Sensitivity to Nonverbal Communication

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1 Sensitivity to Nonverbal Communication THE PONS TEST ROBERT ROSENTHAL JUDITH A. HALL M. ROBIN DIMATTEO PETER L. ROGERS DANE ARCHER THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY PRESS Baltimore and London

2 Contents Preface xix 1. Introduction 1 Brief Overview of Decoding Research 9 General Characteristics of Decoding Research 15 Limitations and Advantages of Our Approach 17 The PONS Test Design and Development of the PONS Test 23 vii The Channels 23 Portrayal of the Scenes 26 The Videotaping 28 Final Selection of the Scenes 29 The Data Analytic Model 30 Stability of Scene Classification 31 The Video Tape PONS Test 33 The Film PONS Test 33 The Answer Sheet 34 Procedure for Administering the PONS Test 37 Scoring 37 Acoustic Correlates of PONS Dimensions of Affect Normative Data 66 The Norm Group 66 Reliability 73 Reliability of PONS Affect Dimensions: The Analysis of Incorrect Response Alternatives 76 Additivity of Cues 80 Factor Structure of the PONS Test Grouping Samples 89 A Factor Analytic Approach to Grouping Samples 89

3 Vlll CONTENTS 5. Length of Communication Exposure 115 Controlling for Response Bias 116 Accuracy at High Speed 117 High Speed Accuracy and Interpersonal Relationships Short PONS Tests 124 Still Photo PONS 124 Photo Booklet PONS 139 Face and Body PONS 140 Brief Exposure PONS 141 Original Sender Audio PONS 141 Male Audio PONS 142 Child Sender Audio PONS Gender and PONS Skill 150 Summary of Past Research 150 Gender Effects in PONS Research Developmental Aspects 173 PONS Instruments for Children 176 Main Effects of Age 185 Interactions of Age and Other Factors 187 Children with Learning Disabilities Cultural Variation 200 Cultural Relativity Cultural Universality An Interactionist Perspective Cultural Variation and the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity Ethnic Differences Social Class Differences 10. Cognitive Correlates Performance Measures Cognitive Style 11. Psychosocial Correlates Objective Personality Tests Self-Ratings Ratings by Others Popularity

4 CONTENTS IX 12. Impaired Groups 275 Psychopathology Sensory Impairment Roles and Relationships 294 Occupations and Interests 294 Parents of Prelinguistic Children 308 Married and Dating Couples 312 Knowing the Sender Practice and Training 320 Effects of Pretesting on the Full PONS 323 Effects of Pretesting on the Audio PONS 329 Personal Correlates of Improvement from Retesting 330 Effects of Practice within a Single Testing 332 Effects of Direct Training 334 Effects of Indirect Training 337 Practice and Training: An Overview Interpersonal Expectancy Effects 342 Sensitivity to Bias in Experimenter Behavior 342 PONS and Bias on the Person-Perception Task 345 Joint Effects of Experimenters' Encoding Skill and Subjects' Decoding Skill 352 Expectancy Effects in Psychophysiological Research 353 Volunteers for Behavioral Research 357 Teacher Expectations Summary and Prospectus 361 Summary -, 362 Construct Validity 375 Prospectus 376 References 379 Name Index 395 Subject Index 401 Figures 1.1. Still photographs illustrating the three visual channels in the PONS film: face, body, and figure

