Fertilizer Sector Improvement (FSI+) Report of 2015 Wet Season Trials

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1 Fertilizer Sector Improvement (FSI+) Report of 2015 Wet Season Trials Trials with the Urea Deep Placement Technique on Transplanted Rice, Broadcast Rice, and Rice-Gram System in Myanmar Funded by Implemented by P.O. Box 2040 Muscle Shoals, Alabama 35662, USA May 2016

2 Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Materials and Methods... 2 Site Selection... 2 Trial Failures... 3 Varieties and Farmers... 5 Experimental Design... 5 Basal Fertilizers... 6 Treatments for UDP Adaptation Trials on Transplanted Rice... 6 Treatments for N-Rate Trials on Transplanted Rice... 7 Treatments for UDP before Broadcasting Seed... 7 Treatments for Nitrogen x Potassium on TPR... 8 Treatments for Plant Spacing x Nitrogen Trials on TPR... 9 Treatments for Fertilizer Management in the Rice-Gram System... 9 Plot Size and Spacing Disease Occurrence Results and Discussion UDP Adaptation Trials N-rate Trial at Myaungmya UDP before Seed Broadcasting at Minse, Pantanaw Nitrogen x Potassium on TPR at Letpadan Farm, Letpadan Plant Spacing x Nitrogen Rate Trial on TPR at Gway Dauk Kwin, Letpadan Fertilizer Management Trials on Rice-Gram Cropping System Conclusion UDP Trials N-Rate Trial UDP before Broadcasting Trial on BR Nitrogen x Potassium Trial on TPR Plant Spacing and N Rate Trial on TPR Fertilizer Management Trials on Rice-Gram Cropping System Appendix 1. Data Sheets Pauk Tabin, Daik-U Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi Nyaung Gone, Hmawbi Wayon Gayet, Maubin Kyon War, Myaungmya Too Chaung, Nyaungdon Research Farm, Myaungmya Minse, Pantanaw Research Farm, Letpadan Gway Dauk Kwin, Letpadan Thar Kwin, Einme Parami Daunt, Einme Ashae Pine, Kyauktan Photos i

3 List of Tables Table 1. Locations and Coordinates of Field Trials, Wet Season Table 2. Varieties, Trial Types, and Collaborating Farmers for the 2015 Wet Season Trials... 5 Table 3. Experimental Designs Used for 2015 Wet Season Trials... 6 Table 4. Plot Size and Spacing Used for Specific Trial, 2015 Wet Season Trials Table 5. Locations, Varieties, and Dates of All Trials Table 6. Test of Significant Levels of Plant Characters and Yield for All Locations Table 7. Average Yield (t/ha) of Different Treatments at All Locations Table 8. Percent Yield Superiority of UDP over Other Treatments Table 9. Biomass Grain Weight (g/25 plants) of Different Treatments at All Locations Table 10. Plant Height (cm) of Different Treatments at All Locations Table 11. Number of Panicles per Hill of Different Treatments at All Locations Table 12. 1,000 Grain Weight (g) of Different Treatments at All Locations Table 13. Agronomic Efficiency Values of Treatments at All Locations Table 14. Analysis of Variance on Yield (t/ha) and Other Characters of N-Rate Trial at Myaungmya Table 15. Test of Significant Level for Yield and Component Characters of Fertilizer Management Trial on Rice-Gram Cropping System List of Figures Figure 1. Location Map of Field Trials, Wet Season Figure 2. Comparison of Paddy Yields by Location Figure 3. Response of Number of Panicles per Hill on Different N Rates Figure 4. Response of Fresh Straw Weight (g) on Different N Rates Figure 5. Yield Comparison of UDP Application on Broadcast Rice Figure 6. Response of Some Characters to UDP Application Methods on Broadcast Rice. 22 Figure 7. Yield Response (t/ha) on Different Rates of Nitrogen and Potassium Figure 8. Yield Response (t/ha) on Different Plant Spacing and Nitrogen Rates ii

4 Acronyms and Abbreviations AE BR CV FP FSI HYV IFDC LSD MOP PU RCB TSP TPR UB UDP USAID Agronomic Efficiency Broadcast Rice Coefficient of Variation Farmers Practice Fertilizer Sector Improvement High-Yielding Variety International Fertilizer Development Center Least Significant Differences Muriate of Potash Prilled Urea Randomized Complete Block Triple Superphosphate Transplanted Rice Urea Broadcast Urea Deep Placement United States Agency for International Development Conversions To Convert To Multiply by acre hectare hectare acre 2.47 US ton/acre metric tonne/ha 2.24 lb/acre kg/ha 1.12 kg/ha lb/acre 0.89 K2O K 0.83 K K2O P2O5 P P P2O iii

5 Trials with the Urea Deep Placement Technique on Transplanted Rice, Broadcast Rice, and Rice-Gram System in Myanmar Introduction Urea deep placement (UDP) technology is a proven technology that can increase the yield of transplanted lowland rice by percent with less use of urea (up to 40 percent) compared to broadcast application of urea. This has been proven in Bangladesh and in sub-saharan African countries. A number of UDP trials, with transplanted rice, were conducted at selected locations in Yangon, Bago, and Ayeyarwaddy regions of Myanmar during the 2014 wet season and 2015 dry season by the International Fertilizer Development Center (IFDC) through the Fertilizer Sector Improvement (FSI) project, funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). In the 2014 wet season, UDP technology, with the same or lesser rate of nitrogen (N), showed superiority over the urea broadcast (UB) practice at Department of Agriculture recommended rates and at rates used by local farmers practice (FP). Average yield increased by percent with the range from 3.06 percent to percent. In the 2015 dry season, UDP adaptation trials were run again, and it was found that the UDP treatment out-yielded the FP treatment and the UB treatment by up to percent and percent, respectively. Average yield superiority of UDP treatment across all locations over the second highest yield of FP was calculated as percent, which was nearly the same as the 2014 wet season. Farmers in Myanmar are practicing a broadcast seeding method more than a transplanting method for rice cultivation due to a scarcity of labor and to minimize the cost of rice cultivation. It was therefore necessary to test UDP technology on broadcast seeded rice. Other trials relating to N rate, potassium (K) rate, time of application, and plant spacing were 1

6 also tested this season to refine recommendations being given to farmers by extension personnel. In this season, various types of trials, including long-term fertilizer management trials on Rice-Gram cropping systems, were conducted on both transplanted rice (TPR) and broadcasted rice (BR), applying deep placement technique at selected locations in the three project regions, i.e., Yangon, Bago, and Ayeyarwaddy. A list of trials established is below. Trials Tested in 2015 Wet Season 1. UDP adaptation trials on TPR. 2. Different N-rate trials using UDP on TPR. 3. UDP before seed broadcasting trial on BR. 4. UDP spacing trial on BR. 5. N x K trial on TPR. 6. Plant spacing x N trial on TPR. 7. Fertilizer management trial on Rice-Gram cropping system. There are seven UDP adaptation trials, three Rice-Gram trials (one on Green Gram and two on Black Gram), and one of each of the other trials. Altogether, 15 trials were planned in the 2015 wet season. Materials and Methods Site Selection In the 2015 wet season, almost all sites were newly selected with new farmers except the Research Farm, Myaungmya, where the N-rate trial with higher rates than the 2015 dry season was tested. The coordinates of the selected sites with the number of trials are given in Table 1 and these are plotted in Figure 1. Soil samples taken from each location were dried and stored for later testing to determine the initial soil condition. 2

7 Table 1. Locations and Coordinates of Field Trials, Wet Season 2015 Region Township Village Latitude Longitude Elevation Trial Type Kyauktan Ashae Pine 16 º ' N 96 º ' E 44 ft 7 Yangon Hmawbi Nyaung Gone 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 51 ft 1 Taik Kyi Gyoe Phyu 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 123 ft 1 Bago Phayar Gyi 17 º ' N 96 º ' E 84 ft 1 Daik-U Pauk Ta Bin 17 º ' N 96 º ' E 51 ft 1 Bago Research Farm 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 66 ft 5 Letpadan Gway Dauk Kwin 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 75 ft 6 Gway Dauk Kwin 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 64 ft 4 Maubin Wayon Gayet 16 º ' N 95 º ' E 19 ft 1 Pantanaw Minse 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 43 ft 3 Minse 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 34 ft 4 Ayeyar Einme Parami Daunt 16 º ' N 95 º ' E 28 ft 7 Thar Kwin 16 º ' N 95 º ' E 36 ft 7 Nyaungdon Too Chaung 17 º ' N 95 º ' E 40 ft 1 Myaungmya Kyon War 16 º ' N 94 º ' E 17 ft 1 Research Farm 16 º ' N 94 º ' E 24 ft 2 Trial Failures For the UDP spacing trial at Minse village, Pantanaw, it was observed that germination was very poor due to uneven land and poor land preparation. The trial was therefore abandoned at this early stage, and Gway Dauk Kwin village, Letpadan, was selected as a replacement. However the Gway Dauk Kwin trial was also abandoned as it showed poor germination, irrigation was unreliable, and the plots became overgrown with weeds. As a result, there were no results from UDP spacing on BR. The UDP adaptation trial at Phayar Gyi, Bago, was not sown. The field was included in a land development plan that did not finish before the normal sowing time. Table 2 describes the final outcome. Fifteen trials were planned; two failed, 1 leaving One (UDP spacing on BR) failed twice. 3

