The Effectiveness of Social Media in the Matching of Job Seekers with Open. 49 The Relevance of Web Reputation and its Impact on Recruiting

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3 05 Executive Summary 07 Job Seekers 08 The Use of Social Media for Job Search Purposes 12 The Effectiveness of Social Media in the Matching of Job Seekers with Open Positions in the Labor Market 16 Web Reputation and its Impacts on Job Search 19 The Social Capital of Individual Job Seekers 23 Job Seekers Profiles 25 Statistical Appendix 35 Recruiters 36 The Use of Social Media for Professional Purposes 45 The Effectiveness of Social Media in the Matching of Job Seekers with Open Positions in the Labor Market 49 The Relevance of Web Reputation and its Impact on Recruiting 52 Training Undertaken for the Professional Use of Social Media 54 Statistical Appendix 63 Authors and Contact Info 3

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5 Social media is and will increasingly become the new job marketplace in the future. The impact and best practices however, are not always clear to all of the players involved, the job seekers and the recruiters. Adecco, the global leader in HR solutions, has published the most comprehensive global study ever compiled on the use of social media in recruiting and job search, providing expert s advice to successfully log onto the job market. We have gathered the answers of over 17,000 job seekers and more than 1,500 recruiters from 24 countries and developed the study in partnership with the Catholic University of Milan, Italy. The study mainly covers: the use of social media for professional purposes, the effectiveness of social media in the matching of job seekers with open positions in the job market, and the relevance of web reputation and its impact on recruiting. In 2013, more than half of all recruitment activity involved the Internet (53%), with the percentage for 2014 forecasted to continue to grow (61%). Social media is the digital tool which is expected to experience the greatest increase in usage rates in 2014 by the recruitment sector. 5 out of 10 job seekers use social media for job search purposes and 7 out of 10 recruiters use social media for their daily HR activities. When it comes to profile scouting and checking the accuracy of CV information, social media is used more often than traditional search engines. 29% of job seekers have been contacted through social media by a recruiter at least once, and 9% received a job offer. Surprisingly, the majority of profiles searched for via social media are nonmanagerial ones, showing that social recruiting is broader than normally expected. On the other hand, the factor that most affects the attitudes towards the use of social media for job search is the educational qualification, with graduates significantly more active than nongraduates. Gender also emerges as a marker of difference, with women reported to be the most active. Recruiters largely use social media to assess a candidate s reputation: The use of LinkedIn remains predominant (68%), but Facebook is also relevant (52%), although this is generally regarded as a more personal social networking site. On the other hand, the research shows that the vast majority of job seekers is 5

6 not aware of the professional relevance of their personal social networks, and assumes their profile is only viewed and accessed by their friends. Recruiters believe that the most attractive element in a potential candidate s profile is the previous professional experience, followed by professional prizes or awards, often overlooked by the candidates. Personality insights that emerge from the profile come third, while no interest is shown for the candidates number of contacts. Recruiters seem to distrust the number of contacts as a sort of noisy information that does not provide trustworthy elements for professional assessment. Approximately one third of recruiters admit that they have rejected a potential candidate as a consequence of the information, the pictures, or the content posted on the candidate s profile. Among the various elements which negatively influence the assessment of the web reputation of a candidate, recruiters pay particular attention to the comments posted, particularly when they point to participation in activities which may violate University or workplace policies. Job Seekers largely state that they do not post sensitive comments or pictures, showing that they are often not aware of the impact of their communication choices on the Web. Job seekers claim they use Facebook more as a personal channel dedicated to friends than as a channel aimed at creating and maintaining professional relationships. The relationships a candidate has have a direct impact in the recruiting process: those who have a richer online network are not only more likely to use social media for their job search but most importantly they get better results in terms of contacts with recruiters and hirings. Social media profiles of companies are largely perceived to be informative dashboards more than a relationship forming channel. Candidates consider that the most attractive elements in a company s profile are the presence of jobs ads, followed by information about the company, and finally by the content posted by the company. In both audiences, the relationship dimension of social media and the related opportunities are widely underestimated. Among HR professionals who use social media for recruitment purposes, approximately 30% have attended training courses organized by their company (61% of HR respondents either did not receive guidelines for the use of social media or were unaware that these guidelines existed). 6