5 X CONTENTS 2.1. Relative occurrence of five levels of frequency for dominant and submissive scenes in three modalities Relative occurrence of five levels of amplitude for dominant and submissive scenes in three modalities Standard scoring sheet for the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity: Channel scores and total Standard scoring sheet for the Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity: Pooled channels and type of scene Mean accuracy obtained at three levels of similarity of incorrect alternative to correct alternative for four samples Factor 1: "Unsophisticated-sophisticated" factor Factor 2: "Traditional-equalitarian" factor Mean scores of most extreme positive and negative loading samples on factor Mean scores of most extreme positive and negative loading samples on factor Mean scores of most extreme positive and negative loading samples on factor Mean accuracy of two types of samples: Channel scores and total Mean accuracy of two types of samples: Pooled channels and type of scene Accuracy for first and second halves of the still and full PONS on two testing occasions Accuracy obtained at three levels of similarity of incorrect alternative to correct alternative for still PONS and analogous channels of full PONS Cross-lagged correlations of still photo PONS and full PONS (220 items) Cross-lagged correlations of still photo PONS and full PONS on video channels only (60 items) Frequency distribution of sex effects on PONS total score Eleven-channel profiles and totals for four age levels, sexes pooled Mean accuracy at five age levels Accuracy on pure tone and pure video channels for seven age levels Mean accuracy in channels, quadrants, and marginals for four samples PONS channel scores and total scores for four cross-cultural samples The sixteen interpersonal variables and their variable labels 264

6 CONTENTS ; XI PONS audio performance: Smoothed blind/sighted comparison on chronological and mental ages PONS video performance: Smoothed deaf/hearing comparison on chronological and mental ages PONS channel scores for toddler mothers and for a matched group of nonmothers PONS performance cf four samples on two occasions PONS performance of Canadian university students on two occasions PONS performance of three samples on two occasions 327 Tables 2.1. The Channels of the PONS Test Twenty Scenes Arranged in Four Affect Quadrants Maximum Bias Possible for Subjects Giving All Responses of One Type Significant Differences in Relative Occurrence of Five Levels of Frequency and Amplitude As a Function of Scene Dominance and Modality Reliabilities of Profiles of Frequencies and Amplitudes across Quadrants Scoring Key for Full PONS Test Means and Standard Deviations of Norm Group on Channels, Marginals, and Total Means and Standard Deviations of Norm Group on Quadrants and Scenes Means and Standard Deviations of Norm Group on Channels and Total, Sexes Separately Means and Standard Deviations of Norm Group on Quadrants and Scenes, Sexes Separately Effective Reliability Coefficients: Internal Consistency As Measured by KR Values of 0: A Measure of Internal Consistency Median Test-Retest Reliability Coefficients from Six Samples Accuracy on Quadrants As a Function of Quadrant Location of Incorrect Alternative Accuracy at Three Levels of Similarity of Incorrect Alternative to Correct Alternative for Four Samples 78

7 Xll CONTENTS Accuracy at Two Levels of Similarity of Incorrect Alternative to Correct Alternative for Two Dimensions of Affect Accuracy As a Function of the Affect Dimension of the Incorrect Alternative Procedure for Investigating Additivity of the PONS Factor Analysis of Eleven Channels: Four-Factor Solution Summary of Factor Analyses Summary of Second Grouping of 142 Samples on Four Measures of the PONS Accuracy on PONS Total for Fourteen Types of Samples Accuracy in Two Types of Samples for Two Types of Channels Accuracy in Two Types of Samples for Two Types of Quadrants Mean Total and Quadrant Scores for 198 Samples, Grouped into Fifteen Categories Mean Channel Scores for 198 Samples, Grouped into Fifteen Categories Accuracy at Brief Exposures Analysis of Variance of Brief Exposure PONS Accuracy Accuracy in Two Channels for Four Levels of Exposure Length Correlations between Brief Exposure PONS Accuracy and Interpersonal Relationships Items in Forty-Item Brief Exposure PONS Accuracy in Three Channels on Still Photo PONS for Each Level of Positivity and Dominance Accuracy in Five Time Blocks for Three Channels and Two Dimensions of Affect of Still Photo PONS Retest Reliabilities of Still Photo PONS and Full PONS Retest Reliabilities of Still Photo PONS and Full PONS Scenes Factor Analysis of Still Photo PONS Intercorrelations among Channels of Still Photo PONS and Full PONS Intercorrelations among Face and Body Channels of Still Photo PONS, Brief Exposure PONS, and Full PONS Accuracy in Two Channels and Four Quadrants on Booklet Form PONS for Two Samples Correlations of Full PONS Total with Channels of Booklet Form PONS and Full PONS for Two Samples Means and Standard Deviations on Face and Body PONS 141