8 Figure 1. Location Map of Field Trials, Wet Season

9 Varieties and Farmers Varieties and farmers for all locations are given in Table 2. Table 2. Varieties, Trial Types, and Collaborating Farmers for the 2015 Wet Season Trials Township Village Farmer Variety Remark Kyauktan Ashae Pine U Aung Myo GW 1 Hybrid Rice Gram Hmawbi Nyaung Gone U Aye Zaw Sin Thu Kha HYV a UDP Adaptation Taik Kyi Gyoe Phyu U Kyaw Lin Thu Pale Thwe Hybrid UDP Adaptation Bago Phayar Gyi U Sunny Pale Thwe Hybrid Did not plant Daik-U Pauk Ta Bin U Soe Lwin Hmawbi 2 HYV UDP Adaptation Research Farm U Khin Aye Sin Thu Kha HYV N x K Letpadan Gway Dauk Kwin U Tin Win Sin Thu Kha HYV TPR space x N rate Gway Dauk Kwin U Tin Nyunt Pale Thwe Hybrid Failed Maubin Wayon Gayet U Tin Maung Sin Thu Kha HYV UDP Adaptation Pantanaw Minse U Than Shein Tun Thiri (75-day) HYV UDP before BR Minse U Than Shein Sin Thu Kha HYV Failed Einme Parami Daunt U Thet Naing Soe Sin Thu Kha HYV Rice Gram Thar Kwin U Aung Htay Win Sin Thu Kha HYV Rice Gram Nyaungdon Too Chaung U Aung Sin Thu Kha HYV UDP Adaptation Myaungmya Kyon War U Thein Oo Sin Thu Kha HYV UDP Adaptation Research Farm U Htain Lin Tun Sin Thu Kha HYV N rate a. HYV = High-Yielding Variety Experimental Design A Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with four treatments by three replications was used in most of the trials (Table 3). RCB with six treatments by three replications was used in the N-rates trial. RCB with five treatments and three replications was used in the two UDP spacing trials (that failed). A factorial experiment with RCB and three replications was used for the N x K trial at Letpadan research farm. A split plot design with 2 x 2 and three replications was used for the Plant Spacing x N trial. The UDP before seed broadcasting trial was simply sown in a large plot for each treatment, and data were taken from three random samples within the plot. A detailed plan for each trial is available in protocols, retained in a separate document. 5

10 Table 3. Experimental Designs Used for 2015 Wet Season Trials No Trial Name Treats. X Reps Design 1 UDP adaptation trial on TPR 4 x 3 RCB 2 Different N-rate trial using UDP on TPR 6 x 3 RCB 3 UDP before seed broadcasting trial on BR 4 x 1 Simple Four treatments, no reps but three random samples 4 UDP spacing trial on BR 5 x 3 RCB 5 Nitrogen x Potassium trial on TPR 2 x 2 x 3 Factorial 6 Plant spacing x Nitrogen trial on TPR 2 x 2 x 3 Split plot 7 Fertilizer management trial on Rice-Gram cropping system 4 x 3 RCB Basal Fertilizers In all the trials, a basal fertilizer of triple superphosphate (TSP), muriate of potash (MOP), and gypsum is used as the source of phosphorus (P), K, and sulfur (S). In calculating the rates, it is assumed: TSP = 45% P2O5 or 20% P. MOP = 60% K2O or 50% K. Gypsum = 18% S (and 23% Ca). Treatments for UDP Adaptation Trials on Transplanted Rice Rice is transplanted on a 20 x 20 cm spacing. There are four treatments in the trial as follows: Treatment 1 = Zero N. Treatment 2 = Farmers Practice (FP) urea broadcast with two or three splits. Treatment 3 = Urea Broadcast (UB) (51.8 kg N/ha) urea with three splits. Treatment 4 = UDP (51.8 kg N/ha). After discussion with farmers at each location, there were two different doses of urea application in farmers practices. One dose was 25 kg urea per acre (28 kg N/ha) with two split applications: one application at seven days after transplanting (UDP application time) and one at days after transplanting (panicle initiation stage) at Pauk Tabin, Daik-U and Wayon Gayet, Maubin. The other dose was 50 kg urea per acre (57 kg N/ha) with three split applications at other locations: first application at seven days after transplanting, second application at days after transplanting, and third application at just before flowering. 6

11 No farmers for selected sites are using basal fertilizers in the wet season, and therefore no basal fertilizer was applied on Treatment 2 (FP treatment). Blanket basal fertilizer of P at the rate of 80 kg TSP per hectare (ha), K at the rate of 40 kg MOP per ha, and Ca and S at the rate of 25 kg gypsum per ha were applied in other treatments. UDP was applied only one time at seven days after transplanting and also for the first urea application of UB treatment and FP treatment. The second application of urea was applied at 40 days after transplanting for both UB and FP treatments. The third application of urea for UB on all trials and FP on some trials was applied at flowering time. Sowing dates, transplanting dates, UDP dates, and harvesting dates are given in Table 5. Treatments for N Rate Trials on Transplanted Rice There are a total of six treatments (control and five different N rates) with three replications in this trial with UDP. Treatments are as follows: 1. Zero N (control) 2. UDP with 2.7 g x 1 briquette (Urea 66 kg/acre) 3. UDP with 1.8 g x 2 briquettes (Urea 88 kg/acre) 4. UDP with ( ) g x 1 briquette (Urea 110 kg/acre) 5. UDP with 1.8 g x 3 briquettes (Urea 132 kg/acre) 6. UDP with (1.8 g x 2) + (2.7 g x 1) (Urea 154 kg/acre) TSP at 50 kg/acre (56 kg P2O5/ha or 25 kg P/ha), MOP at 25 kg/acre (37 kg K2O/ha or 30 kg K/ha), and gypsum at 10 kg/acre (4.5 kg S/ha) were applied as basal fertilizer at plot layout time, just before transplanting. Treatments for UDP before Broadcasting Seed Farmers suggest that applying UDP before seeding would be easier than 30 days after sowing, as is currently recommended. This trial will identify the effect on yield by applying UDP before sowing and 25 days after sowing, when the seedlings would be younger and easier to push through with an applicator. There are four treatments: 1. UDP just before sowing (Urea 67.2 kg/acre = 31 kg N/ha). 2. UDP at 25 days after sowing (Urea 67.2 kg/acre). 3. Recommended dose of urea broadcast (Urea 50 kg/acre = 23 kg N/ha). 4. Control (Zero N). 7

12 TSP at 50 kg/acre (56 kg P2O5/ha or 25 kg P/ha), MOP at 25 kg/acre (37 kg K2O /ha or 30 kg K/ha) and gypsum at 10 kg/acre (4.5 kg S/ha) were applied as basal fertilizer for all treatments just before seed broadcasting. A briquette size of 1.8 g was applied at the spacing of 14 inches x 12 inches on UDP plots. UDP was applied just before seed broadcasting for Treatment 1 (UDP before sowing) and 26 days after sowing for Treatment 2 (UDP after sowing). There were two split applications in equal amount for Treatment 3 (total recommended rate of urea 50 kg/acre), one at 26 days after sowing and another at flowering time. The trial was simply sown in a large (35 ft x 60 ft) plot. At harvesting time, three representing samples were taken from each treatment to get three replications for analysis of variance Treatments for Nitrogen x Potassium on TPR This trial was a RCB factorial experiment in rice transplanted on a 20 x 20 cm spacing. Two factors were tested with three replications. Treatments are as follows: Factor A Nitrogen (two doses) 1. UDP (with 1.8 g size) (44 lb Urea/acre or 51.6 kg N/ha) 2. UDP (with 2.7 g size) (66 lb Urea/acre or 77.6 kg N/ha) Factor B Potassium (two doses) 1. MOP 25 kg/acre (37 kg K2O/ha) 2. MOP 50 kg/acre (74 kg K2O/ha) TSP at 50 kg/acre (56 kg P2O5/ha or 25 kg P/ha) and gypsum at 10 kg/acre (4.5 kg S/ha) were applied as basal fertilizer at plot layout time, just before transplanting. 8

