Project Stories from the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme Environmental Risk Management and Climate Change

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1 Project Stories from the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change

2 Pubisher: CENTRAL EUROPE Programme Joint Technica Secretariat Museumstrasse 3/A/III 1070 Vienna Austria Concept and Editing: CENTRAL EUROPE Programme Editoria Support: Tom Popper Texts and Photos: CENTRAL EUROPE Projects Artwork: Hermann Kienesberger Paper: Biotop (FSC-certified) Printed: May 2013 Athough every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this pubication, the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme cannot be hed responsibe for any information from externa sources, technica inaccuracies, typographica errors or other errors herein. Information and inks may have changed without notice. This pubication is financed by the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme under the European Regiona Deveopment Fund (ERDF)

3 Contents Editoria CENTRAL EUROPE Cooperating across borders for the regions 6 Cooperating on environment in CENTRAL EUROPE 10 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change 12 ACT CLEAN Making centra Europe cean and competitive 14 CEframe Cooperating to improve food protection 16 CircUse Reusing and to preserve the environment 18 COBRAMAN Nurturing professiona brownfied managers 20 EULAKES Protecting akes as the cimate changes 22 FOKS Tacking groundwater poution at its source 24 HABIT-CHANGE Saving protected habitats from cimate change 26 INARMA Predicting fash foods to reduce their risk 28 INCA-CE Reducing the risks of extreme weather 30 LABEL Joining forces to fight foods 32 ReSource Unearthing new god in former mining regions 34 REURIS Protecting the rivers that define our cities 36 SALVERE Sowing the seeds of biodiversity 38 TransEcoNet Buiding networks of protected andscapes 40 TransWaste From informa waste trade to forma re-use 42 URBAN SMS Improving cities from the ground up 44 UrbSpace Making great urban pubic spaces for everyone 46 VITAL LANDSCAPES Maintaining the vitaity of our andscapes 48 Project Stories to Foow Soon 50 Centra Europe boasts an impressive diversity of natura resources, incuding the Danube River, the Aps, the Carpathian Mountains and the Batic and Adriatic seas. This unique natura heritage is one of the area s biggest assets when it comes to achieving sustainabe deveopment. However, in recent years, centra Europe has been exposed to severe fooding of its rivers and intensive, often unsustainabe and use. Both natura risks and man-made impacts constitute a considerabe threat to the area. In response, CENTRAL EUROPE projects hep regions to manage and reduce the risks and impacts of environmenta hazards and to adapt to cimate change. CEframe (p.16) for exampe strengthens transnationa food protection management in river catchments. Projects ike HABIT-CHANGE (p.26) and EULAKES (p.22) prepare adaptation strategies to cimate change. Human activities ike industriaisation, intensive agricuture, increased vehicuar traffic and tourism threaten to fundamentay transform centra Europe s current ecosystems by reducing the number of surviving species and dramaticay changing where those species ive and how they interact. Therefore protecting biodiversity and ecosystems, and revitaising natura andscapes are an important topic in centra Europe. In response, CENTRAL EUROPE projects ike TransEcoNet (p.40) deveop and protect biodiversity in ecoogica networks or visuaise andscape deveopment scenarios in 3D as does Vita Landscapes (p.48). REURIS (p.36) introduces strategies for urban river revitaisation, whie URBAN SMS (p.44) and simiar projects evauate soi quaity and improve soi management. Other projects ike TransWaste (p.42) promote waste coection and reuse across borders. This booket introduces you to the CENTRAL EUROPE story so far, showcasing in particuar those 18 environment projects that were co-financed foowing the first two cas for proposas in 2008 and We hope that it wi serve as a vauabe starting point for discussing achievements of our projects and that it wi inspire you on what can be done further and what directions shoud be taken in view of the next programming period Christiane Breznik City of Vienna, CENTRAL EUROPE Managing Authority 4 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 5

4 CENTRAL EUROPE Cooperating across borders for the regions The cities and rura regions of centra Europe share a common history as we as simiar socia and cutura characteristics. The area covers more than one miion square kiometres, stretching from the Batic Sea in the north to the Mediterranean Sea in the south, with ess ceary defined borders to the west and east. It is home to 150 miion peope benefitting from transnationa cooperation through the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme. Despite their common characteristics, the regions of centra Europe are marked by diverse features: Major differences are apparent in terms of cimate conditions, and use, settement and economic structures, accessibiity, and ecoogica chaenges. There are aso big differences in centra Europe s poitica and administrative structures, which are among the most heterogeneous in the European Union. The chaenge is to use centra Europe s diversity as an opportunity to promote more sustainabe deveopment of the area by fostering increased cooperation among a wide range of actors from various countries and regions. The CENTRAL EUROPE Programme The CENTRAL EUROPE Programme generates ampe opportunities for coser cooperation among pubic authorities, institutions and private businesses from nine centra European countries: Austria, Czech Repubic, Germany, Hungary, Itay, Poand, Sovakia, Sovenia and Ukraine. By co-financing more than 120 projects, the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme heps to improve oca and regiona innovation, to increase accessibiity, to preserve the environment and to enhance the competitiveness and attractiveness of regions within centra Europe. Since 2007, which marked the start of the current programming period, the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme has invested more than E 230 miion for transnationa projects on: Technoogy transfer and business innovation Sustainabe pubic transport and ogistics Environmenta risk management and cimate change Energy efficiency and renewabe energies Demographic change and knowedge deveopment Cutura heritage and creative resources Programme: CENTRAL EUROPE ERDF funding: 231 miion Duration: Website: 6 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 7

