1 MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES Measurement and definition. 0
2 What this course is about: 1
4 WHAT IS THIS VARIABLES (GDP): part I WHAT DETERMINES THE BLUE LINE: part II WHAT DETERMINES THE RED LINE: part III HOW POLICY CAN AFFECT THE LINE: part IV 3
5 In this chapter, you will learn: The meaning and measurement of the most important macroeconomic variables: 1) Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 2) The Consumer Price Index (CPI) 3) The unemployment rate 4
6 1) GDP 5
7 Gross Domestic Product: Expenditure and Income Two definitions: Total expenditure on domestically-produced final goods and services. Total income earned by domestically-located factors of production. Expenditure equals income because every dollar spent by a buyer becomes income to to the seller. 6
8 The Circular Flow Income ($) Labor Households Firms Goods Expenditure ($) 7
9 Value added Value added: The value of output minus the value of the intermediate goods used to produce that output 8
10 NOW YOU TRY: Identifying value-added A farmer grows a bushel of wheat and sells it to a miller for $1.00. The miller turns the wheat into flour and sells it to a baker for $3.00. The baker uses the flour to make a loaf of bread and sells it to an engineer for $6.00. The engineer eats the bread. Compute value added at each stage of production and GDP
11 So now we know why the word "final" GDP = value of final goods produced = sum of value added at all stages of production. The value of the final goods already includes the value of the intermediate goods, so including intermediate and final goods in GDP would be double-counting. 10
12 The expenditure components of GDP consumption, C investment, I government spending, G net exports, NX An important identity: Y = C + I + G + NX value of total output aggregate expenditure 11
13 Let s look at them one-by-one a) Consumption b) Investment c) Government expenditure d) Net exports Those are the aggregate demand components. 12
14 a) Consumption (C) definition: The value of all goods and services bought by households. Includes: durable goods last a long time e.g., cars, home appliances nondurable goods last a short time e.g., food, clothing services work done for consumers e.g., dry cleaning, air travel 13
15 U.S. consumption, 2009 Consumption Durables Nondurables Services $ billions $ 10,001 1,027 2,204 6,771 % of GDP 70.8%
16 b) Investment (I) Spending on goods bought for future use (i.e., capital goods) Includes: Business fixed investment Spending on plant and equipment Residential fixed investment Spending by consumers and landlords on housing units Inventory investment The change in the value of all firms inventories 15
17 U.S. Investment, 2009 Investment Business fixed Residential Inventory $ billions $1,589 1, % of GDP 11.3%
18 Investment vs. Capital Note: Investment is spending on new capital. Example (assumes no depreciation): 1/1/2013: economy has $500b worth of capital during 2013: investment = $60b 1/1/2014: economy will have $560b worth of capital 17
19 Stocks vs. Flows A stock is a quantity measured at a point in time. E.g., The U.S. capital stock was $26 trillion on January 1, Flow Stock A flow is a quantity measured per unit of time. E.g., U.S. investment was $2.5 trillion during
20 Stocks vs. Flows - examples stock a person s wealth # of people with college degrees the govt debt flow a person s annual saving # of new college graduates this year the govt budget deficit 19
21 NOW YOU TRY: Stock or Flow? the balance on your credit card statement how much you study economics outside of class the size of your compact disc collection the inflation rate the unemployment rate
22 c) Government spending (G) G includes all government spending on goods and services. G excludes transfer payments (e.g., unemployment insurance payments), because they do not represent spending on goods and services. 21
23 Let us be clear: a real-world example «Italy s public spending in 2012 was 801,08 billions of euro, because that s the amount of money that the public administration has paid in that year. So that s Italy s government spending, that is, the public component of aggregate demand» WRONG. Or at least, it's right at the pub (sorry to say, also in Tv talk show), but not here. 22
24 Government spending (= the amount of goods and services purchased by the government) is, instead, 801,08 billions... Minus Social spending (311,41 billions) Interest payments (86,71 billions) Trasfers to firms (18.59 billions) Because that money does not buy anything 23
25 So G = 384,37 billions The remaining part (transfers to families and firms, and interest payments) are surely public resources (they need to be financed!) but do not buy anything, so they do not directly increase aggregate demand. SPENDING BY THE GOVERNMENT = G + Tr + interest payments 24
26 U.S. Government Spending, 2009 Govt spending - Federal Non-defense Defense - State & local $ billions $2,915 1, ,775 % of GDP 20.6%
27 d) NET EXPORTS We are trying to figure out where «total production» goes. It can be consumed ( C ) It can be saved and then invested. ( I ) It can be bought by the public sector. ( G ) Or, in an open economy, it can be brought abroad (by foreign private or public sector): we call this component X (Exports). 26
28 To be fair, however, we need to subtract: IM (=imports) : goods and services bought by domestic residents, but produced abroad (and therefore not part of domestic production). Net exports : export - import Or, more quickly: NX = X - IM 27
29 U.S. Net Exports, 2009 $ billions % of GDP Net exports of g & s $ % Exports 1, % Goods 1, % Services % Imports 1, % Goods 1, % Services % 28
30 WAIT A MINUTE...: An expenditure-output puzzle? Suppose a firm: produces $10 million worth of final goods only sells $9 million worth Does this violate the expenditure = output identity?