13 Treatments for Plant Spacing x Nitrogen Trials on TPR This trial was split plot design with two factors: Main Plot Spacing (S) cm x 20 cm spacing cm x 15 cm spacing Sub-Plot UDP (two rates) 3. Using 1.8 g briquette 4. Using 2.7 g briquette The urea rates were 44.1 kg/acre (51.8 kg N/ha) with 20 x 20 spacing and 58.8 kg/acre (69 kg N/ha) with 20 x 15 spacing by using 1.8 g urea briquette. By using 2.7 g urea briquette, the rates were 66.2 kg/acre (77.6 kg N/ha) with 20 x 20 spacing and 88.2 kg/acre (103.5 kg N/ha) with 20 x 15 spacing. TSP at 50 kg/acre (56 kg P2O5/ha or 25 kg P/ha), MOP at 25 kg/acre (37 kg K2O /ha or 30 kg K/ha), and gypsum at 10 kg/acre (4.5 kg S/ha) were applied as basal fertilizer at plot layout time, just before transplanting. Treatments for Fertilizer Management in the Rice Gram System This trial is a long-term trial that extends across the rice crop and the gram crop at the same location. It is a 4 x 3 RCB design and four treatments as follows: On Rice On Gram 1. P2O5 40 kg/ha + K2O 40 kg/ha P2O5 kg/ha 0 + K2O kg/ha 0 2. P2O5 20 kg/ha + K2O 20 kg/ha P2O5 kg/ha 20 + K2O kg/ha P2O5 0 kg/ha + K2O 0 kg/ha P2O5 40 kg/ha + K2O 40 kg/ha (No residue) 4. P2O5 0 kg/ha + K2O 0 kg/ha P2O5 40 kg/ha + K2O kg/ha 40 (+crop residue) Nitrogen fertilizer is applied as UDP on the rice crop only using a 1.8 g urea briquette. 9

14 Plot Size and Spacing There are variations in plot size between trials according to the type of trial and the kind of treatments. Many trials were conducted with a plot size of 16 ft x 16 ft. Plot sizes used in specific trials are given in Table 4. A detailed plan can be seen in the protocols. Table 4. Plot Size and Spacing Used for Specific Trial, 2015 Wet Season Trials No. Trial Name Plot Size TPR Spacing 1 UDP adaptation trial on TPR 28 ft x 24 ft 8 inch x 8 inch 2 Different N-rate trial using UDP on TPR 16 ft x 16 ft 8 inch x 8 inch 3 UDP before seed broadcasting trial on BR 35 ft x 60 ft Broadcast 4 UDP spacing trial on BR 25 ft x 28 ft Broadcast 5 N x K trial on TPR 16 ft x 16 ft 8 inch x 8 inch 6 Plant spacing x N trial on TPR 16 ft x 16 ft 2 spacings tested 7 Fertilizer management trial on Rice-Gram cropping system 16 ft x 16 ft 8 inch x 8 inch Disease Occurrence In the 2015 wet season, disease was observed on some trials. Disease severity varied from one trial to another, with the most severe cases on the N-rate trials at Myaungmya. It was not just one disease but a mixture of bacterial leaf streak, sheath blight, bacterial blight, and narrow brown spot disease. Disease occurrence was more severe on the higher N rates. Zero N plots were infected the least. There were yield losses due to diseases on the N-rate trial at Myaungmya. Bacterial leaf streak disease was observed around the maximum tillering stage on the trial on fertilizer management in the Rice-Gram System at Kyauktan. A hybrid variety was used on this trial, and UDP was applied on all plots. Disease infection was observed on all plots. The rice crop nearby the trial was also slightly infected. Trial plots recovered at later stages, and yield loss was considered not significant. Bacterial leaf streak disease was also observed on the UDP adaptation trial at Nyaung Gone. At Nyaung Gone, the disease was more severe on plots near the trial. Experimental plots close to the disease-infested field were infected more than the plots away from infested field. One Zero N plot, one FP plot, and one UDP plot were infected by disease. 10

15 Results and Discussion UDP Adaptation Trials The results showed significant differences in yield at four locations (Pauk Tabin, Gyoe Phyu, Wayon Gayet, and Too Chaung) out of six. The UDP treatment gave the highest yield at all four locations ranging from 3.07 tons (t)/ha to 6.53 t/ha. At the other two locations (Nyaung Gone and Kyon War), the UB treatment gave the highest yield with 4.00 t/ha and 5.23 t/ha, respectively. However, the analysis of variance showed no significant difference between treatments. The test of significant levels of plant characters and yield for all locations are given in Table 6 and Table 7. Average yields were highest at Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi, with 5.91 t/ha 2, and the lowest at Pauk Tabin, Daik-U, with 2.47 t/ha 3. The trial at Wayon Gayet, Maubin, was the second highest yield (5.51 t/ha), followed by Kyon War, Too Chaung, and Nyaung Gone. 4 The variability between locations was mainly due to variety, soil fertility, and crop management practices. Pauk Tabin soil is very sandy and less fertile than other sites. Variety also appears as a cause of variability in yield, and the hybrid variety gave the highest yield at Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi (Table 7). Yield (t/ha) and Grain Weight (g) of Biomass The UDP treatment gave the highest yield at four locations (Pauk Tabin, Gyoe Phyu, Wayon Gayet, and Too Chaung), and differences between treatments were significant. The UB treatment gave the highest yield at Nyaung Gone (4.00 t/ha) and Kyon War (5.23 t/ha), but the treatment yields were not significantly different at those locations (Table 7 and Figure 2). There was a significant treatment effect (P(0.01)) for dry grain weight of biomass (g/25 plants) at Pauk Tabin and Wayon Gayet only. The UDP treatment had the highest grain weight (666 g) at Wayon Gayet. At Pauk Tabin, the UB treatment gave the highest grain weight with 397 g. However, at both locations, the dry grain weights of UDP and UB treatment were statistically not different from each other, but different from the rest of the treatments (FP and 2 Hybrid Pale Thwe. 3 HYV Hmawbi 2. 4 These were all HYV Sin Thu Kha. 11

16 Zero N). These two locations showed significant differences in yield, with UDP giving the highest yield (Table 6 and Table 9). Pauk Tabin (Daik-U) Hmawbi 2 (an older variety, long duration (140 days), long grain, good eating quality, a little sticky variety) was used in this trial. Seed purity was not so good, and the soil was the least fertile among all sites. Among all the trials, this site gave the lowest average yield (2.47 t/ha). Farmer practice used less nitrogen fertilizer (25 kg Urea/acre or 28.4 kg N/ha) with two split applications. Significant differences were found in yield, and all other component characters except 1,000 grain weight and panicle length (Table 6). The UDP treatment gave the highest yield (3.07 t/ha), and this was significantly different at P(0.05) from all other treatments. The UB treatment, which used the same N rate as UDP and a higher N rate than the FP treatment, gave the second highest yield (2.75 t/ha), which was also significantly different from FP and the control (Table 7). A highly significant difference (P(0.01)) between treatments was observed on total biomass. UDP gave the highest biomass, which indicates UDP application could increase both yield and straw for animal feed. Among the component characters, number of tillers per hill was the most determining factor to increase yield. The UDP treatment had 11.3 panicles per hill (Table 11), which was significantly higher than other treatments that had a little more than eight panicles per hill. (Refer to the Pauk Tabin, Daik-U data sheet in Appendix 1.) Gyoe Phyu (Taikkyi) Hybrid variety GW-1 was used for this trial, and it produced the highest average among all trials (5.91 t/ha). Significant differences at P(0.05) were found in yield, panicle length, and dry straw weight. There was no significant difference for other characters (Table 6). The UDP treatment gave the highest yield with 6.53 t/ha, but it was not significantly different from the UB treatment with 6.13 t/ha. Both were significantly different from FP and Zero N, which yielded 5.44 t/ha and 5.54 t/ha, respectively. (Refer to the Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi data sheet in Appendix 1.) Nyaung Gone (Hmawbi) Sin Thu Kha variety (140 days) was used for this trial. It was found that the differences in yield and almost all characters were not significant between treatments. Significant difference was only observed in the number of tillers per hill. The UDP treatment had the highest number of panicles per hill (12.5) which was significantly different from all other treatments. The UDP plot of Replication 3 in this trial was severely damaged by bacterial leaf streak disease. A mild disease infection was also observed on Zero 12

17 N treatment of Replication 1 and FP treatment of Replication 2. Those plots were at one end of the trial, and the disease came from a neighboring disease-infested field through wind. The highest yield was observed in the UB treatment, but it was not significantly different from other treatments. The Nyaung Gone soil has one of the least fertile soils, and the average yield was the second lowest among all locations. (Refer to the Nyaung Gone, Hmawbi data sheet in Appendix 1.) Wayon Gayet (Maubin) Sin Thu Kha variety (140 days) was used for this trial. The trial used a high-yielding variety with a lesser rate of urea (28 kg urea/acre or 28.4 kg N/ha) on the FP treatment. The soil is comparably fertile, and the farmer took good care of the crop. The average yield was found second highest (5.51 t/ha) among the trials. The difference in yield was highly significant between treatments. UDP gave the highest yield with 6.12 t/ha, which was significantly different from FP and Zero N, but not different from the UB treatment, which gave 5.92 t/ha. Significant differences were also found on the number of tillers per hill, number of grains per panicle, fresh straw and grain weight, and dry grain weight. The difference was not significant on dry straw weight and 1,000 grain weight. The number of tillers per hill with UDP (14.3) was significantly different from all other treatments, which could be concluded as a major factor in the yield increase. According to this finding, the farmer practice could improve rice yield by applying more urea. The economic return needs to be considered. (Refer to the Wayon Gayet, Maubin data sheet in Appendix 1.) Kyon War (Myaungmya) Sin Thu Kha variety (140 days) was used for this trial. In this trial, the UDP treatment did not give the highest yield it came in second, while the UB treatment gave the highest yield with 5.23 t/ha. However there was no significant difference between treatments in yield and many other characters. Significant difference at P(0.01) was observed on number of panicles per hill only. UDP treatment gave the highest number of panicles (13.9), which was significantly different from all other treatments. The reason this did not translate to significant differences in yield may be due to variability between replications, which may be due to sheath rot and bacterial blight disease found more on Replications 2 and 3. (Refer to the Kyon War, Myaungmya data sheet in Appendix 1.) Too Chaung (Nyaungdon) Sin Thu Kha variety (140 days) was used for this trial. The trial showed significant differences between treatments at P(0.05) on yield, number of panicles per hills, number of grains per panicle, and biomass dry straw weight. There was no statistically 13

