Security in Data Storage and Transmission in Cloud Computing

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1 Security in Data Storage and Transmission in Cloud Computing Ramawat Lokesh Kumar B. Tech 3 rd year, Alliance College of Engineering and Design Alliance University, Bengaluru, India P Dhananjay B. Tech 3rd year, Alliance College of Engineering and Design, Alliance University Bengaluru, India Abstract: Cloud Computing has been envisioned as the next generation architecture of IT world. In a Cloud, the application software and databases are move to the centralized large data centers, which might not be as trustworthy as a personal server. High transmission rate is a main issue in Cloud computing though cloud security is the ongoing hot discussion in IT Enterprise. This work studies the problem of ensuring the security in data storage and transmission in cloud computing. This research paper talks about securing the data without affecting the different layers of network and protecting it from unauthorized access into the server. The data is stored in server in different levels which are divided according to the security priority and is secured on the base of user s chose of security method. Cloud Computing is the future tech in contrast to traditional solutions where the services provided by the IT are under proper physical, logical and personal controls. Cloud computing with its unique attribute also possesses many security threats which have not yet well understood. This research article focuses on the main aspect of quality service in Cloud Computing i.e. Data storage and transmission Security. To ensure the correctness of user s data in cloud we propose effective and flexible scheme with two relevant features, opposing to previous one. This article discusses the problems and a way to approach it to provide a secure Cloud computing environment. I. INTRODUCTION: Cloud computing is a recent trending in IT that where computing and data storage is done in data centers rather than personal portable PC s. It is the delivery of computing services over the internet. Cloud Services allow user to use software and hardware that are managed by the third party at remote location. E.g. Online file storage, social networking sites, webmail, and online business application. The definition of the Cloud Computing developed by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model Mail: 1

2 promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models. The technical backbone of the cloud computing infrastructure and its services are virtualization, service oriented software, grid computing, management of large facilities and power efficiency. The top two vendors of the cloud service providers are Amazon Web Services and Rackspace. Both are well known for their services. The practice of maintaining local machine for data storage is eliminating because of the different cloud service providers. As a result, the security of data stored might be compromise which is one main aspect of quality of service. Cloud computing inevitably poses new challenging security threats for number of reasons. Since the user s doesn t have any authorization over data once it is transferred to cloud so, the traditional cryptographic primitives for data security protection are not efficient. The data stored in the cloud is access by the user frequently and they perform different operation on it including insertion, deletion, modification, appending, reordering etc. which makes it more challenging to verify the correctness of data storage in cloud and results in reduction of communication and storage overhead as compared to the traditional replication-based file distribution techniques. The key features of the cloud are agility, cost, device and location independence, multi tenancy, reliability, scalability, maintenance etc. The general structure of cloud computing is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: General Structure of Cloud Computing. Mail: 2

3 In the rest of paper, we will talk about the System Model in Section II, followed by Adversary Model in Section III and section IV introduces our Design and Goals. In section V, we provide Security Architectures followed by Security Framework for Server-client network in section VI. In section VII we provide detailed design of system and data transmission and finally, in section VIII we conclude our paper with whole remark. II. System Model The three main network entities in the cloud computing are: User: User consists of both individual consumers and organizations; they rely on cloud for hardware to store data. Cloud Service Provider (CSP): CSP is a company or organization, who has significant resources and expertise to build and manage distributed cloud storage servers, owns and operates live cloud computing systems. Third Party Auditor): TPA is an optional who has experience and capabilities that user may not have, is hired by a user to access and expose risk of cloud storage services on behalf of the user upon user s request The representative network architecture for cloud data storage is illustrated in figure 2. Figure 2: Network Architecture for Cloud Data Storage In cloud data storage, users store his data into a set of Cloud storage servers through Cloud service provider, which are running simultaneously in a cooperated and distributed manner. Mail: 3

4 Sometimes user may need to perform operations on his block of data, general forms of these operations are update, delete, append and insert etc. Therefore, users access the cloud server through cloud service provider to manipulate or retrieve his data. As the user s data grow in size and importance there is a chance of tolerates faults or server crash, this can be overcome by data redundancy employed with technique of erasure correcting code. In this model we will consider that there is a point-to-point communication channel between the user and each cloud server is reliable and authenticated, which can be achieved in practice little overhead. III. Adversary Model The two main source of security threat to a Cloud Data Storage Centre can be: 1. Cloud Service Provider: cloud service provider can be self-interested, untrusted and possibly malevolent. He might move data that has not been or is rarely accessed to a lower tier of storage than agreed for financial reason or he may also attempt to hide a data loss incident due to management errors, convoluted failures and so on. 2. Economically Motivated Adversary: Adversary are the people who have the capability to remain undetected from Cloud service providers and compromise a number of cloud data storage servers in different time intervals for a certain period of time. They can manipulate or delete user s data or can corrupt the user s data files and can infect the original data files by modifying or can replace it with their own data to prevent the original data from being retrieved by user. In worst case, he can intentionally modify data files of the entire storage server as long as they are internally consistent i.e. where all servers intrigue together to hide corruption incident or data loss. IV. Design Goals These goals are designed under taking consideration of aforementioned adversary model, to ensure the security and dependability for cloud data storage. We aim to design efficient mechanism for dynamic data verification and operation, to achieve his goal we have to ensure the following goals: Mail: 4