7 Job Seekers Recruiting is increasingly social. To understand how job seekers search for jobs on social media, which tools they use and how they present themselves online, Adecco conducted an in-depth study. Between March 18th and June 2 nd 2014, the survey gathered responses from 17,272 candidates (8,992 complete responses and 8,280 partial responses 1 ) from 24 countries. We also interviewed 1,501 recruiters to discover how companies use social media in the recruitment process. The sample presents a substantially balanced distribution with a majority of males (52%), born after 1981 (46%), and mostly graduates (43%). Those who are employed mostly hold nonmanagerial positions (59%). This report, which has been compiled in partnership with the Catholic University in Milan, covers four areas: the use of social media for job search purposes, the effectiveness of social media in matching job seekers with open positions, web reputation and its impact on job search, and the social capital of individual job seekers. It is interesting to analyse this data, keeping an eye on the Recruiters responses to understand how they explore Web 2.0 when looking for a candidate. In addition to the global data, the report compares the five areas taken into consideration 2 : APAC, Eastern Europe and MENA, Western Europe, Southern Europe and the US. The report also includes a statistical appendix, which offers further detail on the responses provided by the participants. 1 The total numbers reported in the tables and figures also include the partial responses, which lack information on their socio-demographic profiles. 2 APAC includes Australia and Singapore. Eastern Europe and MENA include: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Morocco, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Tunisia, Arab Emirates, and Ukraine. Western Europe includes: the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Southern Europe includes: Spain, France, and Italy. And finally the USA. 7

8 The data shows that 55% of Job Seekers use social media for job search purposes (among Recruiters, the percentage of use for HR professional purposes was around 73%). In this regard, LinkedIn is largely the most used social networking site (35%) followed by Facebook (17%) (fig. 1). Fig. 1 Social Media Used in General and for Job Search. % Value. Notes: (1) General use also includes job search usage. (2) Total Social Media is the percentage of respondents using at least one of the considered social media platforms. 8

9 The differences that emerge among the various geographic areas are quite significant. A peak use of social media platforms for job search can be found in Western Europe (63%), whilst APAC and Eastern Europe/MENA report lower rates of use (fig. 2). Fig. 2 Social Media Used in General and For Job Search Purposes by Region. % Value. 100,0 90,0 80, ,0 60,0 50,0 40, ,0 20,0 10,0,0 APAC Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe US Total General Use Use for job search 9

10 The element that seems to most affect the attitudes towards the use of social media for job search is the educational qualification, with graduates being significantly more active than non-graduates. Gender also emerges as a marker of difference, with women reported to be more active. Age hardly seems to be relevant, although it should be noted that it is a factor that has more of an effect on whether the candidate has access to social media (tab.1). Tab. 1 - Social Media Used in General and for Job Search by Socio-demographic Profile. % Value. Notes: (1) Total number also includes cases that have not provided information about their socio-demographic profile. (2) The analysis of respondents born before 1946 (over 68 years old) has been omitted due to the limited sample size (28 respondents). Gender General Use Use for job search Female Male Year of birth After Level of education completed Less than High School High School College Master or Doctoral Degree Total Based upon employment status, the use of social media for job search appears to be significantly higher among those who are searching for their first job (74%), as well as among those who are temporarily redundant (67%) (tab. 2). Tab. 2 Use of Social Media for Job Search by Employment Status. % Value. Note: Total value also includes cases that have not provided information about their employment status. Employment status Use for job search Employed 60.9 Unemployed and looking for work 63.6 Temporarily redundant 67.2 Looking for my first job 74.0 Total

11 Among Job Seekers, the most frequent activities when searching for jobs online appear to be the most traditional ones, for instance, searching through job ads (63%) or for potential hirers (55%) (tab. 3). Women also do less personal branding than men, but seem to pay more attention to what others say about a potential employer. Younger workers seem to be more active with the more relational search practices, as reported in the importance of personal branding, professional networking, and reputation analysis of potential hirers sections of the analysis. Those who are already employed are generally more active online than people out of work, especially in the most innovative practices. The only activity that is performed less is submitting applications, a result which can be attributed to the fear of being exposed by their current employer, coupled with the minor urgency of finding new employment. Tab. 3 - Use of Social Media for Specific Job Search Activities. % Value. Notes: (1) The analysis of seekers born before 1946 (over 68 years old) has been omitted due to the limited sample size (28 respondents). (2) Multiple choice question. Personal branding Distributing my CV Professional networking Searching for jobs Submitting applications Researching potential employers' pages Check what other say about potential employers Gender Female Male Year of birth After Level of education completed Less than High School High School College Master or Doctoral Degree Principal employment status Employed Unemployed and looking for work Total

12 A reported 49% of job seekers use social media to distribute their CV online. 29% of job seekers were contacted through social media by a recruiter at least once, and 9% received a job offer. The geographic area where candidates and recruiters are more active across social media and where the best results can be seen in terms of matching is Western Europe (fig. 3). Fig. 3 - Steps Taken To Get a Job by Region. % Value. 70,0 60, ,0 40,0 30, ,0 10,0, Distributing CV Contacted by a recruiter Get the job 8.7 APAC Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe US Total 12

