Congestion Control. Foreleser: Carsten Griwodz Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

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1 Congestion Control Foreleser: Carsten Griwodz Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

2 Internet Congestion Control TCP Congestion Control 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

3 TCP Congestion Control! TCP limits sending rate as a function of perceived network congestion! Little traffic increase sending rate! Much traffic reduce sending rate! TCP s congestion algorithm has four major components :! Additive-increase! Multiplicative-decrease (together AIMD algorithm)! Slow-start! Reaction to timeout events 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

4 TCP Congestion Control sender receiver Initially, the CONGESTION WINDOW is 1 MSS (message segment size) round 1 round 2 round 3 16 sent packets per round (congestion window) Then, the size increases by 1 for each received ACK until a threshold is reached or an ACK is missing 8 4 round Mai time INF-3190: Congestion Control

5 TCP Congestion Control sent packets per round (congestion window) Normally, the threshold is 64K Loosing a single packet (TCP Tahoe): " threshold drops to half CONGESTION WINDOW " CONGESTION WINDOW back to 1 Loosing a single packet (TCP Reno): " if notified by timeout: like TCP Tahoe " if notified by fast retransmit: threshold drops to half CONGESTION WINDOW " CONGESTION WINDOW back to new threshold 04. Mai INF-3190: time Congestion Control

6 Congestion Control: Example! Parameters! Maximum segment size = 1024 bytes! Initial congestion window = 64 KB! Areas! Previously (transm. nr. = 0)! Congestion window before timeout: 64 KB! Threshold after timeout: 32 KB! Congestion window after timeout: 1 KB! Exponential area! slow start! Linear area! congestion avoidance! Note! Altways observe receiver s window size, i.e. use minimum of! Congestion window! Actual send window (receiver status) 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

7 Additive Increase! Objective! To avoid immediate network overload! After just recent overload has finished! After timeout! At the start of a data transmission! Method: congestion window! Defined/initiated at connection set-up! Initial max. window size = 1 segment! Threshold (based on previous max. window size)! Max. size of segment to be transferred! To be doubled as long as! 1. segment size below a certain threshold and! 2. all ACKs arrive in time (i.e. correct segment transfer)! (each burst acknowledged, i.e. successfully transmitted, doubles congestion window)! To be linearly increased! 1. segment size above a certain threshold and! 2. all ACKs arrive in time (i.e. correct segment transfer) 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

8 AIMD! Threshold! Adaptive! Parameter in addition to the actual and the congestion window! Assumption! Threshold, i.e. adaptation to the network: sensible window size! Use: on missing acknowledgements! Threshold is set to half of current congestion window! Congestion window is reduced! Implementation- and situation-dependant: to 1 or to new threshold! Use slow start of congestion window is below threshold! Use: on timeout! Threshold is set to half of current congestion window! Congestion window is reset to one maximum segment! Use slow start to determine what the network can handle! Exponential growth stops when threshold is hit! From there congestion window grows linearly (1 segment) on successful transmission 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

9 TCP Congestion Control! Some parameters! byte max. per segment! IP recommended value TTL interval 2 min! Optimization for low throughput rate! Problem! 1 byte data requires 162 byte incl. ACK (if, at any given time, it shows up just by itself)! Algorithm! Acknowledgment delayed by 500 msec because of window adaptation! Comment! Often part of TCP implementation 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

10 TCP Congestion Control! TCP assumes that every loss is an indication for congestion! Not always true! Packets may be discarded because of bit errors! Low bit error rates! Optical fiber! Copper cable under normal conditions! Mobile phone channels (link layer retransmission)! High bit errors rates! Modem cables! Copper cable in settings with high background noise! HAM radio (IP over radio)! TCP variations exist 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

11 TCP Congestion Control! TCP congestion control is based on the notion that the network is a black box! Congestion indicated by a loss! Sufficient for best-effort applications, but losses might severely hurt traffic like audio and video streams # congestion indication better enabling features like quality adaptation! Approaches! Use ACK rate rather than losses for bandwidth estimation! Example: TCP Westwood! Use active queue management to detect congestion 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

12 The TCP family! TCP Tahoe! Oldest TCP variation still around! Assumes that every packets loss is due to congestion! If there is at least one loss during one RTT! Reduction of threshold to half of the congestion window! Congestion window back to 1! Slow start! Only the missing packet is retransmitted! Efficient handling of single losses! Inefficient handling of multiple losses by RTT! Fast Retransmit! One packet is sent for every arriving packet! If there is a gap, acknowledge the last packet before the gap again! Sender interprets 3 ACKs for the same packet as a loss event 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