5 Storage Correctness: To provide user surety of that their data is stored appropriately and is kept intact in cloud only Fast localization of data error: To effectively locate the malfunctioning server when data corruption has been detected. Dynamic data support: If user manipulate, insert, delete, append or perform any other operation, to ensure the same level of storage correctness is maintain. Dependability: In case of Byzantine failures, malevolent data modification and server colluding attacks to enhance data availability. Lightweight: To provide users to perform storage correctness checks with minimum overhead. V. Security Architectures The above discussion is on certain review literature by many research people on different aspects of security. The aspects went on describing the problems and threats in related to security in cloud. The literature in detail explains about the issues like security for data, virtualization security and prescribed format of SLA etc. There are many research people have keen interest in designing certain security architectures help for secure cloud computing. The following are described below: Gary Anthes has described the various security research works in cloud are discussed. He brought forward the research works done in popular companies like IBM, HP, and Microsoft. There are many security risks involved in cloud computing, and also some good solutions are also been designed by the researchers which are pointed below: 1. Researchers at HP laboratories are prototyping cells as a service to automate security management in cloud. A cell is single administrative domain using security policies containing virtual machines, storage volumes across physical machines. 2. IBM research people doing virtual machine introspection which puts security inside protected VM running on same machine. This employs number of protective methods listing the kernel functions. It can make reduce of running virus scanners on system. Mail: 5

6 3. Microsoft research described about cryptographic cloud storage where the data is secured by user by encrypting format such that the provider cannot get what the data is present. Flavio Lombardi and Roberto Di Pietro has discussed about a secure virtualization technique for ensuring security at hypervisor level. In a general system at base OS level, there is a problem like a user at one guest OS may interact with other Guest OS, which may lead to data loss if they are any attackers. So the new proposal ACPS (Advanced Cloud Protection System) was introduced. This will maintain security by preventing unnecessary logins into the other guest OS by weak passwords or weak SSH. Cong Wang has proposed their work on Data Storage security with respect to Quality of service. They have proposed approach which checks whether their data has been attacked or any integrity loss is done or not over the cloud. They will generate a homomorphism token which will ensure that the data is not lost. It is like a simple hash function which will be enabled to fast recover and storage errors. These works help in securing the cloud systems, Virtualization, Data confidentiality and data storage security, there are still issues need to be discussed in secure data transmission between cloud Provider, service provider and cloud User. The secure data transmission is anyhow achieved by protocols like IPsec, SSL over web and the data over are also through web applications these current methods can be used for secure data transmission. The secure data transmission works designed for storage networks are discussed by Kikuko Kamiasaki who discussed in his paper for secure data transmission over IP Networks by developing Middleware works below application layer and selects suitable security approach based on the cluster of data items available in Application. This was proved that will help in securing the data as well as this works well than IPsec. Sudha M has proposed an idea for secure data transmission in cloud computing using transport layer techniques, the idea proposed in that is used is socket programming for secure data transmission over the client and server. This paper has compared the general secure data transmission by applying socket programming, a key exchange and secure data over cloud. The comparison is done response time and processing time. Mail: 6

7 VI. Security Framework for Server-Client Network The design architecture of the proposed security framework is given in the figure. 3. The framework includes the new security layer which is designed for private cloud and it is present between session layer and transport layer in such a way that it is appears to be transparent to the lower layers and application layer. Figure 3: High Level Design This helps to secure and saved data at server end, whenever a client transfers data it has to first go through some authentication protocols. At the clients end, to access the data it should be connected or have access through same framework. This is done in application user level so that the data will be secured and transferred where there is need to disturb any lower layers of the network. Security Framework Model The detailed design of the framework is in the System Architecture in Figure 4. The architecture consist of private cloud (which includes- Datacenter, Security Server), Users and User Application. The nodes which are connected to server will be also connected to security layer. So, user can select different Security Algorithm based on the privacy level of the document, whenever he wants to transfer data to cloud. In case any other user wants to access the same data he has to be connected to the same security server to get the original document. This helps in maintaining the security and privacy of data. Mail: 7