5 Euros of investment being prepared by CENTRAL EUROPE projects We need to buid on the rich and vauabe experience gathered through transnationa cooperation. There is much evidence that a series of chaenges cannot be tacked soey at the eve of a singe Member State, or even at regiona eve, but ony in a cross-border context. Photo: Dreamstime Johannes Hahn, European Commissioner for Regiona Poicy 22 Euro cents spent per citizen per year on financing CENTRAL EUROPE projects Partners invoved in CENTRAL EUROPE projects Cooperating for citizens CENTRAL EUROPE projects a invove joint efforts by stakehoders from different countries. This approach is designed to improve peope s day-to-day ives by addressing probems that do not necessariy recognise nationa borders. Issues are tacked at the territoria eve where they occur, which is the regions in centra Europe. Transnationa cooperation aows partners to take advantage of the added vaue of doing things together, so they can prevent dupication and speed up deveopments with a higher impact. More concretey, CENTRAL EUROPE projects: carry out piot investments and actions everage additiona money and investment come up with new economic strategies and invove oca communities increase efficiency on various eves improve spending of pubic money support the adaptation of EU directives to regiona contexts strengthen regiona networks and invove oca communities infuence the poicy agenda on a poitica eves Contributing to Europe 2020 Transnationa cooperation within the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme is firmy embedded in the newy aunched strategic poicy frameworks on the European, nationa and regiona eves. Many of CENTRAL EUROPE s projects are aready contributing to the Europe 2020 Strategy and its mutuay reinforcing goas of smart, incusive and sustainabe growth in Europe. This approach to deveopment is expected to hep the EU and Member States deiver high eves of empoyment, productivity and socia cohesion. Concrete actions of the 2020 Strategy are designed to reach ambitious targets in five areas: empoyment, innovation, education, socia incusion and cimate and energy. The CENTRAL EUROPE Programme, and the transnationa cooperation it inspires between actors on the ground, pays an important roe in meeting these targets on the regiona eve even though the Programme ony uses 0.07 percent of the tota budget avaiabe for EU Cohesion Poicy. CENTRAL EUROPE In the upcoming programming period the CENTRAL EUROPE Programme wi continue to support regiona cooperation among centra European countries. The exact geography, themes, budgets and many other variabes of the new programme are currenty under discussion and consuted upon with stakehoders. It is expected that the new Operationa Programme wi be approved by the European Commission in the first haf of 2014, with a first ca for project proposas to be opened ater the same year. Photo: Saxon State Ministry of the Interior Photo: Monika KyticovaKrinke 8 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 9

6 COOPERATING ON ENVIRONMENT IN CENTRAL EUROPE CENTRAL EUROPE AT A GLANCE COUNTRIES, REGIONS/CITIES, AND INHABITANTS COVERED PROJECTS miion citizens cities & regions 9 countries ENVIRONMENT PROJECTS CO-FINANCED out of themes environment projects partners in environment out of 124 projects out of 1331 in tota partners in tota DURATION OF PROGRAMME PUBLIC MONEY WELL INVESTED BUDGET INVESTED CONTRIBUTING TO EUROPE 2020 Future investment prepared by projects 0.17 miion euros 3.15 miion euros Tota investment carried out by projects of the tota programme 55 = 23 % budget of 231 miion euros miion euros With roughy 0.05 spent per citizen per year, the programme achieves: Permanent cooperation networks estabished 9 1 Loca piot activities carried out by projects 114 Jobs created 80 2 European patform against poverty 2 Digita agenda 6 Innovation Union 1 Youth on the move Number of project contributions to EU 2020 fagship initiatives 2 Resource efficient Europe 26 Industria poicy for gobaisation Incusive growth CENTRAL EUROPE contributes to the European Union 2020 Strategy and reaching its goas of smart, incusive and sustainabe growth. Concrete targets for empoyment, innovation, education, socia incusion as we as cimate change and energy were set on the European eve and CENTRAL EUROPE project resuts hep to meet them on the oca and regiona eves. Number of project contributions to EU 2020 priorities 2 Smart growth 9 Sustainabe growth 28 Design: studioq.at 10 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 11 Data: March 2013

7 Environmenta risk management and cimate change Cooperating to prevent environmenta hazards and reduce the negative effects of cimate change Cooperating to protect and preserve nature and andscapes Project Stories 12 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 13

8 Making centra Europe cean and competitive Companies in centra Europe can greaty reduce any negative environmenta impacts created by industry and business if they know how to take advantage of the atest technoogy. To hep ensure that oca businesses have the knowedge they need to be more environmentay friendy, the ACT CLEAN project created the first area-wide network for ceaner production. The ACT CLEAN network works through the cooperation of ACT CLEAN nationa contact points (NCPs), which have deveoped stabe cooperation structures and permanent services for supporting sma- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in using and appying ceaner production technoogies and management systems. Stony path towards EU compiance Ceaner production is not just a good way to become more efficient whie reducing poution, it is aso a ega obiga- tion: EU directives and reguations require enterprises to compy with environmenta standards and ensure ecoefficient production processes. Many SMEs ack access to ceaner production technoogy that has been deveoped and put to use in other regions. At the same time, those SMEs that can provide customers with ceaner production technoogy often ack access to the reevant market payers. ACT CLEAN addresses these probems by offering SMEs a range of products and services to make their production processes more eco-efficient and to ensure that they compy with reevant EU egisation. Photo: istock Through the ACT CLEAN network, our companies were introduced to highy innovative issues and are currenty foowing up on them. The concept of eco-design proved to be especiay interesting and resuted in concrete initiatives, such as reguar organisation of trainings. Carotta Ranieri, CNA Boogna, Nationa Confederation for the Craft Sector and Sma and Medium Enterprises, Coordinator Poicy, Energy, Environment, Itay For exampe, as part of this project, Corvinus University in Hungary adapted one of the toos provided by the Sovak Ceaner Production Center: a database on EU reguations caed Compex. This concept was converted into a simper database caed Greenex, which is an interactive too that aows SMEs to easiy check which EU and Hungarian reguations are reevant for them and to check that they are in compiance with those reguations. No need to reinvent the whee Aong with coecting such toos in the ACT CLEAN too box, the project has aso identified and pubicised good-practice exampes. Much can be earned from a transnationa exchange of these good practices, which are caed Ceaner Production Highights. In one exampe, a German company deveoped an adsorption chier soar cooing technoogy that uses much ess eectricity compared to standard room air conditioning techniques. Water is used to repace the usua refrigerant, hydrofuorocarbon, which has a high goba-warming potentia. In the winter time, the device can be operated as a heat pump, to support heating. The resut is not ony a safer environment but aso energy efficiency, which produces immediate savings for SMEs. ACT CLEAN has coected and assessed exampes ike this one and buit up a shared poo of innovative soutions for SMEs. Around 500 exampes have been seected for the project database, and they are aso promoted via brochures and other dissemination means. Matchmaking events provide direct support The ACT CLEAN network has estabished a continuing programme of industry workshops and business-to-business training on ceaner production. In the ast three years, the main subjects covered by this training work have incuded resource efficiency, waste management and environmenta management systems, but the network can aso meet specific requests of SMEs by addressing any important topics pertaining to ceaner production. Encouraging ceaner production on a regiona scae The project aso deveoped the ACT CLEAN transnationa agenda, which is currenty being promoted as a way to support poicy for fostering, deveoping and depoying ceaner production. The agenda s action pan focuses on three areas: faciitating networking activities; improving awareness of ceaner production soutions; improving the financia framework. Each of the action pan s recommendations is addressed to the specific institution responsibe for acting on the suggestion. The way forward The cooperation mechanism of the ACT CLEAN network is now we estabished and sufficienty robust to endure beyond the initia project. The project website wi continue to operate as an interface between various centra European countries and enterprises. Recommendations in the action pan shoud be taken up, to further shape and improve the framework for ceaner production in centra Europe. In addition, continued awareness raising is needed to educate SMEs about ceaner production and to promote and market the toos and instruments that have aready been deveoped Year in which the term ceaner production was coined by the United Nations Environment Programmes Project: ACT CLEAN ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 14 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 15