18 significant differences among treatments on other parameters. UDP treatment gave the highest yield with 5.93 t/ha, and this was not significantly different from FP with 4.99 t/ha, but it was significantly different from UB with 4.04 t/ha. Control (Zero N) had the lowest yield with 3.13 t/ha. Panicles per hill of UDP, UB, and FP treatments were not statistically different, though UDP had the highest number of panicles (12.7) per hill among all treatments. The zero N treatment clearly showed the lowest yield with the lowest number of panicles per hill. (Refer to the Too Chaung, Nyaungdon data sheet in Appendix 1.) Analysis of variance among treatments across all six locations showed highly significant differences in yield. The UDP treatment had the highest yield with 5.02 t/ha. The UB treatment, which had the same N rate as UDP, gave the second highest yield with 4.68 t/ha. The FP treatment, which had a higher N rate than UDP at four out of six locations, was third with 4.38 t/ha, and the Zero N treatment was the lowest with 3.87 t/ha. According to the least significant differences (LSD)(0.05) value (0.61 t/ha), the yield of the UDP treatment was significantly higher than the FP and Zero N treatments, but not higher than the UB treatment. The UB treatment and FP treatment were not significantly different from each other, and FP treatment and Zero N treatment were also not statistically different (Table 7). The treatment differences were visually obvious at the maximum tillering stage. Growth of rice plants in height and color with the UDP treatment was clearly better than those with all other treatments. Starting from this stage through to flowering time, plant performance as a main attraction convinced farmers that effective application of urea was through UDP technology. Yield superiority of UDP over other treatments varied from (-) 8.56 percent over UB at Kyon War, where the yield with UB treatment having the same N rate was the highest, to percent over control at Too Chaung. The UDP treatment could out-yield Zero N treatment by nearly double at Too Chaung. Maximum superiority of UDP treatment over FP treatment and UB treatment was observed at Pauk Tabin (52.59 percent) and Too Chaung (46.92 percent). Average yield superiority of the UDP treatment across all locations over the second highest yield (UB treatment) was calculated as 7.37 percent. It had 14.7 percent superiority over the FP treatment and 29 percent superiority over Zero N (Table 8). 14

19 Figure 2. Comparison of Paddy Yields by Location Plant Height (cm) The results showed the highest plant height with UDP treatment at all locations. However, significant difference was only found at Wayon Gayet and Too Chaung. The other sites showed statistically no difference in plant height, though it was always the highest with UDP (Table 6). Analysis of variance for treatments across all locations showed difference in plant height was highly significant (P(0.01)). UDP gave the highest plant height with cm, which was statistically different from all other treatments. Plant height with UB (104.2 cm) and FP (103.3 cm) were not different, but they were different from plant height with Zero N. The control treatment had the shortest plant height with 99.7 cm. The result indicates that UDP is the most effective use of nitrogen to promote growth over broadcast urea application methods (Table 10). Number of Panicles per Hill Out of six locations, five locations showed that UDP gave the highest number of panicles per hill. The differences from other treatments were significant to P(0.01) at Kyon War and P(0.05) at other locations. Only one location, Gyoe Phyu (using a hybrid), showed the Zero N treatment with the highest number of panicles per hill (9.4), but not much higher than UDP treatment (9.3), and there was no significant difference among treatments. Difference in the 15

20 number of panicles per hill among treatments across all locations, including Gyoe Phyu, was highly significant. UDP treatments gave the significantly highest number with 12.3 panicles per hill. The second was 10.4 panicles per hill with UB treatment. The third was 10.3 panicles per hill with FP, and Zero N treatment was the lowest with 10.8 panicles per hill, which were not statistically different from each other (Table 11). It is clear that UDP technology could improve vegetative growth through effective use of nitrogen fertilizer. 1,000 Grain Weight (g) There was no significant difference in 1,000 grain weight among treatments in all locations. The UDP treatment gave the highest 1,000 grain weight at Pauk Tabin only. There were variations in 1,000 grain weight within all locations. Analysis of variance across locations by treatments also showed no differences between treatments (Table 12). Agronomic Efficiency (AE) Yield Grain per kg N Applied In the 2015 wet season, UDP showed the highest agronomic efficiency 5 (AE) at four locations (Pauk Tabin, Gyoe Phyu, Wayon Gayet, and Too Chaung). The highest AE (51.8 kg/kg N) and the second highest AE (49.4 kg/kg N) were found with UDP at Wayon Gayet and Too Chaung, respectively. At Kyon War and Nyaung Gone, the most effective use of urea was found with the UB treatment with 15.9 kg/kg N and 8 kg/kg N, respectively. The highest AE value for an FP treatment (32 kg/kg N) was found at Too Chaung, but it was much lower than the AE of UDP (49.4 kg/kg N) at the same location. The highest AE of UB treatment (44.8 kg/kg N) was observed at Wayon Gayet, and it was also lower than that of UDP at the same location. Using average yield values across all locations, it was calculated that 22.2 kg paddy was gained on 1 kg of N applied by the UDP technique, and 15.5 kg gained using the UB method with the same rate (51.8 kg N/ha) as UDP. FP produced the least paddy (8.9 kg) for 1 kg of N, although the N rate was higher than UDP and UB. The yield of the FP treatment could be limited by other nutrients because no basal fertilizer was applied on FP plots (Table 13). UDP, Yield Parameters, and Yield Although the UDP treatment did not give the highest yield at all locations, it gave the highest at four out of six locations. At Nyaung Gone and Kyon War, the UDP treatment did not give 5 (Yield of fertilized crop yield of control)/amount of fertilizer applied. 16

21 the highest yield, but there was no differences between treatments. Nyaung Gone had some disease problems on the UDP plot, and Kyon War had poor water management when the trial was flooded for most of the season. At four locations, where the UDP treatment gave the highest yield, the difference was significant. According to locations by treatments analysis, it was found that the UDP treatment produced a significantly higher yield than all other treatments followed by UB, FP, and Zero N in series (Table 7). Yield superiority of UDP, on average, was 7.37 percent over the second highest treatment (UB), percent over FP treatment, and percent over Zero N treatment (Table 8). Among the yield contributing characters, a significant difference was found in the number of panicles per hill, followed by the number of grains per panicle at locations that corresponded with yield differences. It is concluded that UDP could therefore improve the number of productive tillers over other urea application practices. This was clearly visible at the maximum tillering stage. The number of grains per panicle may be a second character that could improve yield with UDP application since it showed significant differences at three locations (Table 6). Since there was no differences on 1,000 grain weight at any location, it is assumed that UDP could not improve this character. N rate Trial at Myaungmya In the 2015 wet season, the N-rate trial at Myaungmya showed no significant differences in yield. Among the yield parameters, significant differences were observed only on plant height (P(0.05)), number of panicles per hill (P(0.05)), and fresh straw weight (P(0.01)) (Table 14). Their response curves all showed a maximum response at 155 kg N/ha. (Refer to the Research Farm, Myaungmya data sheet in Appendix 1.) Plant height: The highest N-rate treatment (181.1 kg N/ha) did not give the tallest plant. It was almost the same height as the lowest N-rate (77.6 kg N/ha) treatment and control (Zero N). The plant height with kg N/ha, kg N/ha, and kg N/ha were the tallest with 105 cm, 107 cm, and 107 cm respectively, and they were not statistically different from one another. Number of panicles per hill: Analysis of variance showed significant differences in the number of panicles per hill. This difference was between control (8.8 panicles per hill) and N-rate treatments only. There were no significant differences among different N-rate 17

22 treatments. The highest N rate had the lowest number of panicles per hill (12.0). The second highest N rate (155.3 kg N/ha) gave the highest number of panicles (14.5/hill), followed by the third highest N rate (129.4 kg N/ha) with 14.0 panicles/hill and the second lowest rate (103.5 kg N/ha) with 12.2 panicles/hill (Figure 3). Figure 3. Response of Number of Panicles per Hill on Different N Rates Fresh straw weight: Significant differences were observed on fresh straw weight. The trend was similar to plant height and the number of panicles per hill. The highest N rate did not give the highest biomass straw weight. The second highest dose of nitrogen gave the highest biomass straw weight. However, biomass weight of top three N rates were not significantly different (Figure 4). 18

