Final Review (F2007) Chapter 2: Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension

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1 Physics I Mechanics Final Review (F2007) Name: ANSWER KEY Chapter 2: Describing Motion: Kinematics in One Dimension 1. Suppose that a car traveling to the East (+x direction) begins to slow down as it approaches a traffic light. Make a statement concerning its acceleration. a. The car is decelerating, and its acceleration is positive. b. The car is decelerating, and its acceleration is negative. c. The acceleration is zero. d. A statement cannot be made using the information given. 2. Objects A and B both start at rest. They both accelerate at the same rate. However, object A accelerates for twice the time as object B. What is the final speed of object A compared to that of object B? a. the same speed b. twice as fast c. three times as fast d. four times as fast 3. When an object is released from rest and falls in the absence of friction, which of the following is true concerning its motion? a. The speed of the falling object is proportional to its mass. b. The speed of the falling object is proportional to its weight. c. The speed of the falling object is inversely proportional to its surface area. d. None of the above is true. 4. The slope of a position versus time graph gives a. position. b. velocity. c. acceleration. d. displacement. 5. The area under a curve in an acceleration versus time graph gives a. acceleration. b. velocity. c. displacement. d. position. 6. A car travels 90 km/h. How long does it take for it to travel 400 km? a. 4.1 h b. 4.2 h c. 4.3 h d. 4.4 h 7. A car traveling 60 km/h accelerates at the rate of 2.0 m/s2. How much time is required for the car to reach a speed of 90 km/h? a. 15 s b. 30 s c. 45 s d. 4.2 s 1

2 8. A cart starts from rest and accelerates at 4.0 m/s2 for 5.0 s, then maintain that velocity for 10 s, and then decelerates at the rate of 2.0 m/s2 for 4.0 s. What is the final speed of the car? a. 20 m/s b. 16 m/s c. 12 m/s d. 10 m/s 9. A bullet moving horizontally to the right (+x direction) with a speed of 500 m/s strikes a sandbag and penetrates a distance of 10.0 cm. What is the average acceleration, in m/s2, of the bullet? a b c d A ball is thrown straight up with a speed of 36.0 m/s. How long does it take to return to its starting point? a s b s c s d s Chapter 3: Kinematics in Two Dimensions; Vectors 11. Which of the following is an accurate statement? a. A vector cannot have zero magnitude if one of its components is not zero. b. The magnitude of a vector can be less than the magnitude of one of its components. c. If the magnitude of vector A is less than the magnitude of vector B, then the x-component of A is less than the x-component of B. d. The magnitude of a vector can be positive or negative. 12. Three forces, each having a magnitude of 30 N, pull on an object in directions that are 120 apart from each other. Make a statement concerning the resultant force. a. The resultant force is zero. b. The resultant force is greater than 30 N. c. The resultant force is equal to 30 N. d. The resultant force is less than 30 N. 13. Ignoring air resistance, the horizontal component of a projectile's acceleration a. is zero. b. remains a non-zero constant. c. continuously increases. d. continuously decreases. 14. An Olympic athlete throws a javelin at four different angles above the horizontal, each with the same speed: 30, 40, 60, and 80. Which two throws cause the javelin to land the same distance away? a. 30 and 80 b. 40 and 60 c. 40 and 80 d. 30 and 60 2

3 15. A stone is thrown horizontally from the top of a tower at the same instant a ball is dropped vertically. Which object is traveling faster when it hits the level ground below? a. It is impossible to tell from the information given. b. the stone c. the ball d. Neither, since both are traveling at the same speed. 16. If you walk 6.0 km in a straight line in a direction north of east and you end up 2.0 km north and several kilometers east. How many degrees north of east have you walked? a. 19 b. 45 c. 60 d A stone is thrown horizontally with an initial speed of 10 m/s from the edge of a cliff. A stop watch measures the stone's trajectory time from the top of the cliff to the bottom to be 4.3 s. What is the height of the cliff? a. 22 m b. 43 m c. 77 m d. 91 m 18. A jumper in the long-jump goes into the jump with a speed of 12 m/s at an angle of 20 above the horizontal. How far does the jumper jump? a. 3.4 m b. 6.2 m c. 9.4 m d. 15 m 19. A projectile is launched with an initial velocity of 60.0 m/s at an angle of 30.0 above the horizontal. How far does it travel? a. 152 m b. 160 m c. 184 m d. 318 m Chapter 4: Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion 20. When you sit on a chair, the resultant force on you is a. zero. b. up. c. down. d. depending on your weight. 21. Two cars collide head-on. At every moment during the collision, the magnitude of the force the first car exerts on the second is exactly equal to the magnitude of the force the second car exerts on the first. This is an example of a. Newton's first law. b. Newton's second law. c. Newton's third law. d. Newton's law of gravitation. 3