9 Photo: Saxon State Ministry of the Interior ers. Existing protection systems and retention areas were recorded and their functions were assessed. Another part of this initia research was to outine those areas that are at risk of fooding. The next phase invoves jointy eaborating management pans for future protection measures against foods. For exampe, the panners from a the countries worked to coordinate the design and operation of protective equipment and management of retention areas. This joint approach is meant to ensure that no uniatera actions ead to a worsening situation for a neighbouring region. Invoving key actors for better impact 600 Kiometres of joint transnationa riverside in the project area 680 Miions of euros in damage caused by fooding in Lower Austria in 2002 Cooperating to improve food protection To ensure that the project can have a maximum impact and resut in effective action, CEframe invoved the water commissions of participating countries from the start. These officias have agreed to one of the major outputs of the project, the CEframe Memorandum of Food Protection, which defines the necessary measures for future coordination and better foodwater management in a the countries invoved. This advanced cooperation requires a high eve of transnationa communication among a the partner countries. To hep make this possibe, the project produced a common terminoogy, as we as a thesaurus in five anguages. Another important muti-ingua product of the project is an emergency handbook, which outines practica steps that need to be taken in case of fooding. 200 Common terms defined in the CEframe thesaurus on food management In recent years, record rains and once-in-100-year fooding have wreaked havoc on peope and economies of centra Europe. As individua countries take foodmanagement precautions, they run the risk of pushing the probem to their neighbours downstream. That is why four centra European countries are cooperating to address the needs of their interconnected rivers and food pains. Photo: District Fire Brigade Gänserndorf, Austria The past years have seen especiay severe fooding in centra Europe, and the reaction has incuded more vigorous efforts aimed at food contro. But recent experience has shown that, even when it comes to rivers that are not shared, food contro projects have an impact on a arger, transnationa area. It is now cear that effective food contro can ony be achieved through joint transnationa cooperation. We-coordinated master pans for cross-border river basins are thus essentia. CEframe represents the first time that pubic authorities responsibe for food protection measures in Austria, the Czech Repubic, Hungary and Sovakia have worked together on a joint, mutiatera project to deveop future food management systems. The project specificay addresses food contro needs for the Danube, Morava, Thaya and Leitha rivers, a of which have basins in more than one country. A new ook at food risks The first phase of the project invoved determining the current situation of food protection at the reevant riv- The CEframe project provides a vauabe contribution that wi eave its mark on further intergovernmenta cooperation on boundary waters. Konrad Stania, Transboundary Water Commission Czech Repubic-Austria Project: CEframe ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 16 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 17

10 Photo: Vera Firmova in Poand, Austria, Itay, Sovakia, the Czech Repubic and Germany. Each participating region is undertaking a piot project to deveop an action pan for impementing circuar fow and-use management, so they can consoidate city centres, redeveop brownfieds, deveop vacant buiding ots and preserve open spaces in their area. This process aows diverse regions to set a deveopment course that wi meet their unique needs. In each region, the process invoves different groups of peope, and creative soutions are required to ensure maximum participation of pubic and private stakehoders. Invoving everyone Estimated number of square kiometres covered by artificia surfaces in Europe 6 CircUse piot projects to impement sustainabe and management Reusing and to preserve the environment Centra Europe is suffering negative impacts from rapid urban spraw. Whie virgin and is gobbed up for deveopment, od buiding sites are abandoned and eft to deteriorate. A new approach promoted by CircUse invoves reuse of previousy deveoped and and preservation of nature. Such forward-thinking panning benefits the environment and reduces the costs of expanding infrastructure networks. In its effort to invove everyone in ensuring better and use, the CircUse project has a variety of outputs that benefit different stakehoders. For instance, the project deveoped a piot course for experts, so professions can earn about this innovative approach to sustainabe and management. Decision makers have the opportunity to take advantage of a data management too that heps them to reaise the deveopment potentia of and that was previousy buit upon. Action pans produced by the project aow the partner regions to pot a course for their future and-use process. A position paper gives insight into the new poicy directions needed to support circuar fow and-use management. The project even deveoped materias for secondary schoo students, so they can earn about the concept of sustainabe and use. A fina output of the project wi be the CircUse Compendium, a handbook detaiing the resuts of the initiative in a format experts can use. Setting a precedent The resuts of CircUse provide key essons for other regions hoping to appy this new approach. The project sets a precedent for impementing sustainabe and use structures and encourages cooperation in the years to come. Citizens and officias wi benefit from efforts that revitaise urban structures and physica properties to bring new amenities and services to centra European municipaities and regions. Photo: CircUse project 6 Action pans deveoped by CircUse to redefine stakehoder cooperation Preserving vita natura spaces requires a ong-term approach to panning that anticipates changes in such factors as demographics and cimate. Circuar Fow Land Use Management (CircUse) seeks to anticipate and imit the environmenta impact of deveopment through panning that reuses previousy deveoped and. The CircUse phiosophy of avoid, reuse, compensate reies on three reated directions for action: Tighter zoning reguations must be estabished to reduce greenfied deveopment, which is deveopment on previousy unused and. Land that is not suitabe for reuse must be rejected for deveopment. The potentia of existing deveoped and must be activated by encouraging the use of brownfieds (and that has aready been used and is now abandoned or underused), deveopment in gaps between existing buidings, and ast but not east by urban renewa. Regiona cooperation The CircUse approach ooks at deveopment within regions Our participation in the project aows the oca residents to discuss issues common to a of Europe: the restoration of brownfied sites and the revitaisation of dereict ands. Davide Arri, Vice Mayor of the Municipaity of Asti, Itay Project: CircUse ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 18 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 19