8 CONTENTS Xiii Means and Standard Deviations on Male Audio PONS for College Students Means and Standard Deviations on Male and Original Sender Audio PONS for High School Students Median Correlations of Channels of Male Audio PONS with Audio Channels of Full PONS for Three Samples KR-20 Reliabilities of Male Audio PONS for Audio Norm Group Items in Sixty-Item Still Photo PONS Items in Forty-Item Photo Booklet PONS Items in Forty-Item Face and Body PONS Items in Forty-Item Male, Child, and Original Sender Audio PONS Accuracy on Eleven PONS Channels, for Males and for Females Median and Weighted Mean Effects of Sex (<r) for Five Kinds of Samples Female Decoding Advantage (<x) for Female, Child, and Male Sender Median Correlations between PONS and SAT, for Males and for Females, for Four Samples Median Correlations between PONS and Witkin's Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), for Males and for Females, for Three Samples Scene Names Used in Children's PONS Answer Sheets and Corresponding Scene Names Used in Adults' PONS Answer Sheets Accuracy on Channels of Full PONS, for Four Grades Accuracy on Affect Quadrants of Full PONS, for Four Grades Accuracy for Forty-Item Face and Body PONS, for Grades Four and Five Pooled, Sexes Pooled and Separately Accuracy for Forty-Item Child Sender Audio PONS, for Grades Four and Five Pooled, Sexes Pooled and Separately Accuracy on Channels of Full PONS, for Junior High School Norm Group, Sexes Pooled and Separately Accuracy on Affect Quadrants of Full PONS, for Junior High School Norm Group, Sexes Pooled and Separately Correlations of Sociometric Attractiveness with PONS and Learning Disability Status Correlations of PONS with Ethnic Status among Children Cross-Cultural Samples, with Sample Sizes and PONS Total Score 213

9 Xiv CONTENTS 9.2. Cultural Similarity to Americans Scores and PONS Total Scores for Seven Samples Cultural Similarity to Americans Scores and PONS Total Scores for the Twelve National Samples of Teachers of English Cultural Similarity to Americans Scores and PONS Total Scores for Twelve Cross-Cultural Samples Cultural Similarity to Americans Scores and PONS Total Scores for Thirty Cross-Cultural Samples Cultural Similarity to Americans Scores and PONS Total Scores for Twenty Nations Four Language Groups and PONS Scores for Twenty Nations Rank Correlations between PONS Total and Eleven Measures for Twenty Nations Rank Correlations between PONS Total and Eleven Measures for Thirteen Samples of Teachers of English Correlations of PONS Performance with Nonwhite Status for Four Samples Correlations of PONS Performance with Level of Father's Occupation for Two Samples of High School Students Convergent and Discriminant Validity Matrix of PONS and IQ for Six Samples Principal Components of PONS and Intelligence Variables Percentages of Subjects Showing Right or Left Ear Advantage in Two Dichotic Listening Tasks Correlations of Degree of Left Ear (Right Hemisphere) Advantage in Processing CF Cues with Accuracy in Nonverbal Decoding Correlations of PONS with California Psychological Inventory for Five Samples Correlations of PONS with Personality Research Form for Three Samples Correlations of PONS with Whitehorn-Betz A-B Therapist Scale for Three Samples Correlations of PONS with Study of Values for Thirty-Nine Teachers Correlations of PONS with Introversion Scores for Three Samples Correlations of PONS with Self-Monitoring Scale for Six Samples Summary of Factor Analysis of Sixteen Interpersonal Variables 265