4 22. Mass and weight a. both measure the same thing. b. are exactly equal. c. are two different quantities. d. are both measured in kilograms. 23. A 20-N weight and a 5.0-N weight are dropped simultaneously from the same height. Ignore air resistance. Compare their accelerations. a. The 20 N weight accelerates faster because it is heavier. b. The 20 N weight accelerates faster because it has more inertia. c. The 5.0 N weight accelerates faster because it has a smaller mass. d. They both accelerate at the same rate because they have the same weight to mass ratio. 24. A horizontal force accelerates a box from rest across a horizontal surface (friction is present) at a constant rate. The experiment is repeated, and all conditions remain the same with the exception that the horizontal force is doubled. What happens to the box's acceleration? a. It increases to more than double its original value. b. It increases to exactly double its original value. c. It increases to less than double its original value. d. It increases somewhat. 25. A block of mass M slides down a frictionless plane inclined at an angle θ with the horizontal. The normal reaction force exerted by the plane on the block is directed a. parallel to the plane in the same direction as the movement of the block. b. parallel to the plane in the opposite direction as the movement of the block c. perpendicular to the plane. d. toward the center of the Earth. 26. A sports car of mass 1000 kg can accelerate from rest to 27 m/s in 7.0 s. What is the average forward force on the car? a N b N c N d N 27. A stack of books rests on a level frictionless surface. A force F acts on the stack, and it accelerates at 3.0 m/s2. A 1.0 kg book is then added to the stack. The same force is applied, and now the stack accelerates at 2.0 m/s2. What was the mass of the original stack? a. 1.0 kg b. 2.0 kg c. 3.0 kg d. none of the above 28. A person on a scale rides in an elevator. If the mass of the person is 60.0 kg and the elevator accelerates downward with an acceleration of 4.90 m/s2, what is the reading on the scale? a. 147 N b. 294 N c. 588 N d. 882 N 4

5 FIGURE In the Atwood machine shown in Fig. 4-1, if M = 0.60 kg and m = 0.40 kg, what is the magnitude of the acceleration of the system? (Ignore friction and the mass of the pulley.) a. 5.3 m/s2 b. 3.9 m/s2 c. 2.0 m/s2 d m/s2 30. A student pulls a box of books on a smooth horizontal floor with a force of 100 N in a direction of 37 above the horizontal. If the mass of the box and the books is 40.0 kg, what is the acceleration of the box? a. 1.5 m/s2 b. 1.9 m/s2 c. 2.0 m/s2 d. 3.3 m/s2 FIGURE In Fig. 4-2, if the tensions in the ropes are 50 N, what is the mass of the traffic light? a. 3.1 kg b. 4.1 kg c. 6.1 kg d. 8.1 kg 5

6 Chapter 5: Circular Motion; Gravitation 32. When an object experiences uniform circular motion, the direction of the acceleration is a. in the same direction as the velocity vector. b. in the opposite direction of the velocity vector. c. is directed toward the center of the circular path. d. is directed away from the center of the circular path. 33. What force is needed to make an object move in a circle? a. kinetic friction b. static friction c. centripetal force d. weight 34. A roller coaster car is on a track that forms a circular loop in the vertical plane. If the car is to just maintain contact with track at the top of the loop, what is the minimum value for its centripetal acceleration at this point? a. g downward b. 0.5g downward c. g upward d. 2g upward 35. A coin of mass m rests on a turntable a distance r from the axis of rotation. The turntable rotates with a frequency of f. What is the minimum coefficient of static friction between the turntable and the coin if the coin is not to slip? a. (4π2f2r)/g b. (4π2fr2)/g c. (4πf2r)/g d. (4πfr2)/g 36. A car goes around a curve of radius r at a constant speed v. Then it goes around a curve of radius 2r at speed 2v. What is the centripetal force on the car as it goes around the second curve, compared to the first? a. four times as big b. twice as big c. one-half as big d. one-fourth as big 37. Two horizontal curves on a bobsled run are banked at the same angle, but one has twice the radius of the other. The safe speed (no friction needed to stay on the run) for the smaller radius curve is v. What is the safe speed on the larger radius curve? a. approximately 0.707v b. 2v c. approximately 1.41v d. 0.5v 38. Compared to its mass on the Earth, the mass of an object on the Moon is a. less. b. more. c. the same. d. half as much. 6