11 Photo: Dreamstime As urban panners, we acquired knowedge from the COBRAMAN project about brownfied regeneration and now we are impementing it in our daiy work. Lijana Jankovi ć Grobešek, Architect and Urban Panner, Acer d.o.o., Novo mesto, Sovenia 30 Brownfied managers trained and awarded with certificates 150 Years of industria use of the area near the Brda River in Bydgoszcz (Poand) before it was remediated for eisure activities Nurturing professiona brownfied managers 3 Educationa schemes defined for brownfied regeneration Regeneration of brownfied sites i.e. underused former industria or commercia property is often a ong-term and compex process invoving a wide range of professiona discipines. Europe needs brownfied regeneration managers with the co-ordination and communication skis required to deiver the best pans and steer the revitaisation process. The COBRAMAN project heps by deveoping the profession of brownfied regeneration manager, and by training these managers. Estabishing quaified brownfied regeneration managers within European cities wi enabe effective and successfu renewa and conversion processes. Training for practitioners was conducted through a series of courses, a buit around the practica requirements of oca piot projects that were aready underway. The partners shared best practices, defined methods that have proven effective, appied these methods in practica cases, and now offer this information for others seeking training. Photo: City of Bydgoszcz Setting educationa standards A over Europe, revitaisation of brownfied sites pays an important roe in combating urban spraw and improving the quaity of the urban environment thereby faciitating sustainabe deveopment. Brownfied and often endangers pubic heath and creates environmenta risks. Moreover, if eft undeveoped, brownfied sites can create socia and spatia segregation, threatening the competitiveness of European cities. Rehabiitation of brownfied sites wi be of growing importance in centra Europe, and the work wi require arge investments. Aongside any EU subsidies for brownfied regeneration, it is important to provide the nec- essary knowedge to undertake such investments through a transfer of know-how from western to eastern countries, as we as a transfer from research to practice. Professiona management key to success One of the most important essons earnt from previous European activities in brownfied regeneration is that professiona management is a key factor for success of the process. This is why the COBRAMAN project sought to introduce the profession of brownfied regeneration manager. Specific professiona or educationa standards do not yet exist for brownfied regeneration managers. But courses are evoving, from facuties teaching panning and environmenta/civi engineering, as we as from those offering training in rea estate. The creation of training and educationa schemes benefits from transnationa cooperation between experienced academics as we as practitioners from the partner cities and their service providers. A master course, postgraduate courses and further e-earning courses have been set up to support students, as we as staff who are aready working in the fied. Project: COBRAMAN ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 20 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 21

12 Photo: Comunità de Garda Thanks to the EULAKES project, cimate change chaenges are now one of the most important issues for the community iving aong the akes, and oca communities are now considering very seriousy the actions they have to take. management bodies in addressing the needs of European akes. The project aso offers European comparisons, so that the scientific resuts and best practices that are identified by EULAKES wi have internationa vaue. 4 Large European akes invoved in the project Protecting akes as the cimate changes Giorgio Passionei, Mayor of Torri de Benaco, Lake Garda, Itay systems that exist and deveopment of new monitoring systems. It was aso necessary to improve knowedge about the environmenta weaknesses of the akes and about risks connected to these weaknesses and to conduct different surveys to study the specific impacts of cimate change effects on the akes. The project focused on enhancing the roe of oca governance of the akes, so that oca communities woud become invoved in the transnationa approach. The surveys invove four different piot actions, one at each ake: 3 Innovative techniques for monitoring the heath conditions of the akes water ecosystems 2100 The ast year covered by the cimate change predictions Scientists are aware that the constanty worsening pressures of cimate change and other side effects of human activity are threatening Europe s akes. Decision makers responsibe for managing akes shoud aso be aware of these threats, so they can seek possibe soutions. Through EULAKES, scientists and authorities cooperate on efforts to prepare for the impacts of cimate change on akes. Baaton: A study ooks at the presence of invasive species, ike sinanodont woodiana and carassius gibbeo, focusing on their ecoogica impacts. These and other aien species are expected to be dominant in the future, putting the ake s ecosystem s at risk and endangering native fish species. Charzykowskie: The presence of pesticides and heavy metas were evauated. Core sampes show a content of nitrogen, phosphorus, pesticides and heavy metas that coud speed eutrophication of the ake. Photo: Comunità de Garda To ensure that the peope managing Europe s akes are we informed and prepared to face future chaenges, the EULAKES project incorporates scientists in its effort to deveop the best strategies for mitigation of, and adaptation to, cimate change. This unique coaboration is meant to produce a joint transnationa strategy for basin-wide ake management that addresses environmenta, economic and socio-cutura concerns. Ideay, the strategy woud be encoded in an internationa agreement signed by each partner s area representative, to estabish the guideines for a joint initiative and panning process. Aong with cimate change, European ake managers face severa common probems, incuding poution, the need for sustainabe management of shoreines and other areas and panning for diverse activities. This project addresses such concerns at four different akes: Baaton in Hungary, Charzykowskie in Poand, Garda in Itay and Neusied in Austria. Research and activities at the akes The research undertaken at these akes requires an evauation of their heath, incuding a study of the monitoring Garda: A study ooks at the risks associated with the presence of cyanotoxins in the water. These substances can be dangerous to animas and humans. One significant finding is the discovery of microcysts in the musces of the fish Coregonus avaretus. Neusied: A study investigates grazing management and agricutura practices to contro nutrients in ake waters. A new and-use pan is proposed to review utiisation of surrounding ands and create a buffer zone between the shore and agricutura areas. This project is unusua in that it takes advantage of the synergy among researchers, oca authorities and territoria Project: EULAKES ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 22 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 23