13 The TCP family! TCP Reno! Next oldest variation still around! In case of Fast Retransmit, continue with Fast Recovery! Reduction of the threshold to half the congestion window! Congestion window to the new threshold! Do not enter slow start! Increase the congestion window for every ACK, even if it is a duplicate ACK! An arriving ACK means that a packet has arrived! Although the sender doesn t know which 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

14 The TCP family! Problem: Packets get dropped in bursts! When queues get full and routers drop packets, all senders require time to notice the problem and back off! Multiple losses are more likely than Tahoe and Reno assume! Particularly bad for Reno! First approach! TCP New Reno! TCP New Reno! Most frequently used today! Sender-only modification to TCP Reno! Define duration of Fast Recovery! Note the highest sequence number sent when fast recovery was entered! Stay in fast recovery until that sequence number is ACK d! For duplicate ACKs received during fast recovery! Don t reduce the congestion window or threshold! Retransmit the lost packet! Do not extend the fast recovery period! Increase the congestion window by 1 (as for good ACKs) 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

15 The TCP family! Problem: Assumes that every loss is an indication for congestion! But loss may be due to bit errors! Severity: growing because of wireless links, satellite links and new bit-error sources at multi-gigabit speeds! Approach! TCP SACK! TCP Sack (Selective ACK)! Becoming wide-spread! Modification at both sides! Reports in addition to standard cumulative ACK! Successfully received blocks of packets behind a gap! Always including the packets that triggered the ACK in first block! Uses a TCP option! There can t be more than 40 bytes TCP options per packet! SACK requires 2+8*n! Most likely used with 10 bytes timestamp option (PAWS option)! Therefore no more than 3 blocks! Distinguish: single loss, multiple loss, actual duplicates 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

16 The TCP family! Bottleneck router! Term used under the assumption that exactly one router between sender and receiver is responsible for packet loss! Approaches look for! Capacity of the bottleneck router! Available bandwidth at the bottleneck router! Bandwidth-delay product Data Acknowledgements... t=0 t=11.2 µsec t=20 msec t=40 msec! 1 Gbit/s, 40msec # 41Mbit can be in flight 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

17 The TCP family! Problem: A loss event reduces congestion window but not sending rate! Tahoe, Reno, New Reno and SACK will send a new packet for every incoming ACKs until congestion window is used up! They send in bursts! Bottleck router s queue grows and shrinks! Oscillating RTTs, packet drops! Approach! TCP FACK! TCP FACK (Forward ACK)! Quite rare! Sender-only modification! In Fast Recovery! Sender uses a timer to spread packets evenly over one RTT 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

18 The TCP family! Problems! Determines available bandwidth by probing! Incresse the transmission rate until there is a loss event! Severity: blocks advancement of the sliding window until the packet is retransmitted! Climbs very slowly to highest bandwidth utilization when bandwidth is high! The threshold that ends slow start is fixed to 64k in original TCP! Severity: inhibits high bandwidth communication, esp. communication among supercomputers! Does not use more than 75% of the available bandwidth! Sawtooth pattern! Severity: resource waste, intensive jitter in high bandwidth environments! Can t use high bandwidth if delay is high due to limited credit window size! The problem of high bandwidth delay products! Impossible to have more than 2 16 bytes unacknowledged! Severity: most severe for satellite communication and communication among supercomputers; problem increases linearly with network speeds, and network speed grows potentially 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

19 The TCP family! TCP Vegas! Rare! Sender-only modification! Tries to fix all of the 3 problems above! Model! Congestion build-up can be detected! RTT gets longer! Throughput drops 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

20 The TCP family! TCP Vegas! Congestion window maintenance! In each RTT, time-stamp one packet! Between two marked packets, count bytes sent and bytes ACK d! If throughput lower than expected congestion window 1! If throughput higher than expected congestion window + 1! Retransmission handling! Course-grained 500ms timer for original retransmission behavior! Maintain a fine-grained timer for every packet in flight! Retransmit if on the first duplicate ACK if the RTT is exceeded according to the fine-grained timer! Slow start handling! Grow congestion window only every second RTT in slow start! Don t leave slow start until congestion is detected TCP Vegas is a congestion avoidance approach 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

21 Internet Congestion Control TCP Congestion Avoidance 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

22 Random Early Detection (RED)! Random Early Detection (discard/drop) (RED) uses active queue management! Drops packet in an intermediate node based on average queue length exceeding a threshold! TCP receiver reports loss in ACK! Sender applies multiple decrease! Idea! Congestion should be attacked as early as possible! Some transport protocols (e.g., TCP) react to lost packets by rate reduction 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

23 Random Early Detection (RED)! Router drops some packet before congestion significant (i.e., early)! Gives time to react! Dropping starts when moving avg. of queue length exceeds threshold! Small bursts pass through unharmed! Only affects sustained overloads! Packet drop probability is a function of mean queue length! Prevents severe reaction to mild overload! RED improves performance of a network of cooperating TCP sources! No bias against bursty sources! Controls queue length regardless of endpoint cooperation 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