23 Figure 4. Response of Fresh Straw Weight (g) on Different N Rates Yield: There was a great deal of variability in yield among treatments, and the analysis of variance did not show a statistical difference among the yields. Zero N plot had the highest yield with 3.41 t/ha. It was generally observed that the two lowest N rates gave higher yield than the three higher rates (Table 14). In this trial, diseases incidence was noted starting at maximum tillering stage and leading up to harvesting time. It was not only one disease but a mixed incidence of bacterial leaf streak, sheath blight, and bacterial blight. The wet season is often moist, humid and favorable to disease occurrence. All N-rate plots were infected by diseases. Zero N plots were infected the least. At harvesting time, it was noted that panicle exertion was not completed, and grains were not fulfilled on N-applied plots. Grain discoloration was also observed from infected plots. However, harvests from Zero N plots were heavy with clean grains, although they had less biomass. It should be realized that this trial purposely chose high rates on N to define the top of the response curve. Even the lowest N rate (77 kg N/ha) was higher than the recommended UDP rate for the wet season (51 kg N/ha). 19

24 Based on the significant results on plant height, panicles per hill, and fresh straw weight and if there was no disease infestation a yield response could be expected along the lines of Figure 3 and Figure 4 with a yield peak at kg N/ha level. The yield would possibly decline beyond that rate. UDP before Seed Broadcasting at Minse, Pantanaw This trial intended to find out possible ways of applying UDP technology on broadcast rice. It used a short duration variety (Tun Thiri 75 days to maturity) to compare yield response to UDP application before and after seed broadcasting with surface broadcasting of urea at the recommended rate and Zero N. The trial was sown on a large plot (35 ft x 60 ft) with simple design. Data were recorded from three representing samples to obtain three replications. Three crop cuts on a 10 ft x 10 ft plot within each treatment were also taken. It was found that yield and all parameters were significantly different between treatments, number of panicles per hill, and number of spikelets per panicle at P(0.05) and the others at P(0.01). (Refer to the Minse, Pantanaw data sheet in Appendix 1.) Yield: Yield of Treatment 1 (UDP before sowing) was the highest with 2.71 t/ha, which was significantly higher than other treatments, followed by Treatment 2 (UDP after sowing) with 2.14 t/ha. Zero N treatment gave the lowest yield (1.12 t/ha), and surface broadcasting of urea had the second lowest yield with 1.39 t/ha. These were not significantly different from each other. In this trial, yields were comparably very low due to the very early duration variety (75 days to maturity) and poor weed control (Figure 5). 20

25 Figure 5. Yield Comparison of UDP Application on Broadcast Rice Plant height: Plant growth was remarkably superior from the earliest stage of growth in UDP before sowing (Treatment 1). Plant height in Treatment 2, where UDP was applied 26 days after sowing, could not reach the height of Treatment 1. UDP application before sowing gave the tallest plants at 99 cm, and this was significantly higher than the heights of all other treatments. Plant height of other treatments were not significantly different from each other, ranging from 76 cm to 79 cm (Figure 6). Number of panicles per m 2 : It was found that both UDP applied plots had a higher number of panicles than the other treatments. UDP before sowing (Treatment 1) gave 223 panicles per m 2, followed by UDP after sowing (Treatment 2) with 205 panicles per m 2, and they were not significantly different. Zero N treatment had 141 panicles per m 2, which is the lowest. The second lowest was 182 panicles per m 2 with Treatment 3 (recommended rate of broadcast urea application). Biomass grain weight per m 2 : Results were the same as yield. UDP before sowing (Treatment 1) gave the highest biomass grain weight with 280 g fresh weight and 251 g dry weight, and this was significantly better than other treatments. UDP after sowing treatment 21

26 gave 225 g fresh grain weight and 198 g dry weight (Figure 6 and Minse, Pantanaw data sheet). In this trial a very short duration variety, Tun Thiri (only 75 days to maturity) was broadcast, and the results clearly showed that UDP could be applied just before seed broadcasting and nitrogen was available throughout the whole life period of such a very early maturing variety. With Treatment 2, when UDP was applied at 26 days after seed broadcasting, nitrogen in the soil would have been taken by rice plants for about 45 days only and some amount might have been left in the soil. The Tun Thiri variety is not widely grown and often used as a substitution crop after disasters when the first crop is damaged by flood, storm etc. Figure 6. Response of Some Characters to UDP Application Methods on Broadcast Rice Nitrogen x Potassium on TPR at Letpadan Farm, Letpadan Two different rates of nitrogen (51.7 kg N/ha and 77.6 kg N/ha) by using two different sizes of urea briquettes and two different rates of potassium (37 kg K2O/ha and 74 kg K2O/ha) were tested with three replications. There were some variations in plant performance and yield among trial plots. Significant differences were observed between treatments at P(0.05) for nitrogen rates but not for potassium rates. 22

27 Nitrogen: The higher N rate (77.6 kg N/ha) gave significantly (P(0.01) higher yield of 4.54 t/ha compared to 4.32 t/ha with the lower N rate (51.7 kg N/ha). Nitrogen seems to be a limiting factor for that location and soil. Potassium: In this trial, it was found that the yield of the low K rate was higher than that of the high K rate with 4.50 t/ha and 4.35 t/ha, respectively. However they were not statistically different from each other. Potassium might not be limiting at Letpadan since there was no significant response in yield due to K application. N x K interaction: Interaction of N x K was highly significant in this trial. The yield was higher with higher N rate, while higher yield was observed with lower K rate (Figure 7). In this trial, variability in plant growth was observed during the vegetative stage. Plants were not uniform in height between plots and within plots. This poor uniformity might be due to soil heterogeneity because the whole field was under a land development plan in the 2014/15 dry season. Topsoil from some parts of the field was removed to have good leveling. Figure 7. Yield Response (t/ha) on Different Rates of Nitrogen and Potassium 23

28 Plant Spacing x Nitrogen Rate Trial on TPR at Gway Dauk Kwin, Letpadan Two different plant spacings (20 cm x 20 cm and 20 cm x 15 cm) were tested as the main factor, and two different sizes of urea briquette were tested as the sub-factor in a split plot design with three replications. N rates were therefore 51.8 kg N/ha (for a 1.8 g briquette size applied on the wider spacing plot), 77.6 kg N/ha (for a 2.7 g briquette size applied on the wider spacing plot), 69.0 kg N/ha (for 1.8 g briquette size applied on closer spacing plot), and kg N/ha (2.7 g briquette size applied on closer spacing plot). It was found that yield response was significant for both factors, spacing at P(0.01), and N rates at P(0.05). However, interaction between the two factors was not significant. Plant spacing at 20 cm x 20 cm gave a higher yield than plant spacing at 20 cm x 15 cm for both N rates. When comparing average value across two different N rates, wider spacing (20 cm x 20 cm) gave significantly higher yield with 5.06 t/ha, while closer spacing (20 cm x 15 cm) gave 3.62 t/ha (Figure 8). It can be explained that plants sown in wider spacing have more productive tillers (13.6) than plants with closer spacing, which have only 12.2 panicles per hill. Other yield component characters were not significantly different. Figure 8. Yield Response (t/ha) on Different Plant Spacing and Nitrogen Rates 24

29 For nitrogen treatments, application of the smaller briquette size (1.8 g) gave higher yield than the larger briquette size (2.7 g) for both spacing. With wider plant spacing the smaller size briquette gave a yield of 5.38 t/ha, and the larger briquette size gave a yield of 4.74 t/ha. With closer plant spacing, the 1.8 g briquette gave 3.84 t/ha, and the 2.7 g briquette gave 3.39 t/ha. (Refer to the Gway Dauk Kwin, Letpadan data sheet in Appendix 1.) Therefore, 1.8 g briquette seems to be enough for nitrogen nutrient regardless of plant spacing in this wet season at the tested location. Fertilizer Management Trials on Rice Gram Cropping System Different amounts of P and K on rice or gram were tested in the Rice-Gram cropping system. This is a long-term experiment to study the carry-over effect of P and K on subsequent crop (gram or rice). All amounts of P (40 kg P2O5/ha or 17 kg P/ha) and K (40 kg K2O/ha or 33 kg K/ha) were applied on rice with Treatment 1, and no P or K will be applied on the following gram crop. This will study residual nutrient effect on the gram crop. With Treatment 2, half the amount of the P (20 kg P2O5/ha) and half amount of the K (20 kg K2O/ha) were applied on rice, and the other half of P and K will be applied on the gram crop. No P and K were applied on rice with Treatments 3 and 4. All the amounts of P and K will be applied on the gram crop with Treatments 3 and 4. The difference between Treatment 3 and 4 is that the crop residue of the gram crop will be added in Treatment 4 and no crop residue of the gram crop will be applied on Treatment 3. Nitrogen was applied on the rice crop only by applying UDP using a small size (1.8 g) of urea briquette. One briquette each was placed 3-4 inches deep one time only by hand at the center of alternating four rice hills at seven days after transplanting. N rate per hectare was therefore 51.8 kg. The significant test of yield and all component characters for all three locations are given in Table 15. According to the analysis of variance, there were no significant differences between treatments on all component characters. Significant difference was observed on yield at Parami Daunt, Einme only. Thar Kwin, Einme, and Ashae Pine, Kyauktan, did not show significant differences in yield. Thar Kwin, Einme No significant differences were observed on yield and all characters. Although it was not significantly different in yield, P and K applied plots gave more yield 25