13 Photo: eev - Fotoia.com Risk management and remediation Once the key sources of poution were identified, experts working with FOKS designed targeted remedia actions that invoved assessing and testing innovative technoogy. The remedia actions are embedded in oca water authorities groundwater risk management concepts, which are based on the principes of the newy estabished European Groundwater Directive. Experience gained through undertaking remedia actions provides good practice exampes for those beginning the process of coordinating nationa impementation of the EU Groundwater Directive. Securing maximum benefit of the resuts 645 Hectares of and investigated as project piot sites Litres of groundwater pumped during investigation campaigns in Jaworzno, Stuttgart, Mian and Treviso Tacking groundwater poution at its source Authorities are now in the process of appying for approva and funding from operationa programmes and nationa funds for their site-specific remediation pans, which were deveoped through the knowedge gained from FOKS. Overa, the resuts of the FOKS project were hepfu to a range of stakehoders: Water authorities benefit from an introduction to innovative remedies and assistance in deveoping groundwater risk management concepts that support decision making; Groundwater experts benefit from the technica guidance documents that are generated; Pouters benefit from remediation activities; Citizens benefit from improved groundwater resources Groundwater experts participating in pubic events of the project As in many centra European cities, industria poution has a severe negative impact on groundwater bodies in Jaworzno (Poand), Novy Bydzow (Czech Repubic), Stuttgart (Germany), and Mian and Treviso (Itay). FOKS estabished groundwater risk management and remediation pans for these cities, and provided authorities with a too box and ist of good practices to hep them appy new soutions. Information gathered from the project was shared through training seminars and pubic conferences. Among others, 110 Itaian experts participated in a seminar on remediation actions in Treviso, Itay, and a conference on Innovative Soutions for Revitaisation of Degraded Areas in Ustro,ń Poand, invoved more than 100 scientists and practitioners from around Europe in a specia session on the FOKS project. Because many sources often contribute to arge poution pumes that foow the fow of groundwater, water authorities addressing probems caused by past and current industria activity face a chaenge in impementing the pouter pays principe for cean-up activities. If those authorities can identify key sources which are the few sites reeasing most of the contaminant oad in these od industria areas it is possibe to simpify carification of iabiities and decision making processes and to enabe we-targeted, cost-effective remedia actions. Nove fied measurement and interpretation technoogies aowed for aerea characterisation of groundwater quaity. Contaminant oads were assessed in different paces, making it possibe to pinpoint hot spots of contamination in the areas under study. Hydrogeoogists and chemists were abe to prove that extended poution pumes were originating from these hot spots. The appication of new technoogy in different hydrogeoogica settings with differing contamination patterns provided vauabe input for the FOKS toobox. The resuts of these poution measurements offer guidance for technica experts who wish to appy such nove technoogies in the future. The FOKS project pointed out the high risk for groundwater poution and provided appropriate financia and technica soutions to dea with the contamination probem. Jerzy Buzek, Member of the European Pariament, Poand Project: FOKS ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 24 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 25

14 Photo: Magda Jakab I find HABIT-CHANGE an attractive project for the Danube Deta, as it intends to raise pubic awareness among the inhabitants here. I can see around me that peope have started to understand what effects cimate change has on their daiy ives. Adnana Mihaea Patrascoiu, Director Scoaa cu casee I-VIII Sfintu Gheorghe/Tucea, Romania 18 Percentage of and in the EU within protected Natura 2000 areas 89 Habitat types of European importance (Natura 2000) occurring within the investigation areas and anaysed within the HABIT-CHANGE project Saving protected habitats from cimate change Cimate change has severe negative impacts on vauabe natura conservation sites where we can see wetands drying out, sea eves rising and invasive species taking over and these impacts are expected to worsen. HABIT-CHANGE improves conservation management by gauging current and projected effects of cimate change in hotspots of biodiversity and seeking strategies to adapt to this threat. The HABIT-CHANGE project heps us gain a cearer understanding of the effects cimate change is ikey to have on the most sensitive habitats within nationa parks and biosphere reserves, whie aso creating strategies for addressing those impacts. The project brings together conservation managers, conservation agencies and research institutions from a over centra Europe. This unique partnership of scientists and practitioners works together to anayse the oca effects of cimate change and the responses of natura habitats and ecosystems. Under HABIT-CHANGE a network of meteoroogica stations was instaed in protected areas around centra Europe. The project aso appies up-to-date technoogies for sateite observation and monitoring in the fied. This provides the scientific background and reiabe data to detect changes in nature and current chaenges for the conservation of biodiversity. Modes project future change Aong with identifying current trends in cimate change and and use, the project aso anaysed the potentia impacts of future cimate change. Modes to project regiona changes in cimate and the oca impacts are used to forecast potentia effects on specific habitats up to the year 2050, and beyond. The project s researchers conducted intensive discussions with oca experts to vaidate the assessments of their modes and make sure that these assessments accuratey consider oca characteristics. The resuting projections are presented in maps showing habitat sensitivity and potentia future changes. The project aso provides guidance to identify adequate oca adaptation strategies, in order to ensure that resuts from cimate impact assessments wi be refected in future management decisions. Sharing the knowedge The need to anticipate and adapt for the impacts of cimate change is not ony vita for conservation managers. The issue wi affect a wide array of stakehoders and and users, ike farmers, foresters, fishers and those invoved in tourism enterprises. That s why HABIT-CHANGE emphasises effective awareness-raising and stakehoder invovement. Current and future probems are discussed with the oca pubic through workshops, fied trips and face-to-face contact. Park rangers and administrative staff are trained to communicate cimate change issues and expain adequate adaptation strategies, whie exhibitions and presentations at oca fairs are used to inform park visitors and the wider pubic about the issue. The essons earned from the cooperation between oca administrators and scientists within HABIT-CHANGE have been documented in the form of recommendations and guideines so that they can be used by other conservation managers seeking to prepare strategies for the environmenta consequences of cimate change. These managers can aso take advantage of HABIT-CHANGE s web-based decision-support too, which is aso informed by knowedge geaned from executing the project. Photo: Marco Neubert 2050 How far ahead the project s forecasts run Project: HABIT-CHANGE ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 26 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 27