31 Solving the puzzle... Unsold output goes into inventory, and is counted as inventory investment whether or not the inventory buildup was intentional. In effect, we are assuming that firms purchase their unsold output. Question: when you see inventory going down (negative component) is it a good sign or a bad sign? 30
32 GDP: An important and versatile concept We have now seen that GDP measures: total income total output total expenditure the sum of value-added at all stages in the production of final goods 31
33 GNP vs. GDP Gross National Product (GNP): Total income earned by the nation s factors of production, regardless of where located Gross Domestic Product (GDP): Total income earned by domestically-located factors of production, regardless of nationality GNP GDP = factor payments from abroad minus factor payments to abroad Examples of factor payments: wages, profits, rent, interest & dividends on assets 32
34 NOW YOU TRY: Discussion Question In your country, which would you want to be bigger, GDP or GNP? Why?
35 GNP vs. GDP in select countries, 2009 Country GNP GDP GNP GDP (% of GDP) Bangladesh $99,391 $89, % Japan $5,198,865 $5,067, United States $14,345,303 $14,256, China $4,937,980 $4,984, Canada $1,323,476 $1,336, Mexico $860,849 $874, Greece $316,267 $329, Nigeria $155,303 $168, Ireland $183,174 $227, GNP and GDP in millions of current U.S. dollars
36 Real vs. nominal GDP GDP is the value of all final goods and services produced. nominal GDP measures these values using current prices. real GDP measure these values using the prices of a base year. 35
37 NOW YOU TRY: Real & Nominal GDP P Q P Q P Q good A $ $31 1,000 $36 1,050 good B $ $ $ Compute nominal GDP in each year. Compute real GDP in each year using 2006 as the base year.
38 NOW YOU TRY: Answers nominal GDP multiply Ps & Qs from same year 2006: $46,200 = $ $ : $51, : $58,300 real GDP multiply each year s Qs by 2006 Ps 2006: $46, : $50, : $52,000 = $ $
39 Real GDP controls for inflation Changes in nominal GDP can be due to: changes in prices. changes in quantities of output produced. Changes in real GDP can only be due to changes in quantities, because real GDP is constructed using constant base-year prices. 38
40 U.S. Nominal and Real GDP, Real GDP (in 2000 dollars) Nominal GDP
41 GDP Deflator Inflation rate: the percentage increase in the overall level of prices One measure of the price level: GDP deflator Definition: GDP deflator = 100 Nominal GDP Real GDP 40
42 NOW YOU TRY: GDP deflator and inflation rate Nom. GDP Real GDP GDP deflator Inflation rate 2006 $46,200 $46,200 n.a ,400 50, ,300 52,000 Use your previous answers to compute the GDP deflator in each year. Use GDP deflator to compute the inflation rate from 2006 to 2007, and from 2007 to 2008.
43 NOW YOU TRY: Answers Nominal GDP Real GDP GDP deflator Inflation rate 2006 $46,200 $46, n.a ,400 50, % ,300 52, %
44 Understanding the GDP deflator Example with 3 goods For good i = 1, 2, 3 P it = the market price of good i in month t Q it = the quantity of good i produced in month t NGDP t = Nominal GDP in month t RGDP t = Real GDP in month t 43
45 Understanding the GDP deflator GDP deflator t NGDP = t RGDP t = P Q + P Q + P Q 1t 1t 2t 2t 3t 3t RGDP t Q 1t Q2t Q3t = P + P + P RGDPt RGDPt RGDPt 1t 2t 3t The GDP deflator is a weighted average of prices. The weight on each price reflects that good s relative importance in GDP. Note that the weights change over time. 44
46 Two arithmetic tricks for working with percentage changes 1. For any variables X and Y, percentage change in (X Y ) percentage change in X + percentage change in Y EX: If your hourly wage rises 5% and you work 7% more hours, then your wage income rises approximately 12%. 45
47 Two arithmetic tricks for working with percentage changes 2. percentage change in (X/Y ) percentage change in X percentage change in Y EX: GDP deflator = 100 NGDP/RGDP. If NGDP rises 9% and RGDP rises 4%, then the inflation rate is approximately 5%. 46
48 Chain-Weighted Real GDP Over time, relative prices change, so the base year should be updated periodically. In essence, chain-weighted real GDP updates the base year every year, so it is more accurate than constant-price GDP. Your textbook usually uses constant-price real GDP, because: the two measures are highly correlated. constant-price real GDP is easier to compute. 47
49 2) PRICES/ INFLATION 48
50 Consumer Price Index (CPI) A measure of the overall level of prices Published by statistical agencies (Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in US, by Eurostat in EU) Uses: tracks changes in the typical household s cost of living adjusts many contracts for inflation ( COLAs ) allows comparisons of dollar amounts over time 49
51 How statistical agencies constructs the CPI 1. Survey consumers to determine composition of the typical consumer s basket of goods 2. Every month, collect data on prices of all items in the basket; compute cost of basket 3. CPI in any month equals 100 Cost of basket in that month Cost of basket in base period 50
