA H A - Ka = [H ][A - ] [HA] [HA] [H ] [A - ] I.100M 0 0 C -x (.0015) x(.0015) x (.0015) E Ka = [.0015] 2 /.0987 = 1.85 x 10-5

2 12. Determine the concentration of all substances in a bottle which contains M HC 2 H O 2. The K a is 1.74 x HA H A - Ka = [H ][A - ] [HA] [HA] [H ] [A - ] I C -x x x E 1.00-x x x 1.74 x 10-5 = x 2 / 1.00 x = [H ] = [A - ] = M 1 Calculate the ph of a M solution of aqueous ammonia. The K b of NH is 1.74 x NH H 2 O NH 4 OH - K b = [NH 4 ][OH - ] = 1.74 x 10-5 [NH ] [NH ] [NH 4 ] [OH - ] I C -x x x E.500-x X x 1.74 x 10-5 = x 2 /.500 x = [OH - ] = M; poh = 2.5; ph = Methyl amine, CH NH 2, is a weak base that has a K b = 4.4 x What is the ph of a 2.00 M solution of methyl amine? CH NH 2 H 2 O CH NH OH - K b = [CH NH ][OH - ] = 4.4 x 10-6 [CH NH 2 ] [CH NH 2 ] [CH NH ] [OH - ] I C -x x x E 2.00-x x x x 2 / 2.00 = 4.4 x 10-6 x = [OH - ] = M; poh = 2.5; ph = milliliters of 0.45 M HCl is mixed with 50.0 milliliters of M NaOH. What is the ph of the resulting solution?. HCl NaOH H 2 O NaCl (.0750)(.45) (.0500)(.456).0259 mol.0228 mol =.001 mol H excess /.125 =.0248 M = [H ]. ph = 1.61 Part II. 16. Provide the name or the formula for each of the following. Predict whether the compound will form an acidic, basic, or neutral solution when dissolved in water. CaCl 2 calcium chloride Neutral Lithium sulfide Li 2 S -- basic Al 2 O aluminum oxide-- basic Magnesium selenide MgSe can t predict FeO iron (II) oxide--basic Cobalt (III) chloride CoCl -- acidic AgI silver iodide--acidic Zinc phosphide Zn P 2 -- can t predict HCl hydrochloric acid--acidic N 2 O dinitrogen trioxide--acidic carbon dioxide CO 2 --acidic P 2 O 5 diphosophorus pentoxide--acidic magnesium sulfate MgSO 4 --acidic iron (III) nitrate Fe(NO ) --acidic calcium chlorate Ca(ClO ) 2 --neutral HNO nitric acid what do you think SO sulfur trioxide--acidic KHSO 4 potassium hydrogen sulfate--acidic

3 III Multiple choice 18. According to Arrhenius, Acids generally a. Turn litmus red c. release H 2 gas when they react with active metals. b. React with bases to make a salt and water d. All of the above. 19. Strong acids are a. strong electrolytes. c. nonelectrolytes. b. weak electrolytes. d. nonionized. 20.Which of the following is a triprotic acid? a. H 2 SO 4 c. HCl b. CH COOH d. H PO 4 21.Hydroxides of Group 1 metals a. are all strong bases. c. are all acids. b. are all weak bases. d. might be either strong or weak bases. 22.A Brønsted-Lowry acid is a. an electron-pair acceptor. c. a proton acceptor. b. an electron-pair donor. d. a proton donor. 2. In the equation HCl(g) H 2 O(l) H O (aq) Cl (aq), which species is a Brønsted-Lowry acid? a. HCl c. Cl b. H 2 O d. none of the above 24.A Brønsted-Lowry base is a(n) a. producer of OH ions. c. electron-pair donor. b. proton acceptor. d. electron-pair acceptor. 25. A conjugate base is the species that a. remains after a base has given up a proton. b. is formed by the addition of a proton to a base. c. is formed by the addition of a proton to an acid. d. remains after an acid has given up a proton. 26.A species that is formed when a base gains a proton is a a. conjugate base. c. strong base. b. conjugate acid. d. strong acid. 27. In a conjugate acid-base pair, the acid typically has a. one more proton than the base. c. two fewer protons than the base. b. one fewer proton than the base. d. the same number of protons as the base. 28..In the reaction HF H 2 O H O F, a conjugate acid-base pair is a. HF and H 2 O. c. H O and H 2 O. b. F and H O. d. HF and H O. 29.In the reaction HClO NH NH 4 ClO, the conjugate acid of NH is a. HClO. c. NH 4. b. ClO. d. not shown. 0.In the reaction CH COOH H 2 O H O CH COO, the conjugate acid of CH COO is a. H 2 O. c. H O. b. CH COOH. d. not shown. 1. The conjugate of a weak base is a a. strong acid. c. strong base. b. weak acid. d. weak base.