8 Figure 4: System Architecture Process at sender end The client or user will select the data in the application Layer and process it to transfer to server end. As shown in figure 5. Figure 5: Process at sender end. At the socket layer, before processing the Data further it is encrypted from byte to byte using the protocols of security level selected by the user and is carried to process the other command which takes place in network. The security framework at the user end take cares of data is secured and also it transfers securely. Mail: 8

9 Process at receiver end Figure 6: Process at Receiver end At the receiver end, as soon as data is received it is encrypted. The data is decrypted at the socket layer by the same security methods use at the senders end. It takes place above transport layer just where the packet arrives at end application. The security framework decrypts the data and saves on the disk before write request is processed. The same process is reversed if a client requests a file. The security framework will make sure that data is secure over network and confidentiality and integrity checks at the receiver end can be placed. VII. Conclusion In this paper, we investigated the problem of data security in cloud data storage and data transmission, which is essentially a distributed storage system. To ensure the correctness of users data in cloud data storage, we proposed an effective and flexible distributed scheme. our scheme achieves the integration of storage correctness insurance and data error localization. In the data transmission proposed, method transferred data is encrypted in the upper-layer on top of the transport layer instead of using IPsec or SSL. Thus, the scheme for the performance improvement can be applied without modifying the implementation of IP layer, and efficient secure communications by pre-processing of encryption in the upper-layer are realized. We have used file uploading as service as web application, the security is applied over to the data at the Mail: 9

10 background using the encryption algorithms like AES, Triple DES and DES. Through detailed security and performance analysis, we show that our scheme is highly efficient and resilient to Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding attacks. We believe that data storage security in Cloud Computing, an area full of challenges and of paramount importance, is still in its infancy now, and many research problems are yet to be identified. Adding secure cloud storage using the proposed cryptographic solution and with a searchable encryption technique for the files to be accessed, it will work as a better approach to the user to ensure security of data. The cloud security using cryptography is already in use for secure data storage which can be enhanced for secure data transmission and storage. An interesting question in this model is if we can construct a scheme to achieve both public verifiability and storage correctness assurance of dynamic data. Besides, along with our research on dynamic cloud data storage, we also plan to investigate the problem of fine-grained data error localization. References [1] Cong Wang, Qian WangKui Ren, Ning Cao, and Wenjing Lou Toward Secure and Dependable Storage Services in Cloud Computing IEEE transactions on services computing, vol. 5, no. 2, april-june 2012 [2] Qian Wang,Cong Wang, Kui Ren, Wenjing Lou Jin Li Enabling Public Auditability and Data Dynamics for Storage Security in Cloud Computing IEEE transactions on parallel and distributed systems, vol. 22, no. 5, may 2011 [3] Boris Tomas1and Bojan Vuksic2 Peer to Peer Distributed Storage and Computing Cloud System International conference on information technology interfaces, june 25-28, 2012, cavtat, croatia [4] Security and Privacy Challenges in Cloud Computing Environments co-published by the IEEE computer and reliability ieee november/december 2010 [5] Subashini S, Kavitha V., A survey on security issues in service delivery models of cloud computing, Journal of Network and Computer Applications (2011) vol. 34 Issue 1, January 2011 pp [6] Pradnyesh Bhisikar and Prof. Amit Sahu, Security in Data Storage and Transmission in Cloud Computing, International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, Volume 3, Issue 3, March 2013 Mail: 10

11 [7] Kresimir Popovic, Željko Hocenski, Cloud computing security issues and challenges, MIPRO 2010, pp [8] Amazon.com, Amazon Web Services (AWS), Online at amazon.com, [9] Luis M. Vaquero, Luis Rodero-Merino, Juan Caceres1, Maik Lindner, A Break in Clouds: Towards a cloud Definition, ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 39, Number 1, January 2009, pp [10] Patrick McDaniel, Sean W. Smith, Outlook: Cloudy with a chance of security challenges and improvements, IEEE Computer and reliability societies (2010), pp [11] Sameera Abdulrahman Almulla, Chan Yeob Yeun, Cloud Computing Security Management, Engineering systems management and its applications (2010), pp [12] Steve Mansfield-Devine, Danger in Clouds, Network Security (2008), 12, pp [13] Anthony T. Velte, Toby J.Velte, Robert Elsenpeter, Cloud Computing: A Practical Approach, Tata Mc GrawHill [14] Gary Anthes, Security in the cloud, In ACM Communications (2010), vol.53, Issue11, pp [15] Lombardi F, Di Pietro R. Secure virtualization for cloud computing. Journal of Network Computer Applications (2010), doi: /j.jnca Mail: 11

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