# Definition heliocentric: sun is the center of the solar system

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1 Heliocentric Model Earth, Moon, and Sun Definition heliocentric: sun is the center of the solar system Earth rotates on its axis Moon revolves around earth as the earth revolves around the sun Motion of fixed stars is explained by rotation Geocentric Model Definition geocentric: earth is the center of the solar system Planets travel in small circles around a larger circle Sun, moon, stars revolve around earth at different speeds All stars are the same distance from earth Could not explain retrograde motion, swinging pendulum Heliocentric Model Cont. Motion of the moon is explained by rotation and revolution of Earth Apparent motion of the sun is explained by rotation on its axis and revolution around sun Could explain retrograde motion and swinging pendulum 1

2 Geocentric and Heliocentric Models Geocentric model: earth is center of solar system Heliocentric model: sun is the center of the solar system Daily Motion of Stars Apparent Motion of Celestial Objects Sun, planets, stars, and moon APPEAR to rise in the east and set in the west Caused by ROTATION Stars near Polaris move in a circle Paths of celestial objects called an arc Motion of objects is a constant rate. They move 360 in 24hr. Or 15 /hr Apparent Motion of Planets Planets rise in the east, and set in the west Earth and other planets revolve around the sun at different speeds This can cause some planets to APPEAR to move backward called retrograde motion 2

3 Motion of Planets Cont. Planets rotate or spin on their imaginary axis Period of Rotation: the time it takes for a planet to make 1 spin on its axis. Determines the length of day. Ref Table p. 15 Apparent Motion of the Sun in North Latitudes Sun rises in the east, moves across the sky in an arc, and sets in the west The path changes with the seasons The greater the length of the path, the more daylight hours The shorter the path, the less daylight hours When the path is divided in half at the equator, there is 12 hrs. day and 12 hrs. night Apparent Motion of the Moon Moon rises in the east, and sets in the west Each day it rises 50 minutes later Each day the moon shifts eastward when it rises Sun s Path 3

4 Sun s Path Cont. Dec 21: winter solstice, sunrise SE, noon sun 25 1/2, daylight 9 hr, sun is at Tropic of Capricorn 23 1/2 S March 21, Sept 23: equinoxes, Sunrise due east, noon sun 49, daylight 12 hr., sun is at the equator June 21: summer solstice, sunrise NE, noon sun 72 1/2, daylight 15 hr., sun is at the Tropic of Cancer 23 1/2 N Changes in Altitude of Sun at Noon Cont. Sun is directly overhead between 23 1/2 N and 23 1/2 S In the US, the sun is NEVER overhead, it is ALWAYS in the southern sky. Changes in Altitude of Sun at Noon Sun is lowest in sky at sunrise, rises until noon then decreases until sunset Altitude depends on time of year and season Actual Motions of Earth Coriolis Effect Ellipses 4

5 Rotation of Earth Definition axis: an imaginary line that runs through the North and South Poles that earth spins on. Tilts 23 1/2 North points towards Polaris Rotates west to east at 15 /hr From the north pole the earth rotates counterclockwise Evidence for Rotation Cont. Coriolis Effect: tendency of particles moving at the the surface to be curved away from the straight line Northern Hemisphere: curve to the right Cause: earth s rotation Affects: ocean currents, winds, storms Evidence for Rotation Foucault pendulum: path changes in predictable way due to inertia Definition inertia: object at rest will stay at rest, object in motion will travel in straight line unless acted upon by another force Revolution Definition: movement around the sun Planets move counterclockwise Shape of orbit is an ellipse Ellipses are based on 2 fixed points called foci. One is the sun, the other is a planet, comet or asteroid 5

6 Revolution Cont. Sum of the distances between any point on the ellipse and the 2 foci is constant Major axis is the longest straight distance and cuts through the 2 foci Eccentricity of a Planet s Orbit Definition eccentricity: the ovalness of an ellipse Formula: eccentricity = distance between foci d length of major axis L Eccentricity is a decimal to the thousands place 0. _ There are no units Evidence for Revolution Seasons: if earth did not revolve, the axis would tilt in the same direction all the time and there would be no seasons Constellations: group of stars that form a pattern. Different constellations for each season Diameter of sun appears to change Eccentricity of a Planet s Orbit Cont. O.000 is a circle, is a straight line As Foci come closer, e is closer to zero, orbit more circular As Foci move further apart, e is closer to one, orbit is more elliptical Earth s orbit is almost circular, e = Ref Table p.15 6

