Inorganic Compounds and Acids. Ionic Molecular Aqueous Acid

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1 Inorganic Compounds and Acids Ionic Molecular Aqueous Acid Binary Ionic Compound Ternary Ionic Compound Binary Molecular Compound Ternary Molecular Compound Binary acid Ternary acid

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3 Lewis Symbols and Formulas of Ionic Compounds Li + [He] + 1s 2 Mg 2+ [Ne] 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Al 3+ [Ne] 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 F - [Ne] 2+ 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 Fluorine accepts only one electron to achieve its octet or ideal gas configuration. Two fluorine atoms are thus required to accept the two electrons that magnesium must lose to achieve its octet. Using this information, the chemical formula of magnesium fluoride can be predicted to be: MgF2. Aluminum fluoride must be: AlF3.

4 Formulas of Ionic Compounds The formulas of all binary ionic compounds between the group IA, IIA, and IIIA metals, and the group VA, VIA, and VIIA nonmetals can be predicted using these principles. Group IA metals lose 1 electron to form 1+ ions. Group IIA metals lose 2 electrons to form 2+ ions. Group IIIA metals lose 3 electrons to form 3+ ions. Group VA nonmetals gain 3 electrons to form 3- ions. Group VIA nonmetals gain 2 electrons to form 2- ions. Group VIIA nonmetals gain 1 electron to form 1- ions.

5 Ionic Compounds A. Charges on Monoatomic Ions 1. For non-metallic elements, charges can be related to position on the periodic table N 3- O 2- F - P 3- S 2- Cl - As 3- Se 2- Br - I - 2. Fixed-charge metals Alkali metals(group IA): Li +, Na +, K +, Rb +, Cs + Alkaline earths(group IIA): Be 2+, Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Sr 2+, Ba 2+ Others: Ag +, Zn 2+, Al 3+

6 Formulas of Ionic Compounds When cations and anions combine to form a binary salt or acid, they always do so in such a way that the net charge of the substance formed is zero. The easiest way to apply this principle is the cross over approach, as illustrated for aluminum oxide: The magnitude of the charge on each ion is used as the subscript for the other ion in the formula for the substance. NaCl Na2O Na3N CaCl2 CaO Ca3N2 AlCl3 Al2O3 AlN

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8 B. Principles of Nomenclature for Ionic Compounds 1. Loss or gain of electrons does not occur without the complementary process. 2. Positive and negative ions combine in a ratio which achieves charge neutrality. 3. The formula for an ionic compound must reflect the charge neutrality. 4. After the formula is determined, the compound is named based on the metal and nonmetal elements present. Charges are not indicated for main group elements. C. Examples with fixed-charge metals: 1. How do Li and Br combine in an ionic compound? Li & Br Li + & Br - LiBr Lithium bromide 2. How do K and N combine in an ion compound? K & N K + & N 3- K3N Potassium nitride 3. How do Al and O combine in an ionic compound? Al & O Al 3+ & O 2- Al2O3 Aluminum oxide

9 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds In the name of a binary ionic compound, 1. The cation is always given first and the anion second. 2. The cation is always specified as the name of the metal. 3. The anion is specified by using the first part of the name of the nonmetal and then adding the suffix ide. 4. Sodium chloride (NaCl) Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) Magnesium sulfide (MgS).

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11 Nomenclature for Variable-charged metals A. Examples Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ Pb 2+ orpb 4+ Co 2+ or Co 3+ Which ion is referred to must be determined from the name or formula of the compound. B. Examples 1. How do Fe and Cl combine in an ionic compound? Fe & Cl Fe 2+ & Cl - FeCl2 or Fe 3+ & Cl - FeCl3 How do you distinguish between these? FeCl2 is the formula for iron (II) chloride FeCl3 is the formula for iron (III) chloride What do the II and the III represent???

12 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds Transition metals in period 4 and higher can often have several possible stable positive ions: Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ Cu + and Cu 2+ For this reason, names such as iron chloride and copper chloride are ambiguous. The modern system for naming the salts of these types of metal ions indicates the charge on the cation as a roman numeral within the name of the substance: Iron (II) chloride FeCl2 Copper (I) chloride CuCl Iron (III) chloride FeCl3 Copper (II) chloride CuCl2 An older system, still in common use, uses the suffixes ous and ic to indicate the less positive and more positive cations: Ferrous chloride FeCl2 Cuprous chloride CuCl Ferric chloride FeCl3 Cupric chloride CuCl2

13 Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

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15 Polyatomic Ions A polyatomic ion is two or more atoms chemically combined into a single charged unit:

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17 Naming Covalent (Molecular) Compounds A. Covalent compounds do not always combine in readily predictable ratios. B. Prefixes are therefore used to indicate the number of atoms involved. CO CO2 SO2 SO3 CCl4 PCl5 SF6 N2O4 P4S7 Carbon monoxide Carbon dioxide Sulfur dioxide Sulfur trioxide Carbon tetrachloride Phoshorous pentachloride Sulfur hexafluoride Dinitrogen tetroxide Tetraphosphorous heptasulfide C. Some covalent compound have common names H2O NH3 CH4 water ammonia methane

18 Nomenclature for Binary Molecular Compounds The systematic method for naming simple, binary molecular compounds is based on the fact that some pairs of elements can form more than one covalently bonded compound. Common examples are: CO and CO2 N2O, NO, NO2, N2O3, N2O4, and N2O5

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20 Nomenclature for Acids

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