13 No significant differences emerge in terms of gender, except for a slightly higher rate of men who have been contacted by a recruiter. The use of social media to distribute CVs is more frequently seen among those aged 50 and over and among those with a postgraduate degree (who are also those contacted most often). However, the younger candidates who are contacted by recruiters have the highest chances of being offered a job. People who already have a job present the same proactive attitude in terms of online job search activity when compared to people currently out of work, but generally obtain better results (tab. 4). Tab. 4 Steps Taken to Get a Job by Socio-demographic Characteristics. % Value. Note: The analysis of job seekers born before 1946 (over 68 years old) has been omitted due to the limited sample size (28 respondents). Gender Distributing CV Contacted by a recruiter Get the job Female Male Year of birth After Highest level of education completed Less than High School High School College Master or Doctoral Degree Principal employment status Employed Unemployed and looking for work Total

14 Facebook YouTube LinkedIn Twitter Blog Tumblr Pinterest Instagram Viadeo Xing LinkedIn is considered without a doubt to be the most effective social networking site in terms of matching Job Seekers with open positions. The effectiveness index of LinkedIn is 0.13 (the index assumes values between -1, lowest effectiveness, and 1, highest effectiveness). Among the others, Facebook rates at and therefore, is considered to be a less ineffective social networking site (fig. 4). These rates are considerably lower than those gathered among recruiters, where LinkedIn is rated at 0.60 and Facebook is positively assessed (0.05). Fig. 4 - Effectiveness Index of Social Media for Recruitment Purposes. Note: Index value from -1 (max ineffectiveness) to 1 (max effectiveness), value 0 if neutral position. 1,00,800,600,400,200,00 -,200 -,400 -,600 -,800-1, The countries where LinkedIn is perceived to be less effective are also those where candidates are less active (Southern Europe). This is significantly different from the trends shown in the Recruiters report, where LinkedIn is reported to be less effective in Western Europe. (fig. 5). Fig. 5 - Effectiveness Index of LinkedIn for Recruitment Purposes by Region. Note: Index value from -1 (max ineffectiveness) to 1 (max effectiveness), value 0 if neutral position. 1,00,800,600,400,200,00 -, ,400 -,600 -,800-1,00 APAC Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe US Total 14

15 Less than High School High School College Master or Doctoral Degree Employed Unemployed and looking for work Total Female Male After 1981 Total In terms of demographics, the Job Seekers who use LinkedIn most often are women and young professionals. (fig. 6) Fig. 6 - Effectiveness Index of LinkedIn for Recruiting Purposes by Gender and by Year of Birth. Notes: (1) Index value from -1 (max ineffectiveness) to 1 (max effectiveness), value 0 if neutral position. (2) The analysis of job seekers born before 1946 (over 68 years old) has been omitted due to the limited sample size (28 respondents). 1,00,800,600,400,200,00 -,200 -,400 -,600 -,800-1, The relationship between social media use and Job Seekers educational qualifications seems to be quite evident. The increase in the perceived utility of social media is directly proportional to the increase in the level of education. The effectiveness index for postgraduates generates a rate of Those in employment consider these tools to be more effective (0.32) when compared to those out of work (0.02), who are more inclined to be distrustful of LinkedIn s effectiveness (fig. 7). Fig. 7 - Effectiveness Index of LinkedIn for Recruitment Purposes by Highest Level of Education Completed and by Principal Employment Status. Note: Index value from -1 (max ineffectiveness) to 1 (max effectiveness), value 0 if neutral position. 1,00,800,600,400,200,00 -,200 -,400 -,600 -,800-1,

16 Job Seekers seem to consider the presence of job ads to be the most attractive elements on the companies social media profiles (attractiveness index of 0.50), followed by the presence of general information about the company (0.41), and finally by the content posted by the company (0.32). Social media profiles run by companies are largely perceived to be informational dashboards more than a relationship forming channel (tab. 5). Tab. 5 Attractiveness Index of the Company s Social Media Page. Note: Index value from -1 (min attractiveness) to 1 (max attractiveness). Rank Elements on company's Social Media profile Index 1 Job Postings (and ability to search for jobs) General company information (e.g. about, contact...) Content posted by the company Company's interaction with users Recommendation on this company by relatives or contacts Comments posted by other users Firm popularity (likes, reviews...) Pictures Number of followers (e.g. fans, group members...)

