The use of Vegetation for Social Housing Renovations: a cases study in the city of Palermo

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1 The use of Vegetation for Social Housing Renovations: a cases study in the city of Palermo Luisa Pastore Università degli Studi di Palermo Italy Rossella Corrao Università degli Studi di Palermo Italy Per Heiselberg Aalborg University Denmark

2 ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS Less CO 2 Mitigation of the outdoor temperature SOCIAL BENEFITS People social life improvement ECONOMIC BENEFITS Plants vs deep retrofit interventions

3 AIM OF THE RESEARCH Definition of sustainable strategies for the environmental and energy renovation of Social Housing complexes in temperate areas, in an attempt to combine: URBAN MICROCLIMATE MITIGATION BUILDING SCALE INDOOR COMFORT VEGETATION MICRO-URBAN SCALE OUTDOOR COMFORT BUILDINGS ENERGY RETROFIT

4 METHODOLOGY CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS micro-urban and building scale MICRO- URBAN SCALE SIMULATIONS Urban area 470x470 m 2 Integration DISTRICT of vegetation SCALE in SIMULATIONS external Residential spacesarea 110x375 m 2 BUILDING SCALE SIMULATIONS 5 Apartments AIMS: To provide Microclimatic parameters To assess benefits of vegetation on OUTDOOR COMFORT To assess benefits of vegetation on INDOOR COMFORT Tool: ENVI-met Tool: ENVI-met Tool: EnergyPlus

5 MEDAGLIE D ORO RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX IN PALERMO Das Bild kann nicht angezeigt werden. Dieser Computer verfügt möglicherweise über zu wenig Arbeitsspeicher, um das Bild zu öffnen, oder das Bild ist beschädigt. Starten Sie den Computer neu, und öffnen Sie dann erneut die Datei. Wenn weiterhin das rote x angezeigt wird, müssen Sie das Bild möglicherweise löschen und dann erneut einfügen.

6 1. CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS

7 1. CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS

8 METHODOLOGY CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS micro-urban and building scale MICRO- URBAN SCALE SIMULATIONS Urban area 470x470 m 2 Integration DISTRICT of vegetation SCALE in SIMULATIONS external Residential spacesarea 110x375 m 2 BUILDING SCALE SIMULATIONS 5 Apartments AIMS: To provide Microclimatic parameters To assess benefits of vegetation on OUTDOOR COMFORT To assess benefits of vegetation on INDOOR COMFORT Tool: ENVI-met Tool: ENVI-met Tool: EnergyPlus

9 2. MICRO-URBAN SCALE SIMULATIONS

10 2. MICRO-URBAN SCALE SIMULATIONS

11 2. MICRO-URBAN SCALE SIMULATIONS Similar trends can be noticed as for temperature and direct solar radiation, while significant differences can be noticed as for the wind speed values in correspondence to the four receptors

12 METHODOLOGY CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS micro-urban and building scale MICRO- URBAN SCALE SIMULATIONS Urban area 470x470 m 2 Integration DISTRICT of vegetation SCALE in SIMULATIONS external Residential spacesarea 110x375 m 2 BUILDING SCALE SIMULATIONS 5 Apartments AIMS: To provide Microclimatic parameters To assess benefits of vegetation on OUTDOOR COMFORT To assess benefits of vegetation on INDOOR COMFORT Tool: ENVI-met Tool: ENVI-met Tool: EnergyPlus

13 3. SIMULATION AT THE SCALE OF THE MEDAGLIE D ORO COMPLEX 5 receptors taken into account to extract exact values of TEMPERATURE, WIND SPEED and SOLAR RADIATION Rec. A Rec. B Rec. C h= 7,5m Rec. D Rec. E - h= 1,5m

14 3. SIMULATION AT THE SCALE OF THE MEDAGLIE D ORO COMPLEX Scenario 1 In addition to the current situation, 4 DIFFERENT SCENARIOS were simulated, considering progressive addiction of vegetation with different LAI values Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4 ID Vegetation Typ. H (m) LAI (m 2 /m 2 ) A Tree B Tree C Tree D Tree Pl Tree Sk Tree Bu Hedge G Grass Gr Grass

15 3. SIMULATION AT THE SCALE OF THE MEDAGLIE D ORO COMPLEX RESULTS WINTER: Irrelevant differences as for wind speed and temperature Considerable reduction of direct solar radiation in Sc. 2, 3 and 4 SUMMER: Negligible wind speed variations Considerable reduction of direct solar radiation in Sc. 2, 3 and 4 Significant decrease of temperature registered in correspondence of receptors A and C, positioned near the buildings walls overlooking the internal area of the complex, and for receptor E, positioned in the open area.

16 3. SIMULATION AT THE SCALE OF THE MEDAGLIE D ORO COMPLEX

17 3. SIMULATION AT THE SCALE OF THE MEDAGLIE D ORO COMPLEX

18 METHODOLOGY CURRENT STATE ANALYSIS micro-urban and building scale MICRO- URBAN SCALE SIMULATIONS Urban area 470x470 m 2 Integration DISTRICT of vegetation SCALE in SIMULATIONS external Residential spacesarea 110x375 m 2 BUILDING SCALE SIMULATIONS 5 Apartments AIMS: To provide Microclimatic parameters To assess benefits of vegetation on OUTDOOR COMFORT To assess benefits of vegetation on INDOOR COMFORT Tool: ENVI-met Tool: ENVI-met Tool: EnergyPlus

19 4. SIMULATION AT THE APARTMENT SCALE

20 4. SIMULATION AT THE APARTMENT SCALE 5 SCENARIOS SIMULATED: Current state Outside vegetation (as resulted from the previous stage) Outside vegetation + Substitution of windows (low-e glazing) Outside vegetation + Low-e glazing + Living walls Outside vegetation + Low-e glazing + Living walls + Green roof (only for the top floor apartment) 3 DIFFERENT VENTILATION CONDITIONS CONSIDERED: Closed Doors and Windows Closed Doors and Open Windows Open Doors and Open Windows

21 4. SIMULATION AT THE APARTMENT SCALE

22 4. SIMULATION AT THE APARTMENT SCALE Outside vegetation Low-e glazing + Living Walls T 3 C T 1,3 C

23 CONCLUSIONS The research show the effectiveness of the integration of plants with the built environment for: The microclimate mitigation and the enhancement of the OUTDOOR COMFORT ( T up to 3 C) The improvement of building performance and of INDOOR COMFORT ( T up to 4,3 C) and demonstrate the importance of deeper approaches for high accuracy investigations on real urban and building scale thermal comfort levels. Further researches are being held to: Assess the effect of the use of vegetation also in other Social Housing complexes of the city of Palermo (with different environmental conditions) To validate it also in a COST-BENEFIT PERSPECTIVE

24 Luisa Pastore Università degli Studi di Palermo Italy

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