52 NOW YOU TRY: Compute the CPI Basket: 20 pizzas, 10 compact discs prices: pizza CDs 2002 $10 $ $11 $ $12 $ $13 $15 For each year, compute the cost of the basket the CPI (use 2002 as the base year) the inflation rate from the preceding year
53 NOW YOU TRY: Answers to CPI exercise Cost of Inflation basket CPI rate 2002 $ n.a % % %
54 The composition of the CPI s basket Food and bev. Housing 17.4% 6.2% 5.6% 3.0% Apparel Transportation 3.8% 3.1% 3.5% Medical care Recreation Education 15.1% Communication Other goods and services 42.4%
55 Understanding the CPI Example with 3 goods For good i = 1, 2, 3 C i = the amount of good i in the CPI s basket P it = the price of good i in month t E t = the cost of the CPI basket in month t E b = the cost of the basket in the base period 54
56 Understanding the CPI CPI in month = E t 1t 1 2t 2 3t 3 t E b = P C + P C + P C E b C C C = P + P + P E E E t 2t 3t b b b The CPI is a weighted average of prices. The weight on each price reflects that good s relative importance in the CPI s basket. Note that the weights remain fixed over time. 55
57 Why the CPI may overstate inflation Substitution bias: The CPI uses fixed weights, so it cannot reflect consumers ability to substitute toward goods whose relative prices have fallen. Introduction of new goods: The introduction of new goods makes consumers better off and, in effect, increases the real value of the dollar. But it does not reduce the CPI, because the CPI uses fixed weights. Unmeasured changes in quality: Quality improvements increase the value of the dollar, but are often not fully measured. 56
58 Why CPI and GDP deflator should differ? a) Prices of capital goods: included in GDP deflator (if produced domestically) excluded from CPI b) Prices of imported consumer goods: included in CPI excluded from GDP deflator c) The basket of goods: CPI: fixed GDP deflator: changes every year 57
59 Two measures of inflation in the U.S. CPI Percentage change from 12 months earlier GDP deflator
60 3) EMPLOYMENT 59
61 Categories of the population employed working at a paid job unemployed not employed but looking for a job labor force the amount of labor available for producing goods and services; all employed plus unemployed persons not in the labor force not employed, not looking for work 60
62 Two important labor force concepts unemployment rate percentage of the labor force that is unemployed labor force participation rate the fraction of the adult population that participates in the labor force 61
63 NOW YOU TRY: Computing labor statistics U.S. adult population by group, Oct 2010 Number employed = million Number unemployed = 14.8 million Adult population = million Use the above data to calculate the labor force the number of people not in the labor force the labor force participation rate the unemployment rate
64 NOW YOU TRY: Answers data: E = 139.1, U = 14.8, POP = labor force L = E +U = = not in labor force NILF = POP L = = 84.6 unemployment rate U/L x 100% = (14.8/153.9) x 100% = 9.6% labor force participation rate L/POP x 100% = (153.9/238.5) x 100% = 64.5%
65 NOW YOU TRY: Compute percentage changes in labor statistics Suppose population increases by 1% labor force increases by 3% number of unemployed persons increases by 2% Compute the percentage changes in the labor force participation and unemployment rates.
66 NOW YOU TRY: Answers LFPR = L/POP L increases 3%, POP increases 1%, so LFPR increases 3% 1% = 2% U rate = U/L U increases 2%, L increases 3%, so U-rate increases 2% 3% = 1% Note: the changes in LFPR and U-rate are shown as percent of their initial values, not in percentage points! E.g., if initial value of LFPR is 60.0%, a 2% increase would bring it to 61.2%, because 2% of 60 equals 1.2.
67 The establishment survey The BLS obtains a second measure of employment by surveying businesses, asking how many workers are on their payrolls. Neither measure is perfect, and they occasionally diverge due to: treatment of self-employed persons new firms not counted in establishment survey technical issues involving population inferences from sample data 66
68 Two measures of employment growth Percentage change from 12 months earlier
69 Chapter Summary Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures both total income and total expenditure on the economy s output of goods & services. Nominal GDP values output at current prices; real GDP values output at constant prices. Changes in output affect both measures, but changes in prices only affect nominal GDP. GDP is the sum of consumption, investment, government purchases, and net exports.
70 Chapter Summary The overall level of prices can be measured by either: the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the price of a fixed basket of goods purchased by the typical consumer, or the GDP deflator, the ratio of nominal to real GDP The unemployment rate is the fraction of the labor force that is not employed.
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