17 Job seekers claim they use Facebook more as a personal channel dedicated to friends than as a channel aimed at creating and maintaining professional relationships (tab. 6). Tab. 6 - Index of Agreement with Specific Statements Regarding a Candidate s Private and Professional Image on Facebook. Note: Index value from -1 (max disagreement) to 1 (max agreement), value 0 if neutral position. Rank Statements about privacy Index 1 I assume my profile is only viewed by my friends My profile can only be accessed by my friends It is important to maintain a professional image online My online image is important to my future I work hard to maintain a professional image on my profile 0.01 The element most often present in the Job Seekers web profiles is the information related to their previous professional experiences (index of attendance of 0.33). This is also the type of information that recruiters pay most attention to. Personal information is also present (0.30), whilst reputational information is significantly less present, along with references and comments posted by others (-0.13). It is interesting to note that professional awards and prizes, which recruiters place considerable importance on, are largely overlooked by Job Seekers (tab. 7). Tab. 7 Career Related Information Contained in Social Media Profile: Index of Attendance. Note: Index value from -1 (fully absent element) to 1 (very attendant element). Rank Elements on Social Media profile Index 1 Professional experience Personal information (marital status, gender...) Personality emerging from profile Number of contacts Hobbies and personal interests Pictures Content posted Professional prizes and awards References and comments posted by others

18 Concerning the elements which may negatively affect the web reputation of a Job Seeker, it can be observed that these all have a relatively low index of attendance (largely below 0). In particular, those elements that recruiters seem to pay particular attention to, such as comments related to the participation in activities that may be in violation of University or workplace policies, are hardly present (- 0.77), such as selfies or pictures containing sensitive or controversial content (-0.76). It is worth underlining that younger Job Seekers show a greater tendency to post sensitive content (tab. 8). Tab. 8 - Elements Posted on Social Media Profiles: Index of Attendance by Socio-demographic Characteristics. Notes: (1) Index value from -1 (very unlikely) to 1 (very likely). (2) The analysis of job seekers born before 1946 (over 68 years old) has been omitted due to the limited sample size (28 respondents). (3) Multiple choice question. Informal selfie or tagged photo (e.g. wearing a swimsuit) Controversial selfie / tagged photo (e.g. drinking alcohol) Comments on controversial topics (e.g. illegal drugs) Comments on participation in activities which are in violation of university or workplace policy Gender Female Male Year of birth After Level of education completed Less than High School High School College Master or Doctoral Degree Principal employment status Employed Unemployed and looking for work Total

19 A number of research works have demonstrated how the most effective channel for the matching of Job Seekers with open positions is word-of-mouth. Therefore, it is important not only to study the configuration of the personal social networks of Job Seekers, but also the role played by social media to enforce or diversify these relationships and to facilitate access to new information. To do so, we have used the position generator, one of the tools that is widely advocated throughout these studies, that makes it possible to estimate the wealth of the social capital of an individual. This is done by first assessing professional figures that belong to their social network. A proportional weight relating to the prestige status of the occupation, as it is commonly classified by professional class structure, is then attributed to each of the professions. This makes it possible to rate social networks based upon their wealth in social capital, namely weak (low social capital), medium, or rich (high social capital). To refine the analysis, we have adopted also a slight variation, asking whether contact was more often based on offline, online, or multiple (both) interactions. From this question, we have been able to reconstruct the wealth created by the offline and online social capital of the individuals involved, and the most frequent relationship-based channels they use. The candidates social networks appear to be made-up of a strong integration between both offline and online networks. The contacts entertained across both channels are prevalent (52% vs 37% only offline and 26% only online). Also, if we take into consideration only the contacts who fall into the category of high-status professionals, the proportion of offline to online contacts remains relatively unaltered (43% both online and offline vs 23% offline and 18% online) (fig. 8). Fig. 8 - Percentage of Seekers with Online, Offline, and/or both Network Contacts (in general or high status). % Value. Note: 4 (out of 12) professions are considered to be high status: policy maker, lawyer, director of a company, or engineer. 60,0 50,0 40,0 30, ,0 10, ,0 Online network Offline network Both online and offline network % of cases with almost one profession in network % of cases with almost one high status profession in network 1 To differentiate between concepts, we talk about social media to refer to social platforms (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter etc.) and social networks to refer to the relationships (online and offline) of the job seekers. 19