24 Early Congestion Notification (ECN)! Early Congestion Notification (ECN) - RFC 2481! an end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanism! Implemented in routers and supported by end-systems! Not multimedia-specific, but very TCP-specific! Two IP header bits used! ECT - ECN Capable Transport, set by sender! CE - Congestion Experienced, may be set by router! Extends RED! if packet has ECT bit set! ECN node sets CE bit! TCP receiver sets ECN bit in ACK! sender applies multiple decrease (AIMD)! else! Act like RED 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

25 Early Congestion Notification (ECN) Tail drop RED ECN! Effects! Congestion is not oscillating - RED & ECN! ECN-packets are never lost on uncongested links! Receiving an ECN mark means! TCP window decrease! No packet loss! No retransmission 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

26 Endpoint Admission Control! Motivation! Let end-systems test whether a desired throughput can be supported! In case of success, start transmission! Applicability! Only for some kinds of traffic (traffic classes)! Inelastic flows! Requires exclusive use of some resources for this traffic! Assumes short queues in that traffic class! Send probes at desired rate! Routers can mark or drop probes! Probe packets can have separate queues or use main queue 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

27 Endpoint Admission Control! Thrashing and Slow Start Probing! Thrashing! Many endpoints probe concurrently! Probes interfere with each other and all deduce insufficient bandwidth! Bandwidth is underutilized! Slow start probing! Probe for small bandwidth! Probe for twice the amount of bandwidth!! Until desired speed is reached! Start sending 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

28 XCP: explicit Control Protocol Provide feedback initialize Round-trip-time Desired congestion window Feedback update IP header XCP TCP header Payload 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

29 XCP: explicit Control Protocol! Congestion Controller! Goal: Match input traffic to link capacity! Compute an average RTT for all connections! Looks at queue! Combined traffic changes by! ~ Spare Bandwidth! ~ - Queue Size sendable per RTT! So, = α Spare - β Queue! Fairness Controller! Goal: Divide between flows to converge to fairness! Looks at a state in XCP header! If > 0 Divide equally between flows! If < 0 Divide between flows proportionally to their current rates 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

30 TCP Friendliness 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

31 TCP Friendliness - TCP Compatible! A TCP connection s throughput is bounded! wmax - maximum retransmission window size! RTT - round-trip time! Congestion windows size changes! AIMD (additive increase, multiple decrease) algorithm! TCP is said to be fair! Streams that share a path will reach an equal share! A protocol is TCP-friendly if! Colloquial! It long-term average throughput is not bigger than TCP s! Formal! Its arrival rate is at most some constant over the square root of the packet loss rate 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

32 TCP Friendliness A TCP connection s throughput is bounded " w max - maximum retransmission window size " RTT - round-trip time Congestion windows size changes " AIMD algorithm " additive increase, multiple decrease TCP is said to be fair " Streams that share a path will reach an equal share The TCP send rate limit is R s = wmax RTT In case of at least one loss in an RTT w = α w, α = In case of no loss, 1 2 w = w + β, β = 1 That s not generally true " Bigger RTT " higher loss probability per RTT " slower recovery " Disadvantage for long-distance traffic 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

33 TCP Friendliness! A protocol is TCP-friendly if! Colloquial: It long-term average throughput is not bigger than TCP s! Formal: Its arrival rate is at most some constant over the square root of the packet loss rate R r p + C P packet loss rate C constant value R r packet arrival rate! The AIMD algorithm with α 1/2 and β 1 is still TCP-friendly, if the rule is not violated! TCP-friendly protocols may - if the rule is not violated -! Probe for available bandwidth faster than TCP! Adapt to bandwidth changes more slowly than TCP! Use different equations or statistics, i.e., not AIMD! Not use slow start (i.e., don t start with w=0) 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

34 Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)! Datagram Congestion Control Protocol! Under development! Transport Protocol! Offers unreliable delivery! Low overhead like UDP! Applications using UDP can easily change to this new protocol! Accommodates different congestion control mechanisms! Congestion Control IDs (CCIDs)! Add congestion control schemes on the fly! Choose a congestion control scheme! TCP-friendly Rate Control (TFRC) is included! Half-Connection! Data Packets sent in one direction 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

35 Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP)! Congestion control is plugable! One proposal is TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)! Equation-based TCP-friendly congestion control! Receiver sends rate estimate and loss event history! Sender uses models of SACK TCP to compute send rate T = RTT Steady state TCP send rate 1 2bp + t 3 min(1,3 3bp ) p(1 8 RTO p ) Loss probability Retransmission timeout Number of packets ack d by one ACK 04. Mai INF-3190: Congestion Control

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