10 CONTENTS _ XV Convergent and Discriminant Validity Matrix of PONS and Interpersonal Success Correlations between Improvement in PONS Scores (First to Second Testing) and Interpersonal Variables for Twenty-Eight College Students Correlations of PONS with Self-Ratings of Interpersonal Sensitivity and Nonverbal Skill Correlations of PONS with Self-Ratings and Spouse Ratings of Nonverbal Skill for Two Samples Correlations of PONS Total with Judged Interpersonal or Nonverbal Sensitivity Accuracy in All Channels for Alcoholic Patients, Psychiatric Patients, and Normal Subjects Accuracy in Four Quadrants for Alcoholic Patients, Psychiatric Patients, and Normal Subjects Accuracy at Three Levels of Similarity of Incorrect to Correct Alternative Items Omitted in All Channels by Both Alcoholic Patients and Psychiatric Patients and Table of Variance Correlations between PONS and Self-Ratings for Australian Psychiatric Patients Accuracy in All Channels for Eighty-Two Psychiatric Patients (after Lyle) Improvement in Accuracy Due to the Addition of Tone of Voice, Body, and Face Cues for Three Samples Percent Accuracy in Four Quadrants for Eighty-Two Psychiatric Patients (after Lyle) Audio Accuracy for Blind Students, Sexes Pooled and Separately Video Accuracy for Young Deaf Students, Sexes Pooled and Separately Accuracy of Matching Filmed Behavior with Personality Sketches by Occupational and Interest Groups (after Estes) Accuracy of Various U.S. Occupational and Interest Groups Accuracy of Various Australian Occupational and Interest Groups Correlations of Clinical Ability with PONS Performance Correlations of PONS Accuracy with Counselors' Ratings of Their Own Level of Understanding of Their Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Friends Median PONS Intercorrelations for Males and Females for Three Types of Samples 303

11 XVI CONTENTS Median PONS Subtest Correlations by Type of Sample and Subject Sex Correlations of Audio PONS with Ratings of Quality of Foreign Service Information Officers (after McClelland and Dailey) Audio PONS Accuracy in Four Quadrants for Two Groups Accuracy of Artistic and Control Groups (after Kimes) Means and Standard Deviations of Similarity (r) and Distance (d 2 ) for Real and Random Couples (over Eleven Channels) Correlations of Similarity (r) and Distance (d 2 ) of Profiles with Measures of Disclosure Given and Received Studies of Increasing Sensitivity to Nonverbal Stimuli (Visual) Correlations of Improvements in PONS Total with Interpersonal Success for Twenty-Eight U.S. College Students Improvement in Accuracy from First Half to Last Half of PONS for Eight Samples Improvement in Accuracy from First Half to Last Half of PONS for Eleven Channels and Four Quadrants Effects of Training on PONS Performance for More and Less Experienced Clinicians Effects of Training for More Experienced Clinicians in Eleven PONS Channels (Partial Correlation Coefficients) Summary of Effects of Practice and Training on Channel Factors and Affects Correlations between PONS Performance and Accuracy in Assessing Biased Behavior of Experimenters for Seven Samples Summary of Three Contrasts (Based on Correlations in Table 15.1) Correlations between Bias Score on Person-Perception Task and PONS Scores for Seven Samples Correlations between Bias Score on Person-Perception Task and Audio PONS Scores for Three Samples Experimenter Expectancy Effects by Experimenters' Encoding Ability and Subjects' Decoding Ability (after Zuckerman, DeFrank, Hall, and Rosenthal) Analysis of Variance of Experimenter Expectancy Effects for Combined and Individual Effects of Encoding and Decoding (after Zuckerman, DeFrank, Hall, and Rosenthal) 352

12 CONTENTS XV Correlations between Subjects' PONS and Physiological Responses Correlations between Experimenters' PONS and Their Subjects' Physiological Responses Short Forms of the PONS Test Basic Reliability of the PONS Reliability of Classification of Scenes within Quadrants Effects on Accuracy of Adding Information from Channels and Quadrants Factor Analysis of Eleven Channels Gender Effects at Various Age Levels Intellectual Performance Correlates of PONS (High School and College Groups) Intellectual Performance Correlates of PONS (Linguistically Impaired Groups) Other Cognitive Correlates of PONS Total Median Correlations of PONS Performance with Psychosocial Measures Correlations of PONS Total with Measures of Susceptibility to Experimenters' Expectancies 374

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