7 39. The maximum speed around a level curve is 30.0 km/h. What is the maximum speed around a curve with twice the radius? (Assume all other factors remain unchanged.) a km/h b km/h c km/h d. 120 km/h 40. A 0.50-kg mass is attached to the end of a 1.0-m string. The system is whirled in a horizontal circular path. If the maximum tension that the string can withstand is 350 N. What is the maximum speed of the mass if the string is not to break? a. 700 m/s b. 26 m/s c. 19 m/s d. 13 m/s 41. A car is negotiating a flat curve of radius 50 m with a speed of 20 m/s. The centripetal force provided by friction is N. What is the mass of the car? a. 500 kg b kg c kg d kg 42. A horizontal curve on a bobsled run is banked at a 45 angle. When a bobsled rounds this curve at the curve's safe speed (no friction needed to stay on the run), what is its centripetal acceleration? a. g b. 2g c. 0.5 g d. none of the above 43. What is the gravitational force on a 70-kg person standing on the Earth, due to the Moon? The mass of the Moon is kg and the distance to the Moon is m. a N b N c N d N 44. A spherically symmetric planet has four times the Earth's mass and twice its radius. If a jar of peanut butter weighs 12 N on the surface of the Earth, how much would it weigh on the surface of this planet? a. 6.0 N b. 12 N c. 24 N d. 36 N Chapter 6: Work and Energy 45. The area under the curve, on a Force versus position (F vs. x) graph, represents a. work. b. kinetic energy. c. power. d. potential energy. 7

8 46. If the net work done on an object is negative, then the object's kinetic energy a. decreases. b. remains the same. c. increases. d. is zero. 47. You slam on the brakes of your car in a panic, and skid a certain distance on a straight, level road. If you had been traveling twice as fast, what distance would the car have skidded, under the same conditions? a. It would have skidded 4 times farther. b. It would have skidded twice as far. c. It would have skidded 1.4 times farther. d. It is impossible to tell from the information given. 48. An acorn falls from a tree. Compare its kinetic energy K, to its potential energy U. a. K increases and U decreases. b. K decreases and U decreases. c. K increases and U increases. d. K decreases and U increases. 49. A ball falls from the top of a building, through the air (air friction is present), to the ground below. How does the kinetic energy (K) just before striking the ground compare to the potential energy (U) at the top of the building? a. K is equal to U. b. K is greater than U. c. K is less than U. d. It is impossible to tell. 50. The quantity Fd/t is a. the kinetic energy of the object. b. the potential energy of the object. c. the work done on the object by the force. d. the power supplied to the object by the force. 51. You lift a 10-N physics book up in the air a distance of 1.0 m, at a constant velocity of 0.50 m/s. What is the work done by the weight of the book? a. +10 J b. -10 J c J d J 52. A 500-kg elevator is pulled upward with a constant force of 5500 N for a distance of 50.0 m. What is the work done by the weight of the elevator? a J b J c J d J 8

9 FIGURE A force moves an object in the direction of the force. The graph in Fig. 6-1 shows the force versus the object's position. Find the work done when the object moves from 0 to 2.0 m. a. 20 J b. 40 J c. 60 J d. 80 J 54. A horizontal force of 200 N is applied to move a 55-kg cart (initially at rest) across a 10 m level surface. What is the final speed of the cart? a. 73 m/s b. 36 m/s c. 8.5 m/s d. 6.0 m/s 55. A skier, of mass 40 kg, pushes off the top of a hill with an initial speed of 4.0 m/s. Neglecting friction, how fast will she be moving after dropping 10 m in elevation? a. 7.3 m/s b. 15 m/s c. 49 m/s d. 196 m/s 56. A 10-N force is needed to move an object with a constant velocity of 5.0 m/s. What power must be delivered to the object by the force? a W b. 1.0 W c. 50 W d. 100 W 9

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