20 In 69% of cases, contacts have maintained the same relationship strength across both channels (tab. 9). Tab. 9 - Strength of the Job Seeker's Online and Offline Networks. Note: the network was calculated by attributing the weight ISEI (International Classification for Professional Prestige) to each professional figure acknowledged by a job seeker and then dividing the distribution of the networks into weak, medium, and rich categories using the tertile observed for each respondent at an international level. Online network Offline network Weak Medium Rich Total Weak Medium Rich Total Those currently employed are generally Job Seekers with richer social networks and the difference is even greater when we factor in the online networks (tab. 10). Employment status Tab Employment Status by Level of Offline and Online Networks. % Value. Online network Offline network Weak Medium Rich Weak Medium Rich Employed Unemployed and looking for work Other Total Also, the Job Seekers who possess a richer social network, especially online, present a higher skill level in the use of social media when compared to those with medium or weak social networks (tab. 11). Tab Index of Expertise on Social Media by Level of Offline and Online Networks. % Value. Note: Index value from -1 (not at all confident) to 1 (very confident), value 0 if neutral position. Task about expertise on Social Media Online network Offline network Weak Medium Rich Weak Medium Rich I can be very effective at using social media I can have a positive impact on the lives of others through social media I can offer other people important and interesting information by posting on social media I can find important and interesting information by reading other people's content on social media I can use social media as an effective way of connecting with others I can communicate very effectively using social media Total 20

21 Having a rich network seems to have direct implications on the effectiveness of the job search. The use of social media for job search and the possibility of being contacted by a recruiter are more common across such networks. The success in gaining employment seems to be higher for those who possess a rich online social network (tab. 12). Tab Indicators Regarding the Use of Social Media by Level of Offline and Online Networks. % Value. Indicators about use of Online network Offline network Social Media Weak Medium Rich Weak Medium Rich Total Use of Social Media for job searching Distributing CV Contacted by a recruiter Get the job If we look beyond the overall wealth of the social networks, and directly observe the capacity to reach people of higher status, the data shows a very interesting trend. Furthermore, if we isolate online relationships from offline relationships we can see geographical differences. In APAC and Southern European countries, contacts who solely maintained offline relationships may reach higher status positions, whilst in Eastern Europe, Western Europe, and the US, online contacts appeared to be more effective (fig. 9). Fig. 9 - Percentage of Job Seekers with High Status of Offline and Online Networks by Region. % Value. 60,0 50,0 40, ,0 20,0 10, , ,0 APAC Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe US Total Online Offline Online and offline 21

22 Those who can access a high social networking status via online interactions are more inclined to use social media channels for their job search, are more frequently contacted by recruiters, and more often obtain better results in terms of employment offers (fig. 10). Fig Indicators Regarding the Use of Social Media in Job Seekers with High Offline and Online Network Statuses. % Value. 70,0 60, ,0 40, ,0 20, ,0, Distribuiting CV Contacted by a recruiter Get the job 2.5 High status online network High status online and offline network High status offline network Total seekers 22

23 From this analysis a number of clusters can be formed (tab. 14): 1. A primary profile, which may be labelled as the non-integrated cluster pertains to most of the Job Seekers (71%) and presents educational qualifications, occupational levels, and professional statuses, which are comparatively lower than the other profiles. This combines with a lower average use of social media, particularly for professional purposes, and also fewer skills in their use. A hesitant attitude to post information about one s professional experience on social media and a greater attention to the publication of information which may affect or compromise a personal reputation is also apparent. Lastly, there seems to be a higher occupational status on the offline social networks. They receive the worst results in terms of online job search. 2. A second, intermediate profile, which may be called the semi-integrated cluster, includes about 27% of Job Seekers who are on average younger, graduates with intermediate-level occupation and professional status, an intermediate use of social media, and an online network which is, on average, made of higher status professionals. They receive medium results in terms of online job search. 3. Finally, a small cluster (only 2% of Job Seekers), which may be called the highly-integrated cluster, is comprised of excellent, profiles with considerably higher skill levels and educational qualifications (largely postgraduates) with higher occupational levels and statuses, and a broader use of social media, especially for professional purposes. They possess greater skills in their use of social media and a positive attitude towards the online publication of professional experiences. When compared to other profiles they also hesitate to release information which may affect their web reputation. Lastly, a greater interrelationship exists between their offline and online networks, which are generally composed of higher status contacts. They achieve the best results in terms of online job search. 23