30 than plots with no P and K. The treatment that received all P and K produced a yield of 5.5 t/ha, and the treatment that received half the amount of P and K had 5.6 t/ha yield. Plots without P and K produced yields of 5.27 t/ha and 5.47 t/ha. There were some variations among treatments in plant characters. One of the no P and K plots (Treatment 4) had the lowest number of panicles, with 12.8 panicles/hill, while other plots of Treatments 1, 2, and 3 had 14.4, 14.9, and 14.3 panicles/hill, respectively. However, Treatment 4 gave the highest number of grains per panicle with 156, while Treatments 1, 2, and 3 gave 133, 152, and 130 grains/panicle, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between treatments for any of the yield components. (Refer to the Thar Kwin, Einme data sheet in Appendix 1.) Parami Daunt, Einme Significant difference at P(0.05) was calculated on yield, but there were no differences between treatments for any of the yield parameters. Treatment 2, on which half the amount of P and K were applied, gave the significantly highest yield with 5.59 t/ha. The yield of Treatments 1, 3, and 4 were not different with 5.14 t/ha, 5.19 t/ha, and 5.16 t/ha, respectively. The yield of Treatment 1 with all P and K applied was found as low as the yield of plots with no P and K. This was probably due to soil problems because it was noted at an earlier (vegetative) stage that plant vigor in Treatment 1 of Replications 1 and 3 was poorer than any other plots. Rice plants did not have normal growth up until maturity stage. If Treatment 1 of those plots had normal growth, then a response with P and K might have been observed. Other characters were hard to determine since there were no significant differences due to treatments. (Refer to the Parami Daunt, Einme data sheet in Appendix 1.) Ashae Pine, Kyauktan It was difficult to make an interpretation of P and K response on yield since all treatments gave nearly equal yields ranging from 4.49 t/ha to 4.92 t/ha. They are not significantly different from each other. No difference between treatments was observed on other characters. Although no differences, P and K applied plots gave more panicles per hill (9.5 panicles/hill with the full amount of P and K, and 9.0 panicles/hill with half the amount of P and K) than no P and K applied plots. Plots with no P and K gave only 8.1 and 8.8 panicles per hill. (Refer to the Ashae Pine, Kyauktan data sheet in Appendix 1.) This is the first crop of the first season of a long-term trial. The result may not be clear for two reasons: one is initial P and K levels in the soil and another is the amount of P and K 26

31 applied in this experiment. The trial needs to continue to study the response of the next gram crop on applied P and K and in further seasons and years to come. Conclusion UDP Trials The yield increment of UDP varied from 3.36 percent (over UB at Wayon Gayet) to percent (over FP at Too Chaung). As an average yield over all locations, UDP gave 7.37 percent yield increase over UB and percent over FP (Table 8). It is clear that the most efficient use of nitrogen comes from application of UDP. AE values of UDP are the highest at four locations where significant differences between treatments was observed. The highest AE values of nitrogen application were observed at Wayon Gayet. All nitrogen application methods showed efficient use of nitrogen, which means nitrogen loss is the least in that soil. Pauk Tabin and Too Chaung soils are very sandy, and applying UDP there was found to be the most efficient use of nitrogen (Table 13). Crop management in most of the farmers fields was not intensive. Yield increase of UDP over UB treatments could be higher if crop management at every location could be improved. N Rate Trial In the 2015 wet season, there was a great deal of variability in yield and no difference was found between treatments. It was due to disease occurrence on all UDP applied plots. Therefore, actual yield from UDP applied plots was not related to nitrogen applied. Although yield response to different N rates was variable, fresh straw weight and number of panicles per hills showed good responses. Both characters showed increasing values with increasing N rates up to kg N/ha, the second highest rate in this trial. Maximum values were observed with second highest N rate (155.3 kg N/ha) and started to decrease with the highest N rate (181.1 kg N/ha) (Figure 3 and Figure 4). Based on the response of those characters, maximum yield could be expected with kg N/ha if there were no diseases. Further testing under good crop management, especially protection of disease, is needed for confirmation of results. 27

32 UDP before Broadcasting Trial on BR It can be concluded that there is a possibility of UDP application on broadcast rice just before seed broadcasting, especially with an early maturing variety. UDP application before broadcasting and at 26 days after broadcasting gave higher yield than broadcast prilled urea application at the recommended rate. UDP application before broadcasting had the highest yield, followed by UDP application at 26 days after broadcasting, the broadcast prilled urea application, and Zero N (Figure 5). In this trial, a very early variety (only 75 days to maturity) was used, and UDP was applied at a spacing of 14 inches x 12 inches that amounted to 67.2 kg urea/acre or 76.4 kg N/ha applied. The amount of N seemed sufficient for the whole life period of such a very early variety if it is applied just before broadcasting. It is speculated that some amount of N might be left when it is applied at 26 days after broadcasting. Further testing with the most popular early variety is needed, and other times of application after broadcasting need to be considered. Nitrogen x Potassium Trial on TPR In this trial, yield response to two different rates of N (51.7 kg N/ha and 77.6 kg N/ha) was found significant. The higher N rate gave the highest yield with 45.4 t/ha while the low N rate gave only 4.32 t/ha. Therefore, it can be concluded that N was the most limiting nutrient. The potassium effect on yield was not significant. In this research station, unlike the farmers field, K is applied every year at a recommended rate ( kg MOP/acre) on this field. Potassium was not limiting in the soil. However, it was found that the low K rate (37 kg K2O/ha) had higher yield than the high K rate (74 kg K2O/ha). Therefore, interaction between N and K was highly significant (Figure 7). It might be needed to conduct further testing with higher N rates. Plant Spacing and N Rate Trial on TPR Based on the results of this trial, it can be concluded that 20 cm x 20 cm spacing is suitable for rice cultivation in wet season when plants receive enough nutrients, especially nitrogen, since closer spacing (20 cm x 15 cm) could not produce as much yield as wider spacing. 28

33 Regarding N rate, 1.8 g size urea briquette seemed enough for both spacing in wet season when using UDP technology. Fertilizer Management Trials on Rice Gram Cropping System This is the first season of a long-term trial, and the P and K effect is not clear on yield. There were some variations between treatments. Significant difference on yield was observed at Parami Daunt even though it had some variations between plots. 29

34 Table 5. Locations, Varieties, and Dates of All Trials No. Region/Township Village Variety Yangon Date of: Sowing Transplant UDP Topdress 1 Topdress 2 Harvest 1 Kyauktan Ashae Pine Pale Thwe (GW 1) 7-Jul 30-Jul 6-Aug Nov 2 Hmawbi Nyaung Gone Sin Thu Kha 27-Jun 24-Jul 30-Jul 2-Sep 3-Oct 2-Nov 3 Taikkyi Gyoe Phyu Pale Thwe (GW 1) 25-Jun 20-Jul 27-Jul 29-Aug 10-Sep 14-Oct Bago 4 Daik-U Pauk Tabin Hmawbi 2 20-Jun 20-Jul 27-Jul 30-Aug 13-Oct 18-Nov 5 Letpadan Research Farm Sin Thu Kha 24-Jun 21-Jul 28-Jul Nov 6 Gway Dauk Kwin Sin Thu Kha 25-Jun 22-Jul 28-Jul Nov Ayeyarwaddy 7 Maubin Mayin Sin Thu Kha 3-Jul 25-Jul 3-Aug 3-Sep 9-Oct 11-Nov 8 Pantanaw Minse Tun Thiri 30-Jun - 26-Jul - 17-Aug 10-Sep 8 Einme Parami Daunt Sin Thu Kha 16-Jun 10-Jul 17-Jul Oct 10 Thar Kwin Sin Thu Kha 27-Jun 18-Jul 25-Jul Oct 11 Nyaungdon Too Chaung Sin Thu Kha 30-Jun 27-Jul 4-Aug 4-Sep 7 Apr 12-Nov 12 Myaungmya Kyon War Sin Thu Kha 24-Jun 17-Jul 25-Jul 27-Aug 8-Oct 29-Oct 13 Research Sin Thu Kha 15-Jun 8-Jul 15-Jul Oct Failed trials not included 30

