Acids and Bases Chapter 15

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1 Acids Acids and Bases Chapter 15 Topics: p scale, Strengths of Acids and Bases, Ionization Constants of Weak Acids and Bases; Properties of Salts ave a sour taste. Vinegar owes its taste to acetic acid. Citrus fruits contain citric acid. React with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas. React with carbonates and bicarbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas Bases ave a bitter taste. Feel slippery. Many soaps contain bases. 4.3 Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces + ( 3 O + ) in water A Brønsted acid is a proton donor A Brønsted base is a proton acceptor Arrhenius base is a substance that produces O in water base acid acid base base acid conjugate acid conjugate base

2 O + O Acid Base Properties of Water 2 O (l) + (aq) + O (aq) [ ] + + O O conjugate acid 2 O + 2 O 3 O + + O acid autoionization of water base conjugate base 2 O an amphoteric substance, can act as both an acid or base O (l) The Ion Product of Water + (aq) + O (aq) K c = K c [ 2 O] = K w = [ + ][O ] [ + ][O ] [ 2 O] [ 2 O] = constant The ion product constant (K w ) is the product of the molar concentrations of + and O ions at a particular temperature. [ + ] = [O ] [ + ] > [O ] [ + ] < [O ] Solution Is neutral acidic basic At 25 0 C K w = [ + ][O ] = 1.0 x (applies to all aqueous solutions) 15.2 What is the concentration of O ions in an Cl solution whose hydrogen ion concentration is 1.3 M? p A Measure of Acidity p = log [ + ] K w = [ + ][O ] = 1.0 x Solution Is neutral acidic basic [ + ] = [O ] [ + ] > [O ] [ + ] < [O ] At 25 0 C [ + ] = 1 x 10 7 [ + ] > 1 x 10 7 [ + ] < 1 x 10 7 p = 7 p < 7 p > p [ + ] A p of 2 is times more acidic than a p of

3 p Scale l l stronger acids neutral stronger bases [ + ] [O ] p po po = log [O ] [ + ][O ] = K w = 1.0 x log [ + ] log [O ] = The p of rainwater collected in a certain region of the northeastern United States on a particular day was What is the + ion concentration of the rainwater? p = log [ + ] p + po =

4 Strengths of Acids and Bases Strong Acids are strong electrolytes Cl (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + Cl (aq) NO 3 (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) ClO 4 (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + ClO 4 (aq) 2 SO 4 (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + SO 4 (aq) Weak Acids are weak electrolytes F (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + F (aq) NO 2 (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + NO 2 (aq) SO 4 (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + SO 2 4 (aq) 2 O (l) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + O (aq) Strong Bases are strong electrolytes NaO (s) 2O Na + (aq) + O (aq) KO (s) 2O K + (aq) + O (aq) 2O Ba(O) 2 (s) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2O (aq) Weak Bases are weak electrolytes F (aq) + 2 O (l) NO 2 (aq) + 2 O (l) O (aq) + F (aq) O (aq) + NO 2 (aq) Conjugate acid base pairs: The conjugate base of a strong acid has no measurable strength. 3 O + is the strongest acid that can exist in aqueous solution. The O ion is the strongest base that can exist in aqueous solution

5 Strong Acid Weak Acid What is the p of a 2 x 10 3 M NO 3 solution? What is the p of a 1.8 x 10 2 M Ba(O) 2 solution? NO 3 is a strong acid 100% dissociation. Start End M NO 3 (aq) + 2 O (l) 0.0 M p = 0.0 M 0.0 M 3 O + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) M M 15.4 Start End Ba(O) 2 is a strong base 100% dissociation M 0.0 M 0.0 M Ba(O) 2 (s) Ba 2+ (aq) + 2O (aq) 0.0 M M M po = Weak Acids (A) and Acid Ionization Constants A (aq) + 2 O (l) 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) A (aq) + (aq) + A (aq) K a = [+ ][A ] [A] K a is the acid ionization constant K a weak acid strength 5

