Zhu D efe f ng Chin i a N ati t o i nal l R ic i e R esearc r h I n I sti t t i u t te t (C ( NRRI)

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1 Mechanization of rice production and challenges in China Zhu Defeng China National Rice Research Institute(CNRRI) 1/62

2 1 Status of rice production 2 Requirement of Mechanization 3 Mechanization of rice prod. 4 Rice planting methods 5 Rice planting by machine 6 Challenges 2/62

3 1 Status of rice production 3/62

4 Rice Area(%) (1) (4) (4) (3) (12) Percentage of provincial rice planting area over Chinese national rice area (2001) 4/62

5 Area, yield and production 5/62

6 Rice cropping system 6/62

7 Hybrid rice 7/62

8 Contribution of hybrid rice to rice production in China 8/62

9 Hybrid Area Distribution(%) (2) (2) (2) (3) (6) Hybrid area distribution in China 9/62

10 Change of plant type of variety Traits of Japonica varieties released in Jiangsu Period Growth duration (day) Plant height (cm) Panicle (no/m 2 ) Total grain (no/panicle ) /62

11 Plant height of Indica varieties released in region of Changjiang river P l a n t h e i g h t ( c m ) t o t o t o E a r l y r i c e S i n g l e r i c e L a t e r i c e 11/62

12 Panicle character of Indica varieties released in region of Changjiang river Season Period Panicle (no/m2) Grain number (no/panicle) Early rice 1986 to (100) 75.9(100) 1991 to (93) 81.0(106) 1996 to (85) 101.3(133) Single rice 1986 to (100) 104.5(100) 1991 to (87) 130.7(125) 1996 to (73) 155.2(148) Late rice 1986 to (100) 87.8(100) 1991 to (98) 96.9(110) 1996 to (83) 120.1(136) 12/62

13 2 Requirement of mechanization 13/62

14 2.1 Labor shortage and higher labor cost Agri labor transfer Higher labor cost Delay management time Effect on profit Strong requirement 14/62

15 2.2 Larger scale rice farm Large-scale rice farm through land shift Low rice profit from small rice farm Rice cooperative farm Rice management contract( social service) 15/62

16 2.3 Lower labor productivity Country Labor time (hrs/ha) Relative percent(%) China Japan Korea USA /62

17 3 Mechanization of rice production 17/62

18 3.1 Mechanization percentage of rice production in country 18/62

19 3.2 Percentage of rice area and machine planting in rice zones 19/62

20 3.3 Mechanization percent of tillage and harvest in rice zones 20/62

21 3.44 Tillage Rotation Harrow and level 21/62

22 3.55 Ditch digging 22/62

23 3.6 Fertilization Basal fertilization Dress fertilization 23/62

24 Transplanter with fertilization Fertilizer 24/62

25 3.7 Pesticide and herbicide spraying Tractor Plane 25/62

26 diversified type of sprayers Personal sprayer Higher pressure spraying 26/62

27 3.8 Harvest 27/62

28 Combine harvester with straw cutting 28/62

29 4 Rice planting methods 29/62

30 4.1 Planting types 1. Hand transplanting 2. Seedling throwing 3. Direct seeding 4. Machine transplanting 5. Ratoon rice 30/62

31 Hand transplanting High cost Low efficiency Delay planting time 31/62

32 Seedling throwing Labor saving Higher efficiency Enough basic seedling per unit 32/62

33 Direct seedling Low labor cost Growth season limite Higher cost of weed control Unstable seedling establishment Lodging Early senescence 33/62

34 Machine transplanting Strong requirement Seedling mat transplanting Introduced from Japan and Korea 34/62

35 Ratoon rice 35/62

36 Hand harvest to protect stubble Hand harvest Machine harvest 36/62

37 4.2 Change of planting methods 37/62

38 Percentage of main rice planting methods 38/62

39 5 Rice planting by machine 39/62

40 5.1 Rice transplanting by machine 40/62

41 Development of machine TR Washed seedling transplanting by machine Developed in 50 s Seedling mat transplanting by machine Developed in 70 s 41/62

42 Types of Machine TR Mat Seedling transplanted by machine developed in Japan Pot seedling putted by machine developed in Japan Pot-mat Seedling transplanted by machine developed in China 42/62

43 Comparison among type of Machine TRs Type Advantage Disadvantage 1 Mate seedling Easy management 2 Pot seedling Less TR shock 3 Pot-mat seedling Uniform Short recover Less TR shock Uniform Short recover Severe damage Uneven Long recover Low efficiency Higher cost Diff. in seedling More time to pulling 43/62

44 sowing Pot-mat seedling transplanting 44/62

45 Short green-returning period Uniform seedling per hill Early tillering 2DAT 45/62

46 Sowing machine Machine sowing system Field sowing by machine 46/62

47 Seedbed Paddy field Upland 47/62

48 Machine transplanting High speed transplanter Hand hold transplanter 48/62

49 Growth stage of rice transplanted by machine Grain filling 20DAT 40DAT 49/62

50 Machine transplanting Main rice planting method in China Other rice planting methods, including hand transplanting, direct seeding (also machine seeder), seedling throwing, used in specific rice area Different kinds of machine transplanting to be developed to adapt to rice systems and conditions Seedling raising method is key point in machine transplanting 50/62

51 5.2 Rice direct seeding by machine 51/62

52 Dry seeding High speed seeder Hand tractor seeder 52/62

53 Wet or water seeding broadcasting 53/62

54 Direct seedling -- drill 54/62

55 No water rice direct seeding High seed rate per unit Low seedling establishment rate, 30% High percentage of hybrid, 60% Small rice filed 55/62

56 Main limitation of direct seeding 5 limiting factors Growth season limitation Unstable seedling establishment Higher cost of weed control Lodging Early senescence 56/62

57 6 Challenges 57/62

58 6.1 Hybrid seed production 58/62

59 6.2 Machine transplanting Large amount of seeds per unit, high cost of seed for hybrid Short seedling age to limit growth duration of CV Few varieties used for to late rice in double rice system Lower seedling quality and short suitable transplanting period, normally 2-4d Requirement of large amount of seedling soil 59/62

60 6.3 Integration of agronomy and mechanization Machine design based on agronomic requirement Machine planting Seedling raising, CV traits, Management Special machine needed Machine for hybrid seed production Ditch digger Seeder in field for MT Combine harvester with straw cutting Ratoon rice 60/62

61 6.4 Research Priority Suitable variety and its traits Cropping system Seedling raising Suitable row distance of MT adaptable to rice seasons, CV type, hybrid seed production Crop management, fertilizer, water, pest control and natural disaster mitigation 61/62

62 Thank you 62/62

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