4 2. If a substance has a great tendency to give up protons, its conjugate has a a. great tendency to give up protons. c. slight tendency to give up protons. b. great tendency to accept protons. d. slight tendency to accept protons..a species that can react as either an acid or a base is a(n) a. Lewis acid. c. oxyacid. b. amphoteric substance. d. organic substance. 4.Which of the following is amphoteric? a. H 2 SO 4 c. H b. SO 4 d. HSO 4 5.The substances produced when KOH(aq) neutralizes HCl(aq) are a. HClO(aq) and KH(aq). c. H 2 O(l) and KCl(aq). b. KH 2 O (aq) and Cl (aq). d. H O (aq) and KCl(aq). 6.A salt is NOT a. an ionic compound composed of a metal cation from a base. b. an ionic compound composed of an anion from an acid. c. a product of neutralization. d. a spectator ion. 7.Pure water contains a. water molecules only. b. hydronium ions only. c. hydroxide ions only. d. water molecules, hydronium ions, and hydroxide ions. 8.What is the concentration of H O in pure water? a M c M b. 0.7 M d M 9.What is the product of H O and OH concentrations in water? a c b d Which expression represents the ph of a solution? a. log[h O ] c. log[oh ] b. log[h O ] d. log[oh ] 41.If [H O ] of a solution is greater than [OH ], the solution a. is always acidic. c. is always neutral. b. is always basic. d. might be acidic, basic, or neutral. 42.A water solution whose ph is 10 a. is always neutral. c. is always acidic. b. is always basic. d. might be neutral, basic, or acidic. 4.What process measures the amount of a solution of known concentration required to react with a measured amount of a solution of unknown concentration? a. autoprotolysis c. neutralization b. hydrolysis d. titration 44. Which of the following indicate the basic solution? a. [H ] = 1 x 10-1 M c. [H ] = 1 x M b. [OH - ] = 1 x 10-5 M d. [OH - ] = 1 x M 45. An example of a Brønsted base is. A) BF NH 4 HCN NH 46. The conjugate base of formic acid, HCOOH, is. A) OH CH COO HCOO CO 2

5 47. In the reaction A) HPO 4 is a conjugate acid HPO 4 is a conjugate base NH is an acid NH 4 is a conjugate base,. 48. The conjugate acid of HSO 4 is. A) H 2 SO 4 SO 4 SO HSO 49. Which one of the following will act only as a Brønsted base? A) H 2 C 2 O 4 HC 2 O 4 C 2 O 4 H O 50. The conjugate base of HIO 4 is. A) HIO IO 4 IO 4 H 2 IO 51. Which of the following is correct relating [H ] and [OH ] in solution at 25 C? A) [H ] [OH ] = [H ] [OH ] = 14.0 [H ] [OH ] = [H ] [OH ] = The concentration of OH ions in a M HCl solution is. A) M M M M 5. The ph of a 0.62 M KOH solution is. A) The ph of M Ba(OH) 2 will be. A) Which of the following statements is true? A) poh > 7; The solution is basic. ph > 7; The solution is acidic. ph< 7; The solution is acidic. poh < 7; The solution is acidic.

6 56. The poh of a solution is Its hydrogen ion concentration is. A) M M M M 57. The weakest conjugate base below is. A) CH COO CN HSO 4 HCO 58. The weakest acid below is. A) HCl HClO 4 HF HNO 59. Which of the following statements is true for a 1.0 M solution of a strong acid HA? A) [A ] > [H ] [HA] = 1.0 M ph = 1 ph = Which of the following statements is true with respect to the reaction below? A) The reaction favors the formation of F (aq). F is a stronger base than OH. Hydrofluoric acid is a weaker acid than water. The reaction favors the formation of HF (aq). 61. Which salt will not undergo hydrolysis? A) CH COONa NH 4 NO 2 FeCl NaNO 62. The ph of an aqueous solution of KBr will be. A) > 7 < Which of the following salt solutions will have ph > 7? A) Bi(NO ) KBr CH COO Na BaCl An example of an acidic oxide is. A) CaO Al 2 O N 2 O 5 CaO

7 65. Which of the following would be a buffer solution? A) KCl / HCl NH / NH 4 Cl Na 2 SO 4 / H 2 SO 4 KNO / HNO 66. Which of the following would not be a buffer solution? A) CH COOK / CH COOH HCN / NaCN NaClO 4 / HClO 4 NaHCO / H 2 CO 18. d 19. a 20. d 21. a 22. d 2. a 24. b 25. d 26. b 27. a 28. c 29. c 0. b 1. a 2. d. b 4. d 5. c 6. d 7. d 8. a 9. b 40. b 41. a 42. b 4. d 44. c 45D 46C 47B 48A 49C 50c 51D 52A 5B 54D 55C 56B 57C 58C 59D 60A 61D 62D 6C 64C 65B 66C mls of.10 M HCl solutions is slowly added to mls of.055 M KOH solution. The ph of the solution s monitored during the addition of the acid. a. What volume of the HCl solution is needed to reach the equivalence point? (8.25 mls) b. What is the ph at the equivalence point? (7.00) c. Subtract 1.00 ml of HCl solution from the volume needed for the equivalence point. What is the ph at this time? (11.66) d. Add 1.00 ml of HCl solution to the volume needed for the equivalence point. What is the ph at this time? (2.8) e. Sketch the ph titration curve. Show ph on the y-axis, and mls HCl added on the x-axis. Show as much detail as you can.

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