7 Varying Distance of Planets to the Sun Elliptical shape of orbit causes planets to vary in their distance from the sun during revolution Earth closest point = 147,000,000km = perihelion = Jan 3 Earth s farthest point = 152,000,000 km = aphelion = July 4 Sun appears to change size: larger in Jan than in July Seasons Period of Revolution Definition: time it takes to make 1 revolution around the sun. Determines Length of Year. Related to distance from the sun distance from sun = time for revolution Closer a planet to the sun, the smaller its orbit, the shorter its revolution and the faster its speed Seasons in Northern Hemisphere 4 seasons: winter, spring, summer fall Differences in temperature, moisture and vegetation Regions near the equator have little seasonal change because their sunlight is usually 12 hr day/ 12 hr night 7

8 Causes of the Seasons Direct Cause: Angle of Incidence, Intensity of insolation ( strongest sun), Duration of insolation ( strongest sun) Definition of Angle of Incidence: angle at which the sun s rays hit earth s surface Direct Cause of the Season and Shadows Direct Cause of the Seasons Tilt of the Axis between 23 1/2 N and 23!/2 S Causes shadows to lengthen and shorten based on altitude of the sun Indirect Cause of the Seasons Tilt of Axis: tilted at 23 1/2 Parallelism: the axis ALWAYS points in the same direction through the North Pole to Polaris Revolution: around the sun - as we revolve the direction of the axis points towards the sun or away from the sun 8

9 Indirect Causes of the Seasons Cont. Dec 21: Tropic of Capricorn, winter solstice, axis at N. Pole points away from the sun, 9 hr day/15 hr night March 21: Equator, spring equinox, axis is parallel to the sun, 12 hr day/ 12 hr night Indirect Causes of the Seasons Cont. Indirect Causes of the Seasons Cont. June 21: Tropic of Cancer, summer solstice, axis at N. Pole points toward the sun, 15 hr day/ 9 hr night Sept 23: Equator, fall equinox, N. Pole is parallel to the sun, 12 hr day/ 12 hr night Period of Revolution Cont. The further a planet is from the sun, the larger its orbit, the longer its revolution, the slower its speed Earth revolves around the 1 /day Ref Table p.15 9

10 Gravitation Inertia, Gravitation, and Orbital Velocity Definition gravitation: attractive force between 2 objects Greater mass between objects = gravitational force Closer objects are = gravitational force Farther apart objects are = gravitational force Inertia Definition inertia: object at rest will remain at rest and an object in motion will maintain its direction unless acted upon by an opposing force Orbital Velocity Orbital speed varies with distance around sun Closer to sun = velocity Farther from the sun = velocity 10

11 Time Cont. Earth, Moon Motions, Time Each meridian has different time because of rotation Solar noon is the highest point of the sun in the sky Time Zones: 24 zones in 15 band connected to meridians or longitude lines. Each line has a 1 hour difference in time Time A month is based on the cycle of moon phases A year is based on the period of revolution Local time is the rotation of the earth as reflected in the motions of the sun If located on same meridian (longitude line) = same local time Us has 6 time zones: Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific, Alaskan, Hawaiian. Each goes back 1 hour in time Time Cont. 11

12 Moon s Phases Actual Motion of the Moon Moon Phases Only 1 side of the moon receives light Phases are caused by the moon revolving around earth so we see varying amounts of light Phases are predictable and cyclic Moons phases = 29 1/2 days Moons revolution and rotation = 27 1/3 days, Ref Table p.15 Tides Definition tides: the rise and fall of the ocean waters Caused by gravity between the earth, moon and sun Moon s pull is stronger because it is closer Predictable and cyclic 12

13 Tides Cont. 2 high tides, 2 low tides each day They are 12hr 25 min apart High tides form when earth, moon and sun are in a straight line. Phases are the new moon and full moon Low tides form when earth, moon and sun are at right angles. Phases are first quarter and last quarter. Eclipses Cont. Lunar eclipse Occurs full moon phase penumbra: earth s shadow covers part fo the moon and is a partial eclipse Umbra: earth s shadow covers all of the moon and is a total eclipse Eclipses Definition eclipses: when a celestial object comes into the shadow of another celestial object Eclipses Cont. Solar eclipse Occurs new moon phase Penumbra: moon blocks out part of the sun and is a partial eclipse Umbra: moon blocks out all of the sun and is a total eclipse 13

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