35 Table 6. Test of Significant Levels of Plant Characters and Yield for All Locations Location Plant Height No. of Panicles per Hill Panicle Length No. of Spikelets per Panicle No. of Grains per Panicle 1,000 Grain Weight Fresh Straw Weight Fresh Grain Weight Dry Straw Weight Dry Grain Weight Pauk Tabin ns * ns ** * ns ** ** ** ** Gyoe Phyu ns ns * ns ns ns ns ns * ns Nyaung Gone ns * ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns Wayon Gayet ** * ns * * ns * ** ns ** Kyon War ns ** ns ns ns ns * ns ns ns Too Chaung * * ns * * ns ns ns * ns Table 7. Average Yield (t/ha) of Different Treatments at All Locations Treatments F CV Location Zero N FP UB UDP Avg. Test LSD(0.05) (%) Pauk Tabin 2.05b 2.01bb 2.75ab 3.07 a 2.47 * Gyoe Phyu 5.54b 5.44bb 6.13ab 6.53 a 5.91 * Nyaung Gone 3.55c 3.96bb 4.00bb 3.71b 3.81 ns - - Wayon Gayet 4.65c 5.35bb 5.92ab 6.12 a 5.51 ** Kyon War 4.33c 4.53 c 5.23bb 4.78b 4.72 ns - - Too Chaung 3.13c 4.99ab 4.04bc 5.93 a 4.52 * Average 3.87c 4.38bc 4.68ab 5.02a 4.49 ** Table 8. Percent Yield Superiority of UDP over Other Treatments Treatments Location Zero N FP UB UDP Pauk Tabin Gyoe Phyu Nyaung Gone Wayon Gayet Kyon War Too Chaung Average

36 Table 9. Biomass Grain Weight (g/25 plants) of Different Treatments at All Locations Treatments F CV Location Zero N FP UB UDP Test LSD(0.05) (%) Pauk Tabin ** Gyoe Phyu ns - - Nyaung Gone ns - - Wayon Gayet ** Kyon War ns - - Too Chaung ns - - Average * Table 10. Plant Height (cm) of Different Treatments at All Locations Treatments F CV Location Zero N FP UB UDP Test LSD(0.05) (%) Pauk Tabin ns - - Gyoe Phyu ns - - Nyaung Gone ns - - Wayon Gayet ** Kyon War ns - - Too Chaung * Average 100c 103b 104b 109a ** Table 11. Number of Panicles per Hill of Different Treatments at All Locations Treatments F CV Location Zero N FP UB UDP Test LSD(0.05) (%) Pauk Tabin * Gyoe Phyu ns - - Nyaung Gone * Wayon Gayet * Kyon War ** Too Chaung * Average **

37 Table 12. 1,000 Grain Weight (g) of Different Treatments at All Locations Treatments F CV Location Zero N FP UB UDP Test LSD(0.05) (%) Pauk Tabin ns - - Gyoe Phyu ns - - Nyaung Gone ns - - Wayon Gayet ns - - Kyon War ns - - Too Chaung ns - - Average ns - - Table 13. Agronomic Efficiency Values of Treatments at All Locations Treatment Grain Yield, g/ha Agronomic Efficiency Location Zero N FP UB UDP FP UB UDP Pauk Tabin 2,051 2,012 2,749 3, Gyoe Phyu 5,539 5,439 6,129 6, Nyaung Gone 3,552 3,963 4,004 3, Wayon Gayet 4,653 5,351 5,925 6, Kyon War 4,326 4,529 5,230 4, Too Chaung 3,127 4,988 4,038 5, Average 3,875 4,380 4,679 5,

38 Table 14. Analysis of Variance on Yield (t/ha) and Other Characters of N-Rate Trial at Myaungmya Plant Height (cm) No. of Panicles per hill Panicle Length No. of Spikelets per Panicle No. of Grains per Panicle 1,000 Grain Weight Fresh Straw Weight (g) Fresh Grain Weight (g) Dry Straw Weight (g) Dry Grain Weight (g) Treatment Zero N , N/ha , N/ha , N/ha , N/ha , N/ha , F test * * ns ns ns ns ** ns ns ns ns LSD(0.05) CV (%) Yield (t/ha) Table 15. Test of Significant Level for Yield and Component Characters of Fertilizer Management Trial on Rice-Gram Cropping System Yield Plant Height No. of Panicles per Hill Panicle Length No. of Spikelets per Panicle No. of Grains per Panicle 1,000 Grain Weight Fresh Straw Weight Fresh Grain Weight Dry Straw Weight Dry Grain Weight Location Thar Kwin ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns Parami Daunt * ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns Kyauktan ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns 34

39 Appendix 1. Data Sheets Pauk Tabin, Daik U Urea Deep Placement Trial Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Pauk Tabin, Daik Oo Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer U Soe Lwin Variety Hmawbi 2 Plot size 672 sq ft. UDP date 27 Jul Harvest date 18 Nov Sowing Date 20 Jun 1st Top Dress 30 Aug Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 20 Jul 2nd Top Dress 13 Oct Harvested hills 225 Plot Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 Zero N 11 Oct FP (28.4 N) 14 Oct UB (51 N) 12 Oct UDP (51 N) 13 Oct Zero N 11 Oct FP (28.4 N) 14 Oct UB (51 N) 12 Oct UDP (51 N) 13 Oct Zero N 11 Oct FP (28.4 N) 14 Oct UB (51 N) 12 Oct UDP (51 N) 13 Oct Average values 1 Zero N FP (28.4 N) UB (51 N) UDP (51 N) F test * * ** ** ** ** ns * CV (%) LSD (0.05)

40 Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi Urea Deep Placement Trial Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer U Kyaw Lin Thu Variety Pale Thwe (GW 1) Plot size 672 sq ft. UDP date 27 Jul Harvest date 14 Oct Sowing Date 25 Jun 1st Top Dress 29 Aug Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 20 Jul 2nd Top Dress 10 Sep Harvested hills 225 Plot Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 Zero N 10 Sep FP (56.8 N) 10 Sep UB (51 N) 10 Sep UDP (51 N) 10 Sep Zero N 10 Sep FP (56.8 N) 10 Sep UB (51 N) 10 Sep UDP (51 N) 10 Sep Zero N 10 Sep FP (56.8 N) 10 Sep UB (51 N) 10 Sep UDP (51 N) 10 Sep Average values 1 Zero N FP (56.8 N) UB (51 N) UDP (51 N) F test ns ns * ns ns ns ns * ns ns * CV (%) LSD (0.05)

41 Nyaung Gone, Hmawbi Urea Deep Placement Trial Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Nyaung Gone, Hmawbi Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer U Aye Zaw Variety Sin Thu Kha Plot size 672 sq ft. UDP date 30 Jul Harvest date 2 Nov Sowing Date 27 Jun 1st Top Dress 2 Sep Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 24 Jul 2nd Top Dress 3 Oct Harvested hills 225 Plot Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 Zero N 2 Oct FP (56.8 N) 2 Oct UB (51 N) 2 Oct UDP (51 N) 2 Oct Zero N 2 Oct FP (56.8 N) 2 Oct UB (51 N) 2 Oct UDP (51 N) 2 Oct Zero N 2 Oct FP (56.8 N) 2 Oct UB (51 N) 2 Oct UDP (51 N) 2 Oct Average values 1 Zero N FP (56.8 N) UB (51 N) UDP (51 N) F test ns * ns ns ns ns ns ns ns ns bs ns CV (%) 5.4 LSD (0.05)

42 Wayon Gayet, Maubin Urea Deep Placement Trial Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Wayon Gayet, Maubin Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer U Tin Maung Variety Sin Thu Kha Plot size 672 sq ft. UDP date 3 Aug Harvest date 11 Nov Sowing Date 3 Jul 1st Top Dress 3 Sep Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 25 Jul 2nd Top Dress 9 Oct Harvested hills 225 Plot Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 Zero N 6 Oct FP (28.4 N) 6 Oct UB (51 N) 6 Oct UDP (51 N) 6 Oct Zero N 6 Oct FP (28.4 N) 6 Oct UB (51 N) 6 Oct UDP (51 N) 6 Oct Zero N 6 Oct FP (28.4 N) 6 Oct UB (51 N) 6 Oct UDP (51 N) 6 Oct Average values 1 Zero N FP (28.4 N) UB (51 N) UDP (51 N) F test ** * ns * * * ** ns ** ns ** CV (%) LSD (0.05)

43 Kyon War, Myaungmya Urea Deep Placement Trial Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Kyon War, Myaungmya Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer U Thein Oo Variety Sin Thu Kha Plot size 672 sq ft. UDP date 25 Jul Harvest date 29 Oct Sowing Date 24 Jun 1st Top Dress 27 Aug Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 17 Jul 2nd Top Dress 8 Oct Harvested hills 225 Plot Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 Zero N 1 Oct FP (56.8 N) 1 Oct UB (51 N) 1 Oct UDP (51 N) 1 Oct Zero N 1 Oct FP (56.8 N) 1 Oct UB (51 N) 1 Oct UDP (51 N) 1 Oct Zero N 1 Oct FP (56.8 N) 1 Oct UB (51 N) 1 Oct UDP (51 N) 1 Oct Average values 1 Zero N FP (56.8 N) UB (51 N) UDP (51 N) F test ns ** ns ns ns * ns ns ns ns ns CV (%) LSD (0.05)

