1 E-learning and criminal justice education in spanish universities Manuel Maroto Institute of European and International Criminal Law University of Castilla La Mancha EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY 2009 CONFERENCE September 10, 2009, Ljubljana, Slovenia
2 E-learning in Spain: 2003 evolution prospects Source: Situation and prospects for e-learning in Spain, Institut Català de Tecnologia (ICT) December 2003
3 First experiences in distance and e-learning only education U.N.E.D (National University of Distance Education) provides distance educacion since 1973; adaptation to e-learning technologies and enviroment in the last decade; still the main provider of distance education in Spain Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, founded in 1995, is the first online-only university in Spain; high profile in innovative experiences in e-learning methodologies and enviroments (e.g.: testing facebook as an e-learning platform since late August; e- alquimia; courseware repository licensed under free sotware licences) Universidad a Distancia de Madrid; founded in 2006, is the third distance education university in Spain, the first founded in this supposedly maturite stage of evolution of e-learning in Spain.
4 An overview of online programs in criminal justice related matters (including distance an conventional universities) Online undergraduate degrees : Online Law degrees = 6 universities Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (online / distance), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Universidad Católica de Ávila, Universidad a Distancia de Madrid (online / distance) Public universities = 3 ; Private universities = 3 Online Criminology degrees = 2 universities Universidad de Alicante, Universidad Europea de Madrid Public universities = 1; private universities = 1 Online degree on Security and Police Science = 1 university Universidad Miguel Hernández Public universities = 1 ; private universities = 0
5 An overview of online programs in criminal justice related matters Postgraduate degrees Especialization courses (around ECTS credits): University of La Rioja Mediation for conflict resolution Law and psychology of minors: conflicts and criminal responsibility of minors, Penal Mediation: procedure, techniques and practice in justice of minors Criminal responsibility and restorative justice Open University of Catalunya International Criminal Court, taught jointly with the Spanish Red Cross Citizenship and human rights, in cooperation with the Institut de drets Humans de Catalunya Social and political conflicts Armed conflicts and crisis Management Educational conflicts Familiar and personal conflicts Introduction to conflictology International Criminal Law
6 An overview of online programs in criminal justice related matters Postgraduate degrees Especialization courses (around ECTS credits): University of Valencia Police Sciences Domestic violence School violence Mediation and criminal justice Environmental offences Offences in urban development; criminal and administrative sanctions Specialization for middle-rank police officers Specialization for police officials
7 An overview of online programs in criminal justice related matters Open University of Cataluña Citizenship and protection of Human Rights Resolution of social and political conflicts Resolution of armed conflicts and crisis Management Educational conflicts management Family mediation Humanitarian International Law International Criminal Justice National University of Distance Education Criminal procedural practice Criminology Juvenile crime and juvenile criminal law Criminal investigation Postgraduate degrees Postgraduate expert (around ECTS credits):
8 An overview of online programs in criminal justice related matters University of Seville Family mediation and conflicts with minors (b-learning) Social mediation and restorative justice (b-learning) University Miguel Hernández Criminal investigation and criminalistics (b-learning) Postgraduate degrees Postgraduate expert (around ECTS credits):
9 An overview of online programs in criminal justice related matters Postgraduate degrees Masters programs (around ECTS Credits) International Criminal Law University of Granada Masters in reparative justice and criminal justice of minors University of La Rioja. Humanitarian International Law and International Criminal Justice Open University of Catalunya Human Rights and democracy UOC-IDHC Open University of Catalunya Conflictology : armed conflicts and crisis management Open University of Catalunya Conflictology : family mediation and education Open University of Catalunya Integral security sciences and criminology (b-learning) University Camilo José Cela Criminal and forensic psychopatology University Camilo José Cela Mediation University of Sevilla Official master program in Criminal Justice system Universitat Ruvira i Virgili
10 An overview of online programs in criminal justice related matters Postgraduate degrees Doctorate programs Criminal law and criminology (online / distance) National University of Distance Education Fundamental problems in criminal law and criminology (online / distance) National University of Distance Education
11 Main thematic areas in university CJ e-learning Main thematic blocks: Conflictology, mediation and restorative justice Juvenile justice International humanitarian and human rights law International Criminal Justice Also represented: General criminal law General criminology Domestic and gender violence Forensics and police sciences
12 Main thematic areas in university CJ e-learning Significant representation of some innovative fields usually neglected in conventional university CJ curricula in Spain (juvenile justice, restorative justice, conflict resolution, etc) Underpresentation of other fields also considered secondary in conventional programs (Economic criminal law and white collar crime, EU criminal law, penology, victimology, cultural studies on crime and crime control) Contents are considerable overlapping among the different degree categories. Academic offer highly decentralized and unharmonised.