15 Predicting fash foods to reduce their risk Because most food prevention projects in centra Europe focus on arge rivers, we sti know too itte about averting caamities in smaer basins. This gap in knowedge needs to be cosed, especiay now that cimate change is creating more extreme weather swings that make severe environmenta threats more common. INARMA addresses this chaenge through a transnationa effort. Photo: istockphoto.com / Davor Lovincic sations of the areas prone to inundation, so that these areas can be represented in a software environment. A new too for food projection Based on the digita modes they had put together, partners created the INARMA GIS, a safety-driven, easy-to-use and reiabe food forecasting and visuaisation too buit with a geographic information system (GIS). This too is made avaiabe to oca mayors, rescue and reief units, civi defence professionas and vounteers and anyone ese who may be invoved in food risk management. The added vaue is that the INARMA GIS is specificay taiored for events generated on a sma time-and-space scae, so it can hone in on the risk of fash foods. The INARMA GIS not ony aows the creation of food risk maps, it aso provides instructions on how to use the information contained in the maps. The maps show the potentia dangers associated with a food impacting on a given area, whie making it possibe to visuaise the food trend in specific points around the area. INARMA GIS tested successfuy The project s GIS too has aready been tested under reaistic conditions in two civi defence emergency simuations in Poand, aong a tributary to the river Vistua, and in the Province of Aessandria, Itay. The resuts of these exercises were presented for the benefit of stakehoders in other regions who want to know more about using the INARMA GIS. Using a the resuts of work by INARMA projects, oca communities, governments and and protection institutions have powerfu new weapons to add to their arsena in the fight to contro unexpected foods. Photo: Saxon State Ministry of the Interior Kiometres of dikes aong the rivers of Hungary 22 Decentraised operationa units created for emergency management in the Province of Aessandria 2 Emergency simuations organised to test the INARMA GIS software Strategies for minimising the impact of fooding on major foodpains have improved, but many smaer basins are not governed by any kind of specific food-prevention provisions. This means arge swathes of the popuation are eft unprotected against fash foods, those sudden inundations that are occurring more frequenty in centra Europe, sometimes bringing tragic consequences. In a modern, efficient and environmentay conscious food management strategy, this ack of preparation needs to be remedied. The soutions offered by the INARMA project incude technoogy for mapping the impacts of future foods. Gathering data on smaer river basins INARMA brings together representatives from Austria, Germany, Hungary, Itay and Poand. In each of these countries, project participants focused on a region with a smaer river basin generay a tributary to a arger river for which there are either no food prevention measures or insufficient measures. Partners coected a great dea of information on these basins: past foods, vunerabe areas, water management reguations in force, etc. Using this data, digita forecasting modes were deveoped to create graphic characteri- Our town has been under threat of foods for too ong. I am confident that the innovative toos and practices deivered by the INARMA project wi provide a safer environment for my feow citizens. Maria Rita Rossa, Mayor of Aessandria, Itay Project: INARMA ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 28 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 29

16 Photo: NLK Reinberger With the INCA-CE project we are abe to use state-of-the-art weather forecasts and thus improve our winter road maintenance and road safety on Sovenian motorways. Marko Korošec, Supervisor of the Road Weather Information System (RWIS) of Sovenia s main motorway company, DARS, Sovenia 10 Minutes is penty of time for extreme weather to cause significant damage 8 Detaied piot actions of INCA-CE aow extensive feedback Reducing the risks of extreme weather Every year, extreme weather events in centra Europe pose chaenges for civi protection authorities, hydroogists and road maintenance services a of whom need more timey warnings of potentia probems. By deepening transnationa cooperation between meteoroogists and concerned pubic agencies, INCA-CE improves our preparedness for severe weather emergencies. Improved warning chains The INCA weather mode is now running in a countries participating in the project, and it has improved the abiity to prepare for extreme weather. In order to ensure that the mode is continuousy refined to better meet the needs of the three appication areas civi protection, hydroogy and road safety it incudes a feedback oop between deveopers and end-users. The input from diverse users makes it possibe to refine the mode more extensivey than any singe institution coud. The system s abiity to assist in crisis management and risk prevention is aso faciitated by the transnationa cooperation invoved in the project. Because information fows internationay, the mode is we-suited to serving border regions and can improve timey actions by a range of authorities, in different countries and different fieds, to prepare for a dangerous weather event. These benefits have been shown through mutipe piot studies. Photo: istockphoto.com / Michae Krinke Visitors accessed the web porta s high resoution meteoroogy data in summer and autumn of 2012 INCA-CE is internationay renowned The INCA-CE project makes important connections between weather science and governance by joining meteoroogica forecasts and warnings with practica appications designed to manage civi protection, hydroogy and road safety in various ocations in centra Europe. The Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Anaysis (INCA) weather mode processes measurement data to show current conditions and to create projections of upcoming weather patterns. The project web site aows the genera pubic to see a basic exampe of the kind of visuaisation the mode can provide. Because it has a range of users from different fieds, the project s work encourages meteoroogica products that are more user-friendy. And because it invoves severa countries, the project is aso heping to deveop a standardised information exchange across borders for better internationa cooperation in weather emergencies. INCA-CE is currenty the ony project in the word that provides for this kind of extensive cross-discipine and cross-border cooperation on extreme weather-reated issues. Thanks to its unique nature, the project has aready earned internationa recognition and drawn interest from countries around the word. The vauabe potentia of INCA-CE was recognised by the Word Meteoroogica Organization (WMO), which chose the project as a Word Weather Research Programme/Forecast Demonstration Project. With the support of WMO, the INCA mode is to be adopted in various countries around the word, aowing for an exchange of know-how, expertise and experiences. New cooperation with deveoping countries is expected to hep ensure ow-cost oca research and deveopment. In tota, the mode is aready being used and investigated by 24 partners coming from Austria, the Czech Repubic, Germany, Hungary, Itay, Poand, Sovakia and Sovenia, and aso by partners coming from Begium, China, Croatia, Israe, Switzerand and Turkey. Project: INCA-CE ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 30 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 31