24 Tab. 13 Job Seekers' Profile: Value of Indicators About Social Media or About Socio-demographic Characteristics by Cluster. % Value. The nonintegrated cluster The semiintegrated cluster The integrated cluster % of cases 71% 27% 2% Socio-demographic characteristics % of female % of Young (< 33 years) % with College Degree or more % with Master or Doctoral Degree % of employed % of unemployed and looking for work % of middle manager or more (only for employed) Indicators about use of Social Media % that uses social media % that uses LinkedIn for job search Index of expertise on Social Media about answer "I can be very effective at using social media" % that has distributed CV % of contacted by a recruiter through profile on a social media platform % who got the job Indicators about network % with high status online network % with high offline network % with high status online and offline network Indicators about characteristic of profile on social media Index of attendance of professional experience information in social media profile Index of attendance Controversial selfie or tagged photo (e.g. drinking alcohol) on Facebook profile Indicators about opinion on recruiting using social media % that thinks that companies use social media to recruit Note (1): Index of expertise on Social Media value from -1 (not at all confident) to 1 (very confident), value 0 if neutral position. (2) Indices of attendance value from -1 (fully absent element) to 1 (very attendant element). 24

25 Tab 1.A - Generally speaking, which social networks do you use? Do you use them for job search? No Yes Yes, for job search Total Facebook YouTube LinkedIn Twitter Google Blog Tumblr Pinterest Instagram Viadeo Xing Tab 2.A - How often do you look for jobs on social media? % Value Every day 50.1 Several times per week 26.7 At least once a week 13.4 At least once a month 9.8 Total Tab 3.A - Use of social networks for job search, activities? No Yes Total Personal branding Distributing my CV Professional networking Searching for jobs Submitting applications Researching potential employers' pages Check what other say about potential employers

26 Tab 4.A - From 1 to 5, how effective are these social networks for job search? 1 (very ineffective) (very effective) I don't know Facebook YouTube LinkedIn Twitter Google Blog Tumblr Pinterest Instagram Viadeo Xing Total Tab 5.A - From 1 to 5, what career-related information does your social media profile contain? 1 (not at all) 2 3 (neutral) 4 5 (a lot) Personal information (e.g. marital status, gender...) Personality emerging from profile Pictures Professional experience Number of contacts Hobbies and personal interests Professional prizes and awards References and comments posted by others Content posted Total Tab 6.A - From 1 to 5, how likely are you to post the following items on your Facebook profile? Informal selfie or tagged photo (e.g. wearing a swimsuit) Controversial selfie / tagged photo (e.g. drinking alcohol) Comments on controversial topics (e.g. illegal drugs) Comments on participation in activities which are in violation of university or workplace policy 1 (very unlikely) (neutral) (very likely) Total

27 Tab 7.A - From 1 to 5, indicate to which extent you agree with the following statements in regards to your Facebook profile. My profile can only be accessed by my friends I assume my profile is only viewed by my friends It is important to maintain a professional image online I work hard to maintain a professional image on my profile My online image is important to my future 1 (I strongly disagree) (neutral) (I strongly agree) Total Tab 8.A - Have you ever been contacted by a recruiter through your profile on a social media platform? % Value No 71.0 Yes 29.0 Total Tab 9.A - Did you get the job? Note: Statistic calculated only for "Yes" answers of Tab. 8.A. % Value No 70.0 Yes 30.0 Total Tab 10.A - Do you think companies use social media to recruit? % Value No 25.5 Yes 35.4 I don't know 39.1 Total

28 Tab 11.A - From 1 to 5, how much do the following attract your attention on a company s social media page? 1 (not at all) 2 3 (neutral) 4 5 (a lot) General company information (e.g. about, contact...) Pictures Number of followers (e.g. fans, group members...) Firm popularity (likes, reviews...) Company's interaction with users Content posted by the company Comments posted by other users Job Postings (and ability to search for jobs) Recommendation on this company by relatives or contacts Total Tab 12.A - From 1 to 7, please indicate how certain you are that you can perform each of the following tasks. I can be very effective at using social media I can have a positive impact on the lives of others through social media I can offer other people important and interesting information by posting on social media I can find important and interesting information by reading other people's content on social media I can use social media as an effective way of connecting with others I can communicate very effectively using social media 1 (not at all confident) (neutral) (very confident) Total

29 Tab 13.A - Does your online or offline network include the following professions? Online Offline Both online and offline No Don't know or don't remember Insurance agent Nurse Lawyer Book-keeper or accountant Construction worker Policy maker Police officer Unskilled labourer Director of a company Engineer Cleaner Estate or Real-estate agent Tab 14.A - Gender. Total % Value Female 48.2 Male 51.8 Total Tab 15.A - Year of birth. % Value Before After Total Tab 16.A - What is the highest level of education you have completed? % Value Less than High School 8.5 High School 34.0 Some College or 3 year College Degree or 5 year College Degree 14.6 Master or Doctoral Degree 8.6 Total