44 Too Chaung, Nyaungdon Urea Deep Placement Trial Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Too Chaung, Nyaungdon Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer U Aung Aung Variety Sin Thu Kha Plot size 672 sq ft. UDP date 4 Aug Harvest date 12 Nov Sowing Date 30 Jun 1st Top Dress 4 Sep Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 27 Jul 2nd Top Dress 8 Oct Harvested hills 225 Plot Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 Zero N 5 Oct FP (56.8 N) 5 Oct UB (51 N) 5 Oct UDP (51 N) 5 Oct Zero N 5 Oct FP (56.8 N) 5 Oct UB (51 N) 5 Oct UDP (51 N) 5 Oct Zero N 5 Oct FP (56.8 N) 5 Oct UB (51 N) 5 Oct UDP (51 N) 5 Oct Average values 1 Zero N FP (56.8 N) UB (51 N) UDP (51 N) F test * * ns ns * ns ns * CV (%) LSD (0.05)

45 Research Farm, Myaungmya N rate Trial at Myaungmya Exp. Design 5 x 3 RCB Location Research Farm, MM Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer Farm Manager, U Htan Lin Tun Variety Sin Thu Kha Plot size 256 sq ft. Sowing Date 15 Jun UDP date 15 Jul Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 8 Jul Harvest date 27 Nov Harvested hills 225 With UDP Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield Rep ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 Zero N 20 Sep N/ha 22 Sep N/ha 24 Sep N/ha 25 Sep N/ha 26 Sep N/ha 26 Sep Zero N 20 Sep N/ha 22 Sep N/ha 23 Sep N/ha 26 Sep N/ha 25 Sep N/ha 26 Sep Zero N 21 Sep N/ha 22 Sep N/ha 24 Sep N/ha 25 Sep N/ha 26 Sep N/ha 26 Sep Average values 1 Zero N N/ha N/ha N/ha N/ha N/ha F test * * ns ns ** ns ns ns ns ns CV (%) LSD (0.05)

46 Minse, Pantanaw UDP before broadcasting Trial Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Minse Village, Pantanaw Year/season 2015, Wet Season Farmer U Than Shein Variety Tun Thiri T1 UDP date (before) 30 Jun Plot size 2100 sq ft. T2 UDP date (after) 26 Jul 26 Harvest date 10 Sep Sowing Date 30 Jun T3 1st Urea 30 Jun Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date T3 2nd Urea 17 Aug Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/100 ft2 Yield Rep ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Adj. MC No Flowering Maturity (cm) per m2 (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 UDP before 15 Aug UDP after 15 Aug Recomm 12 Aug Zero N 12 Aug UDP before 15 Aug UDP after 15 Aug Recomm 12 Aug Zero N 12 Aug UDP before 15 Aug UDP after 15 Aug Recomm 12 Aug Zero N 12 Aug UDP before UDP after Recomm Zero N F test ** * ** * * ** ** ** ** ** ** CV % LSD(0.05)

47 Research Farm, Letpadan N x K Trial Exp. Design 2 X 2 x 3 Factorial Design Location Letpadan Farm, Letpadan Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer Daw Khin Khin Aye Variety Sin Thu Kha Plot size 256 sq ft. Sowing Date 24 Jun UDP date 28 Jul Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 21 Jul Harvest date 6 Nov Harvested hills 225 With UDP Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield Rep ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 N1 K1 1 Oct N1 K2 1 Oct N2 K1 1 Oct N2 K2 1 Oct N1 K1 1 Oct N1 K2 1 Oct N2 K1 1 Oct N2 K2 1 Oct N1 K1 1 Oct N1 K2 1 Oct N2 K1 1 Oct N2 K2 1 Oct

48 Gway Dauk Kwin, Letpadan Plant Spacing x UDP rate Trial Exp. Design 2 X 2 x 3 Factorial Design Location Gway Dauk Kwin Year/season 2015 Wet Season Farmer U Tin Win Variety Sin Thu Kha Plot size 256 sq ft. Sowing Date 25 Jun UDP date 28 Jul Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 22 Jul Harvest date 5 Nov Harvested hills 225 Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/225 hills Yield Rep ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Calculat MC No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 S1 N1 8 Oct S1 N2 8 Oct S2 N1 8 Oct S2 N2 8 Oct S1 N1 8 Oct S1 N2 8 Oct S2 N1 8 Oct S2 N2 8 Oct S1 N1 8 Oct S1 N2 8 Oct S2 N1 8 Oct S2 N2 8 Oct Average values 1 S1 N S1 N S2 N S2 N

49 Thar Kwin, Einme Fertilizer Management Trial on Rice Gram System Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Thar Kwin, Einme Year/season 2015, Wet Season Farmer U Aung Htay Win Variety Sin Thu Kha T1 40 kg P2O kg K2O UDP Date 25 Jul Plot size 256 sq ft. T2 20 kg P2O kg K2O Harvest date 30 Oct Sowing Date 27 Jun T3 0 kg P2O5 + 0 kg K2O Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 18 Jul T4 0 kg P2O5 + 0 kg K2O Harvested hills 225 Rice Crop Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/100 ft2 Yield Rep ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Adj. MC No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha 1 1 P 40 + K 40 1 Oct P 20 + K 20 1 Oct P 0 + K 0 1 Oct P 0 + K 0 1 Oct P 40 + K 40 1 Oct P 20 + K 20 1 Oct P 0 + K 0 1 Oct P 0 + K 0 1 Oct P 40 + K 40 1 Oct P 20 + K 20 1 Oct P 0 + K 0 1 Oct P 0 + K 0 1 Oct Average values 1 P 40 + K P 20 + K P 0 + K P 0 + K

50 Parami Daunt, Einme Fertilizer Management Trial on Rice Gram System Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Parami Daunt, Einme Year/season 2015, Wet Season Farmer U Thet Naing Soe Variety Sin Thu Kha T1 40 kg P2O kg K2O UDP Date 17 Jul Plot size 256 sq ft. T2 20 kg P2O kg K2O Harvest date 31 Oct Sowing Date 16 Jun T3 0 kg P2O5 + 0 kg K2O Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 10 Jul T4 0 kg P2O5 + 0 kg K2O Harvested hills 225 Rice Crop Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/100 ft2 Yield Rep ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Adj. MC No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha P + 40 K 28 Sep P + 20 K 28 Sep P + 0 K 28 Sep P + 0 K 28 Sep P + 40 K 28 Sep P + 20 K 28 Sep P + 0 K 28 Sep P + 0 K 28 Sep P + 40 K 28 Sep P + 20 K 28 Sep P + 0 K 28 Sep P + 0 K 28 Sep Average values 1 40 P + 40 K P + 20 K P + 0 K P + 0 K

51 Ashae Pine, Kyauktan Fertilizer Management Trial on Rice Gram System Exp. Design 4 x 3 RCB Location Ashae Pine, Kyauktan Year/season 2015, Wet Season Farmer U Aung Myo Variety Pale Thwe T1 40 kg P2O kg K2O UDP Date 6 Aug Plot size 256 sq ft. T2 20 kg P2O kg K2O Harvest date 3 Nov Sowing Date 7 Jul T3 0 kg P2O5 + 0 kg K2O Harvested area 100 sq. ft. Transplant Date 30 Jul T4 0 kg P2O5 + 0 kg K2O Harvested hill 225 Rice Crop Treat Date Days Plant No of Panicle No of No of Spikelet Fresh Biomass Dry Biomass 1000 Yield/100 ft2 Yield Rep ment Treatment of to height panicles Length spikelets grains per Fertility Straw Grain Straw Grain grain Wet Adj. MC No Flowering Maturity (cm) per hill (cm) /panicle panicle % wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) wt. (g) (g) (g) (%) t/ha P + 40 K 4 Oct P + 20 K 4 Oct P + 0 K 4 Oct P + 0 K 4 Oct P + 40 K 4 Oct P + 20 K 4 Oct P + 0 K 4 Oct P + 0 K 4 Oct P + 40 K 4 Oct P + 20 K 4 Oct P + 0 K 4 Oct P + 0 K 4 Oct Average values 1 40 P + 40 K P + 20 K P + 0 K P + 0 K

52 Photos Photo 1. Basal fertilizer application on UDP trial at Wayon Gayet, Maubin, Ayeyarwaddy. 24 July 2015 Photo 2. Transplanting UDP Trial at Too Chaung, Nyaungdon, Ayeyarwaddy, 27 July

53 Photo 3. UDP application on fertilizer management trial on Rice-Gram system at Ashae Pine, Kyauktan, Yangon, 6 August 2015 Photo 4. UDP application just before sowing on UDP before sowing trial at Minse, Pantanaw, Ayeyarwaddy on 30 June

54 Photo 5. Crop-cut harvesting UDP Trial at Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi, Yangon, 14 October 2015 Photo 6. Winnowing crop-cut harvest, UDP trial at Gyoe Phyu, Taikkyi, Yangon, 14 October

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