17 Joining forces to fight foods Photo: Saxon State Ministry of the Interior The food we saw in Göritz in 2010 caused enormous damage. In handing the situation, one of our main resources came from the LABEL project, which had produced maps and interactive software that heped us to inform our citizens about the situation faster and more efficienty. Uwe Restetzki, Head of Göritz Fire Brigade, Saxony, Germany 7 Stops of the LABEL moving exhibition in Years of transnationa cooperation on food risk management aong the Ebe River 12 Days it takes on average for water to run down the Ebe River from source to estuary Length of the Ebe River in km Centra Europe received a terribe wake-up ca in August 2002, when record foods that swept through eight countries took dozens of ives and caused biions of euros in damage. A decade ater, the area s authorities are better prepared for a simiar catastrophe thanks to internationa cooperation driven by the principe that fooding knows no borders. LABEL aows that cooperation to continue. To prevent foods around the Ebe River, severa countries and regions agreed to joint panning actions under the EUfunded ELLA project ( ). The spatia panning bodies and water authorities in these countries aso deveoped maps of food hazard spots and a basic action pan for this major centra European river. The initiative continues under LABEL, a project that brings together key partners from Germany, the Czech Repubic, Austria and Hungary. The 20 partners in the LABEL project are working to deveop the first joint strategy to address food prevention and adaptation to food risks throughout the entire Ebe River Basin. The approach of this transnationa project incudes oca risk assessments, joint maps, a risk management system and measures for raising awareness to food risks. The project aso presented a joint pan for catchment-wide impementation of the EU Food Risk Management Directive. This pan wi be considered by the Internationa Commission for the Protection of the Ebe (ICPE), which wi feed the project s work and resuts into impementation of its own foodprotection strategy. Aong with addressing food protection, LABEL focuses on baancing conficting water-utiisation needs for such activities as risk prevention, tourism, recreation, transportation and deveopment of settements aong the river. The Ebe and its tributaries are important recreationa areas, which means that cycing infrastructure and water tourism faciities need more and more and aong the river bank. Meanwhie, the Ebe is aso a transnationa transport route (TEN-T), part of an intermoda transportation system, so it is ined with roads and other transport infrastructure. Further deveopment on the riverbanks incudes homes and businesses, as more peope choose to ive by the river. Settements are growing in food-prone areas, and this construction often conficts with risk prevention. To ensure truy reiabe food protection, food pains shoud be kept entirey free. Coordinating competing demands The competing uses and demands for space aong the Ebe River require farsighted coordination. One way of achieving this is through good spatia panning measures. The project heped deveop piot actions to coordinate the competing demands, and this work has been incuded in deveoping a comprehensive strategy for the Ebe River catchment area. Photo: Saxon State Ministry of the Interior Project: LABEL ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 32 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 33

18 Photo: Lovro Rozina With the ReSource study, we not ony found out about the heat demand of oca enterprises but we were aso abe to thouroughy investigate a technica soution. Jörg Hibig, Deputy Mayor of the City of Aue, Germany 70 Good practises coected in the ReSource post-mining knowedge database 32 Recommendations given in a resoution for pro-active deveopment of post-mining regions Unearthing new god in former mining regions Germany, piot pantations showed how degraded mining areas can successfuy be recutivated with bioenergy crops. The human-made infrastructure of former mining areas aso provides opportunities. For instance, in Sokoov, Czech Repubic, pans were prepared for converting mining machinery into a ook-out tower. And in the centre of the Hungarian city of Sagótarján, the oca mining heritage was turned into a pubic exhibition: an underground dispay is exposed to view beneath a pubic wakway. In the Sovene region of Zasavje, a piot project under ReSource compied a mining dictionary, containing unique words from the dying mining diaect of the region Tons of hard coa produced in 1962 in Germany Tons of hard coa produced in 2009 in the entire EU-27 For decades, coa was back god, and mining meant prosperity. In centra Europe s periphera areas, mining often became the backbone of oca economic deveopment, and entire regions were shaped to meet the needs of this sector. In the post-industria era, the boom has become bust: former mining regions suffer environmenta damage and a oss of jobs. ReSource seeks soutions to this probem. Mines can be found everywhere in centra Europe, but ony a few are sti active. Some former mines were competey depeted; others were forced to cose for poitica, economic or environmenta reasons. The regions that contained these mines are now pagued by environmenta and economic probems. Mining activity often causes damage to the soi and ground water, through poution that can inger for years. Termination of mining aso causes socia probems, ike out-migration, urban decay and economic stagnation. The ReSource project seeks to turn the unique features of seven former mining districts in centra Europe into positive resources for fostering sustainabe deveopment. Scientific support for the project s activities is provided through we-known institutes speciaising in ecoogica and regiona deveopment and urban panning. The essons earned by efforts to hep these mining areas can be transferred to simiar sites around Europe. Loca actions In some paces, ReSource partners expored the idea of harnessing geotherma energy from mine water. In Lusatia, Cooperation and exchange An internationa summer schoo carried out within the Re- Source project aowed for cooperation and exchange on a European eve to enhance the attractiveness of former mine regions. Young peope from various fieds of interest and different countries jointy expored these regions in centra Europe. Together, they identified tourist mining routes and came up with ideas for attracting tourism. A seect number of these ideas were prepared for investment. One of the ReSource project s core outputs is an internetbased knowedge database, which incudes 70 cases of good practice and ists centres of knowedge. The database presents inspiring post-mining deveopment approaches for both practitioners and scientists. Because of the compexity and scae of work invoved in effective re-utiisation of former mining areas, any recamation effort requires the support of the wider socio-poitica environment. To hep buid this support, the partnership of the ReSource project issued poicy requests for post-mining deveopment, and compied the requests in a study. This initiative draws the attention of nationa- and European-eve poicy makers to the chaenges and opportunities facing post-mining regions. Photo: Radke LMBV Project: ReSource ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 34 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 35