13 Use of e-learning technologies in face to face CJ programs B-Learning as the most significant trend in the evolution of new technologies in education. All spanish universities have created virtual campuses to implement blended learning techniques. 52% of universities have implemented the open source platform Moodle; other less preminent open source plataforms in use are Sakai (3,8%), as well as Dokeos, Illias, LRN and Claroline (1,9% each), and ad hoc designed software for different ways of supporting face-to-face education (eg: use of SWAD, Tutor and GAP in University of Granada). Of the universities using privative sofware (36%) most of them use WebCT / Blackboard. Many offer proffessors the possibility to virtualize (teaching a course in a blended semi presential enviroment). No data general available on the extent of virtualization of conventional courses. Some universities reports show low levels of courses virtualization and enrollement, but succesful results in tems of participation. (In relation to Law Studies. See Universidad Complutense Report for ). Further research needed more specifcally on criminal justice related courses.
14 Use of e-learning technologies in face to face CJ programs B-Learning as the most significant trend in the evolution of new technologies in education. There is a trend towards the creation of multi-university virtual campuses that integrates different universities for the purpose of sharing and providing common virtual courses. Useful for compensating the level of confusion in online academic offer? Campus Andaluz Virtual (integrates 10 different universities from Andalusia) Campus Virtual Compartido G-9 (integrates 9 different universities from geographically diverse locations) ADA-Madrid (Aula a Distancia y Abierta de la Comunidad de Madrid) (Integrates the 6 public universities in Madrid) Some postgraduate-oriented initiatives, as the Instituto Universitario de Posgrado, integrates public universities with private business (in this concrete case, with an editorial company)
15 Use of e-learning technologies in face to face CJ programs No representative data is available on the concrete use of e-learning technologies in CJ courses. Further research is needed in this way. Participation in experience-sharing initiatives (MIT OpenCourseWare and other courseware repositories, as well as congresses and seminars on e-learning and educative innovation) is scarce in this field, with some few notable exceptions. Universities seem to prefer the creation of their own document repositories to the use of common ones, what contributes to the fragmentation and relative difficulty in accessing publicly available educative materials. This fact and some anecdotal evidence might indicate that the average use of learning plataforms in b-learning CJ programs fits the model described by Salinas as including: those proffesors who use the platform for the purpose of distribution of materials, and / or with the possibility of engaging in some punctual activities in a voluntary basis. They can use the platform for managing the course through the calendar, wall, forum, etc. Under this category are also included those proffesors who do not use the platform but provide tutoring by Therefore, a rather passive profile of use of plataforms mainly for communication purposes and distribution of materials and news. In general, innovative experiences in b-learning are scarce, and there are not significant forums for exchange and publication of methodological proposals and experiments. Jesus Salinas, "Modelos didácticos en los campus virtuales universitarios: Perfiles metodológicos de los profesores en procesos de enseñanza-aprendizaje en entornos virtuales", 2008, available at
16 An exception to techno-methodological conservatism in spanish CJ programs (specially in Criminal Law teaching): using cinema and popular culture materials An abundant literature exist on criminological-legal analysis of popular culture resources and materials. Some examples: In the last 6-7 years, the academic editorial Tirant has published some 30 volumes on legal and criminological analysys of movies under the colection Cien y derecho (Law and cinema). Criminal justice issues are predominant. Other artistic and cultural disciplines have been adressed by criminologicallegal scholars in titles like Punishment, crime and bel canto or the recent Tragedy and criminal justice: criminal cases in theathre and Opera or "Art and crime; love, passion, creation and destruction. The selective use of cinema is not an uncommon practice in existing traditional spanish CJ curricula. This cultural affinities in criminology and criminal law scholars remain to be fully understood and implemented as potential educational tools rather than academic caprices See: Josep Tamarit Sumalla, La tragedia y la justicia penal: Casos penales en el teatro y la ópera, Tiran Lo Blanch, 2009; Luis Ruiz Rodriguez, Juan Maria Terradillos Basoco, María Jesus Ruiz Fernández, Arte y delito: amores, pasiones, creación y destrucción, Diputación de Cádiz, 2008 (2. vol); Carlos García Valdes, Derecho Penal y Bel canto, Edisofer, Madrid, 1998
17 Some conclusions and further research topics in the potential of using cinema and popular culture materials in CJ courses. Advantages and potential in the use of movies Introducing approaches traditionally excluded from criminal law & (in a lesser extent) criminology studies, as cultural criminology, communications, political science, etc. Improves the student s capacity to identify and understand mainstream ideologies in the understanding of crime and crime control. Improves the student s capacity to understand the interaction between public perceptions, media, popular culture and the criminal justice system, including academic conceptions of it. Potential benefits from implementing cinema and popular culture materials through online learning platforms: It does not take time from classes and allows a more reflexive visionate It fosters participation of students that are passive in the classroom (as the average spanish student is) Itallowstoconcentratefacetofaceinteraction in debating the debate, or summarizing and advancing a previously carried out discussion. It allows to engage in lenghtier collaborative efforts, and might enhance constructivist learning mechanism in everyday interaction.
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