30 Tab 17.A - Field of study. % Value Education 9.5 Art and humanities 9.2 Social sciences, journalism and information 6.9 Business, administration and law 29.0 Natural sciences, mathematics and statistic 4.7 Information and Communication Technologies 10.0 Engineering, manufacturing and construction 17.5 Agriculture, forestry, fisheries and veterinary 1.5 Health and welfare 3.7 Services 8.0 Total Tab 18.A - How many years work experience do you have? % Value 1 year or less years years years years 22.5 More than 20 years 20.6 Total Tab 19.A - Employment status. % Value Employed 41.2 Unemployed and looking for work 48.8 Unemployed but not seeking work 1.7 Temporarily redundant 3.6 Looking for my first job 4.1 I have never worked and I'm not looking for a job 0.5 Total

31 Tab 20.A - Business area. Note: Statistic calculated only for "employed" answers of Tab. 19.A. % Value Oil & Gas 2.8 Chemicals 4.1 Basic Resources 2.8 Construction & Materials 5.6 Industrial Goods & Services 15.2 Automobiles & Parts 4.2 Food & Beverage 5.6 Personal & Household Goods 2.5 Health Care 5.0 Retail 5.1 Media 6.2 Travel & Leisure 3.2 Telecommunications 5.6 Utilities 6.5 Banks 2.4 Insurance 2.0 Real Estate 1.6 Financial Services 6.1 Technology 13.3 Total Tab 21.A - What is your position? Note: Statistic calculated only for "employed" answers of Tab. 19.A. % Value Non manager 59.1 Middle manager 16.9 Manager 13.3 Senior manager and above 10.7 Total

32 Tab 22.A - Which department do you work in? Note: Statistic calculated only for "employed" answers of Tab. 19.A. % Value Controlling, Accounting & Finance 12.3 Purchasing 2.6 Manufacturing 15.0 Research & Development 5.6 Information Technology 10.7 Logistics 6.4 Sales 17.7 Marketing 6.2 Corporate Communication & PR 4.2 Human Resources 12.3 Quality Management 7.0 Total

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34 Recruiters Recruiting is increasingly social. To understand how companies operate on social media, which tools they use, and what they look for in the recruiting process, Adecco conducted an in-depth study. Between March 18th and June 2 nd 2014, 1,501 recruiters from 24 countries took part in the online survey, resulting in 873 complete responses and 628 partial responses 1. We also collected responses from more than 17,000 jobseekers to discover how they use social media for their job search. The sample is mostly composed of females (66%), professionals born after 1981 (46%), graduates (76%) equally distributed between those with more and less than five years experience, in a managerial position (37%), in companies with more than 250 employees (56%), and mostly recruiting agencies (51%). This report, which has been compiled in partnership with the Catholic University of Milan, Italy, covers four areas: the use of social media for professional purposes, the effectiveness of social media in the matching of job seekers with open positions in the job market, the relevance of web reputation and its impact on recruiting, and the training provided for the professional use of social media. It is interesting to analyse this data, keeping an eye on the candidates responses in order to understand how they explore Web 2.0 when looking for a job. In addition to the global data, the report compares the three geographic areas taken into consideration: Eastern Europe and MENA, Western Europe and Southern Europe 2. The USA and APAC, although considered in the overall figures, have not been analysed as individual areas due to the low number of responses (19 and 13 respectively). The report also includes a statistical appendix, which offers further detail on the responses provided by the participants. 1 The total numbers reported in the tables and figures also include the partial responses which lack information about the companies sector or size. 2 Eastern Europe and MENA include: Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Croatia, Hungary, Morocco, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Turkey, Tunisia, Arab Emirates, and Ukraine. Western Europe includes: the Netherlands, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Southern Europe includes: Spain, France, and Italy. 34

35 73% of respondents use at least one social networking site for professional purposes, meaning that they use their personal accounts for recruitment purposes. The most used platform is LinkedIn (58% of respondents), whilst the professional use of Facebook follows some way behind (28%). More than half of the companies where the respondents are currently employed have at least one active account on a social networking site, with an equal presence on LinkedIn and Facebook (53%). Relevant figures also emerge in relation to other social media platforms: Twitter (31%) and YouTube (18%) (fig. 1). Fig. 1 - Accounts on Social Media for Professional Use and Active Company Presence on Social Media. % Value. Note: Total Social Media is the percentage proportion of respondents using at least one of the considered social media platforms. 35