6 What is the p of a 0.5 M F solution (at 25 0 C)? K F (aq) + (aq) + F a = [+ ][F ] = 7.1 x 10 4 (aq) [F] Initial (M) Change (M) Equilibrium (M) K a = K a x 2 = 7.1 x x x 2 = 7.1 x [ + ] = [F ] = M [F] = 0.50 x = 0.48 M F (aq) x +x 0.50 x + (aq) + F (aq) x K a << 1 x 2 = 3.55 x x p = log [ + ] = 1.72 x 0.50 x 0.50 x = M When can I use the approximation? K a << x 0.50 When x is less than 5% of the value from which it is subtracted. x = M 0.50 M x 100% = 3.8% Less than 5% Approximation ok. What is the p of a 0.05 M F solution (at 25 0 C)? K a x = 7.1 x 10 4 x = M M 0.05 M x 100% = 12% More than 5% Approximation not ok. Must solve for x exactly using quadratic equation or method of successive approximation. What is the p of a M monoprotic acid whose K a is 5.7 x 10 4? Solving weak acid ionization problems: 1. Identify the major species that can affect the p. In most cases, you can ignore the autoionization of water. Ignore [O ] because it is determined by [ + ]. 2. Use ICE to express the equilibrium concentrations in terms of single unknown x. 3. Write K a in terms of equilibrium concentrations. Solve for x by the approximation method. If approximation is not valid, solve for x exactly. 4. Calculate concentrations of all species and/or p of the solution. Initial (M) Change (M) Equilibrium (M) A (aq) + (aq) + A (aq) 6

7 percent ionization = Ionized acid concentration at equilibrium x 100% Initial concentration of acid For a monoprotic acid A Percent ionization = [+ ] [A] 0 x 100% [A] 0 = initial concentration Weak Bases and Base Ionization Constants N 3 (aq) + 2 O (l) N 4 + (aq) + O (aq) K b = [N 4 + ][O ] [N 3 ] K b is the base ionization constant K b weak base strength Solve weak base problems like weak acids except solve for [O ] instead of [ + ]

8 Ionization Constants of Conjugate Acid Base Pairs A (aq) + (aq) + A (aq) A (aq) + 2 O (l) O (aq) + A (aq) K a K b Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids 2 O (l) + (aq) + O (aq) K w K a K b = K w Weak Acid and Its Conjugate Base K a = K w K b K b = K w K a 15.7 ydrolysis and Acid Base Properties of Salts Salt an ionic compound formed by the reaction of an acid and a base Salts are strong electrolytes and are completely dissociated in 2 O Salt ydrolysis the reaction of a cation or anion of a salt, or both, with 2 O; usually affects p

9 Acid Base Properties of Salts Neutral Solutions: p = 7 Salts containing an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal ion (except Be 2+ ) and the conjugate base of a strong acid (e.g. Cl, Br, and NO 3 ). NaCl (s) 2O Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) Basic Solutions: p >7 Salts derived from a strong base and a weak acid. Acid Base Properties of Salts Acid Solutions: p < 7 Salts derived from a strong acid and a weak base. N 4 Cl (s) 2O N + 4 (aq) + Cl (aq) N 4 + (aq) N3 (aq) + + (aq) NaC 3 COO (s) 2O Na + (aq) + C 3 COO (aq) C 3 COO (aq) + 2 O (l) C 3 COO (aq) + O (aq) Acid Base Properties of Salts Solutions in which both the cation and the anion hydrolyze: K b for the anion > K a for the cation, solution will be basic K b for the anion < K a for the cation, solution will be acidic K b for the anion K a for the cation, solution will be neutral Predict whether the following solutions will be A, B or N. N 4 I NaNO 2 FeCl 3 N 4 F

10 Definition of An Acid Arrhenius acid is a substance that produces + ( 3 O + ) in water A Brønsted acid is a proton donor A Lewis acid is a substance that can accept a pair of electrons A Lewis base is a substance that can donate a pair of electrons + O O acid base + + N + N acid base

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