19 Photo: City of Bydgoszcz: Marta Mróz This meant taking actions designed to: increase the morphoogica diversity of each riverbed; increase the biodiversity of the biotopes in the auvia pains; improve the water quaity; and renew and enhance suppementary vegetation. Food protection soutions were aso incuded in each revitaisation scheme. The REURIS piot projects a invoved pubic participation and poitica acceptance of sustainabe urban river revitaisation, and they made important contributions to a cost-benefit anaysis of the work necessary to rejuvenate these urban watercourses. 6 Piot actions carried out by REURIS, of which 5 incude investment 145 Length in km of the Warta-Bydgoszcz Cana Protecting the rivers that define our cities Lessons earned Three years into the project, due to different oca conditions, the piot actions were in a variety of different impementation stages from fu revitaisation of part of the Śepiotka River in Katowice, as panned, to a vision of a bue-green axis aong the Od Ponávka in Brno. Nevertheess, a of the work undertaken in piot projects offers vauabe essons for urban river revitaisation. These essons have been pubished in two guides intended for others to use: the REURIS Manua for Urban River Revitaisation, and the handbook Urban Rivers Vita Spaces. Guide for Urban River Revitaisation Pants and trees panted as part of the revitaisation of the Śepiotka River in Katowice There is a growing demand for activities that hep deveop and protect the attractiveness and accessibiity of rivers running through urban areas. The REURIS project seeks to meet this demand by using transnationa cooperation to impement strategies and activities aimed at reconstruction of natura and cutura resources aong urban river spaces, as we as sustainabe management of those spaces. We need shared goas, cooperation and participation for sustainabe management of urban river spaces. However, we sti perceive financia and administrative obstaces to good water management. REURIS shows that it is possibe to overcome them. Watercourses in urban and rura andscapes constitute irrepaceabe resources that determine the diversity of iving species and the ecoogica stabiity of the surrounding area. Water is aso a major aesthetic eement that can contribute greaty to the appearance of the andscape. Unti recenty, however, the need for andscape water management of urban rivers has not received the attention it deserves. The project partners in REURIS cooperated to change this situation, by improving andscape water management in order to restore natura conditions to water and wetand ecosystems whie aso reviving the natura character and near-natura appearance of urban rivers to make them vita spaces. Using good practices gathered from studying countries around the region, REURIS partners panned and impemented piot actions for urban river revitaisation in six centra European ocations: Od Ponávka in Brno and Božkov Isand in Pzen (Czech Repubic), Thostgrundbach in Grimma and Feuerbach in Stuttgart (Germany), as we as Od Bydgoszcz Cana in Bydgoszcz and Śepiotka in Katowice (Poand). A key focus of the work of the REURIS partners was to restore and maintain the ecoogica functionaity of the watercourse as an ecosystem. Wademar Szendera,. Pracownia Zywokost S.C., Suszec, Poand Project: REURIS ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 36 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 37

20 Photo: Bernhard Krautzer SALVERE has a major impact on the biodiversity increase in centra Europe. The described techniques are now aready impemented in severa other projects, e.g. using threshed materia for green roofing and greening tram tracks with site-specific seeds. Urike Pitha, Assistant at the Institute for Soi Bioengineering, University of Life Sciences Vienna, Austria Semi-natura grassands are generay created over a very ong period of time, through extensive forms of use. The success of efforts to recreate these habitats is dependent on the degree of cover derived from target species and the simiarity of the vegetation to the reference or target state. 6 Languages avaiabe for SALVERE s handbooks on seed harvest and ecoogica restoration Sowing the seeds of biodiversity best choice of harvesting method is affected by factors such as topography, time of restoration compared to harvesting time and efficiency. Seed proportion and yied can differ depending on harvesting technique, vegetation type and the ripening stages of individua species. An aternative to the harvest of seeds from suitabe donor sites is the propagation of seeds from regiona provenance on agricutura sites. In this case, singe species are coected by hand in nature and reproduced separatey with the aid of agricutura techniques. After successfu harvesting on the propagation fieds, the seeds can be sown on arger areas. This method is aready practiced on a arger scae in Austria, Germany and Switzerand. 16 Exampes of successfu restoration carried out by SALVERE 220 Germination capacity tests on singe species done by SALVERE Twenty years ago, it was considered neary impossibe to restore semi-natura grassands back to their fuy natura state. Since then, there have been numerous successfu efforts, invoving terrain ranging from owands on up to the apine zones. The SALVERE project encourages restoration of semi-natura grassands by outining the different techniques avaiabe for undertaking this work. When it comes to restoring a habitat of semi-natura grassand, the ony source of seed materia that can ensure successfu site-specific conservation is existing semi-natura grassand. The paces where this type of environment continues to survive provide a natura source of biodiversity for recaiming other areas within a region. Because surviving habitats of semi-natura grassands can contribute to the deveopment and restoration of farmand with high natura vaue, protection, management and restoration of these habitats have become a specia concern of agrarian and environmenta poicy. The SALVERE project sought to encourage use of ocay sourced seeds for restoration of semi-natura grassands by cataoguing a avaiabe techniques for seed harvesting, propagation and trade for re-estabishing this kind of habitat in centra Europe. The methods expored by the project incude the foowing. Expoitation Severa successfu methods for harvesting regiona seed or pant materia have been deveoped in recent years. The Treatment and trade Due to the regiona imitations of introducing wid pants, a trade in wid seeds has deveoped. The commercia seed market aready offers severa species suitabe for restoration of semi-natura grassand, but they are generay described as being of non-oca provenance. Ensuring restoration of the origina oca ecosystem is ony possibe by harvesting materia and seeds coected and propagated in the same region. In 2010, a new Commission Directive (EEC 60/2010) approved the trade of wid seeds from cutivated pants. This directive marks the starting point of a competition in trade between truy wid seeds and cutivated seeds. Estabishment An important factor for successfu restoration is assessment and preparation of receptor sites, to create optima conditions for germination and estabishment of introduced species. The assessment must determine as precisey as possibe the specia demands and threats to the habitat to be created in terms of soi properties, nutrient suppy, erosion tendency, competition with other pant species, sowing and panting time, avaiabiity of the seed and pant materia, etc. Photo: Bernhard Krautzer Project: SALVERE ERDF funding: Duration: Website: 38 Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra EuropE Environmenta Risk Management and Cimate Change in Centra Europe 39

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