36 Southern Europe emerges as the region experiencing the greatest delay in the use of social networking sites in the recruitment processes, particularly in relation to the individual recruiter (34% vs. a global average of 73%) (fig. 2). Fig. 2 - Accounts on Social Media for Professional Use and Active Company Presence on Social Media by Region. % Value Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe Total Professional use by the recruiter Company's account Most of the companies active on social media are large sized companies (82% have at least 250 employees and a profile on at least one social networking site), followed by small-sized companies (between 10 and 50 employees, 69%) (fig. 3). 90 Fig. 3 - Active Company Presence on Social Media by Company Size. % Value Micro: < 10 people Small: < 50 Medium: < 250 Large: over 250 % by company size % in total companies 36

37 The companies most present on social media, grouped by the sector in which they operate, are Recruiting Agencies, Telecommunications, Chemicals, Technology, and Media. (tab. 1). Tab. 1 - Active Company Presence on Social Media by Industry. % Value. Rank Industry % Value 1 Recruiting Telecommunications Chemicals Technology Media Health Care Travel & Leisure Utilities Financial Services Food & Beverage Insurance Basic Resources Automobiles & Parts Retail Construction & Materials Industrial Goods & Services Oil & Gas / Real Estate Personal & Household Goods / Banks 37.5 Total

38 In the majority of cases, the use of social media by recruiters is more often either voluntary (58%) or strongly recommended (37%), and only in rare cases is it mandatory (6%). The use of social media is more often mandatory in Eastern Europe and MENA (8%). Fig. 4 Directives Regarding Recruiters Use of Social Media by Region. % Value. 100% 80% 60% % 20% 0% 52.4 Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe Total Voluntary Highly recommended Mandatory The use of social media by recruiters is most often recommended or mandatory in large-sized companies. It is interesting to note, however, that if we limit the analysis to solely mandatory use, the companies where this occurs are mostly small-sized (11%) and medium-sized companies (8%) (fig. 5). Fig. 5 Directives Regarding Recruiters Use of Social Media by Company Size. % Value. 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Micro: < 10 people Small: < 50 Medium: < 250 Large: over 250 Total Voluntary Highly recommended Mandatory 38

39 The recruiters use of social media is more often either strongly recommended or mandatory in the Recruiting sector (63% of cases), followed by the Telecommunications industry (55%) (tab. 2). Tab. 2 Directives Regarding Recruiters Use of Social Media by Industry: % of "Highly Recommended or Mandatory". % Value. Rank Business Area % Value 1 Recruiting Telecommunications Health Care Technology Oil & Gas / Real Estate Basic Resources Media Insurance Travel & Leisure Utilities / Food & Beverage Financial Services Retail Industrial Goods & Services Chemicals Construction & Materials Automobiles & Parts Personal & Household Goods / Banks 12.5 Total 42.3 More in depth, the most recurrent activities that are pursued through social media are job advertising (65%), followed by the active sourcing of passive candidates (60%), and checking the accuracy of CV information (53%) (tab. 3). Tab 3 - Use of Social Media for Specific Recruitment Activities. % Value. Note: multiple choice question. Rank Recruiting activities: % Value 1 Advertising jobs Sourcing passive candidates Checking the accuracy of an applicant's CV Receiving job applications Checking an applicant's network Employer branding Checking content posted by an applicant Checking references of an applicant

40 Additionally, a surprising result emerged concerning the profiles of those professional figures that recruiters most often search for via social media. It can be said that these profiles are mostly non-managerial profiles. This clearly demonstrates that social recruiting is broader and encompasses different profiles from those normally expected and that for the most qualified profiles, recruiters tend to prefer traditional channels of information and face-to-face networking. The only exception appears to be Eastern Europe and MENA, where managerial professions are the most searched for profiles in the digital sphere (fig. 6). 80 Fig. 6 - Typology of Candidate Profiles Searched For, Using Social Media by Region. % Value. Note: multiple choice question Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe Total Non manager Middle manager Manager Senior manager and above 40

41 Managerial profiles are generally searched for using social media platforms by medium and large-sized companies (fig. 7). Fig. 7 - Typology of Candidate Profiles Searched For, Using Social Media by Company Size. % Value. Note: multiple choice question Micro: < 10 people Small: < 50 Medium: < 250 Large: over 250 Total Non manager Middle manager Manager Senior manager and above In 2013, more than half of all recruitment activity involved the Internet (web in general, not solely social media) (53%), with the percentage for 2014 expected to continue to grow (61%). However, Southern Europe remains the area where the adoption of digital resources occurs much later, and despite their intention to use them, it can reasonably be said that this gap will remain throughout 2014 (fig. 8). Fig. 8 - Percentage of Total Recruitment Activity Involving the Internet by Region. % Value Eastern Europe and MENA Western Europe Southern Europe % by region (2013) % by region (2014 forecast) % in total companies (2013) % in total companies (2014 forecast) 41

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