Limited Right-of-Way DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES FOR EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES WHERE TO CONSIDER AN EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE GROUP 1:

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1 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND ALTERNATIVES FOR EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES WHERE TO CONSIDER AN EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE Limited Right-of-Way EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES ARE CLASSSIFIED INTO TWO GROUPS GROUP 1: Designer Must Provide Complete Design And Plan Details 1

2 GROUP 2: Designer Makes Only A Conceptual Application, And Reviews A Contractor- Chosen Proprietary Design After The Letting, Through Shop Plans And Computations EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES IN FILL SECTIONS Used With Embankment Where Allowance For Side Slopes Is Limited TYPES OF EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES IN FILL SECTIONS CONCRETE GRAVITY WALL GROUP 1 SYSTEMS H = 3 to 10 ft /1 to 3 m 0.5 to 0.7 of H Cost: $15 / ft2 or $150 / m2 2

3 Concrete Gravity Wall CONCRETE CANTILEVER WALL H = 5 to 30 ft /1.5 to 9 m 0.4 to 0.7 of H Cost: $50 / ft2 or $500 / m2 Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Wall CONCRETE COUNTERFORT WALL H = 30 to 60 ft / 9 to 18 m 0.4 to 0.7 of H Cost: $50 / ft2 or $500 / m2 3

4 GABIONS Gabion Wall Baskets H = 5 to 15 ft /1.5 to 5 m 0.5 to 0.7 of H Cost: $40 / ft2 or $400 / m2 Gabion Wall Gabion Wall REINFORCED SOIL SLOPES H = 10 to 100 It / 3 to 30 m Reinforced Soil Slopes (RSS) 0.5 to 1.0 of H Cost: $60 / ft2 or $600 / m2 May Also Be Used Temporarily. 4

5 RSS -- RSS -- RSS -- With Straight Reinforcement RSS -- With Bent Reinforcement CONCRETE CRIB WALL GROUP 2 SYSTEMS H = 5 to 35 ft /1.5 to 11 m 0.5 to 0.7 of H Cost: $30 / ft2 or $300 / m2 5

6 Concrete Crib Wall MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH, PRECAST PANELS H = 10 to 65 ft/3 to 20 m 1.7 to 2.0 times H Cost: $50 / ft2 or $500 / m2 MSE Wall, Precast Panels - Steps and Walkway MSE Wall, Precast Panels - Railroad Overpass and Wing MSE Wall, Precast Panels - Roadway Overpass Abutment MSE Wall, Precast Panels 6

7 MSE Wall, Precast Panels Showing Forces MECHANICALLY STABILIZED EARTH, GEOGRID FACING H = 5 to 50 ft /1.5 to 15 m 0.7 to 1.0 of H Cost: $20 / ft2 or $200 / m2 MSE Wall, Geogrid Facing MSE Wall, Geogrid Facing MODULAR BLOCK WALL WITH REINFORCEMENT Modular Block Walls H = 3 to 10 ft /1 to 3 m R/W Required 0.7 to 1.0 of H Cost: $20 / ft2 or $200 / m2 7

8 Modular Block Wall With Reinforcement -- MODULAR BLOCK WALL WITHOUT REINFORCEMENT H = 2 to 5 ft/ 0.5 to 1.5 m R/W Required 0.5 to 0.7 of H Cost: $35 / ft2 or $350 / m2 Modular Block Wall Without Reinforcement Modular Block Wall Without Reinforcement -- Plan View Modular Block Wall Without Reinforcement -- BINWALL H = 5 to 35 ft /1.5 to 11 m 0.5 to 0.7 of H Cost: $30 / ft2 or $300 / m2 8

9 EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES IN CUT SECTIONS Used In Cut Sections Where Extensive Backslopes Are Impractical, Or Soil To Be Retained Is Of Poor Quality CUT-SECTION SYSTEM TYPES OF EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURES IN CUT SECTIONS GROUP 1 SYSTEMS ONLY 9

10 SHEET PILING H = 0 to 15 It / 0 to 5 m Sheet Piling at Bridge Abutment -- Elevation View None Cost: $100 / ft2 or $1000 / m2 May Also Be Used Temporarily Sheet Piling Wings at Box Culvert -- Plan View Sheet Piling Wings D and A at Box Culvert -- Elevation View Sheet Piling Wings B and C at Box Culvert -- Elevation View SOLDIER PILING OR TIEBACK WALL H = 0 to 15 ft / 0 to 5 m None Cost: $25 / ft2 or $250 / m2 May Also Be Used Temporarily. 10

11 Soldier Pile Tieback Wall ANCHORED WALL H = 15 to 65 ft / 5 to 20 m Anchored Wall 0.5 of H, plus anchor bond length Cost: $60 / ft2 or $600 / m2 May Also Be Used Temporarily. SOIL NAILING H = 10 to 65 ft / 3 to 20 m Soil Nailing Work In Progress 0.6 to 1.0 of H Cost: $45 / ft2 or $450 / m2 May Also Be Used Temporarily. 1

12 Soil Nailing First Soil Nail in Place All Soil Nails in Place - Front View All Soil Nails and Wall in Place -- All Soil Nails, Wall, and Final Grade in Place -- GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS Most Foundations Are Shallow, Without Piles, On Dense Sand Or Silty Clay, And Not On Soft Soils Such As Peat, Marl, Or Silt. GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS Reinforced Concrete Cast-In Place Group 1 Walls In Fill Sections May Be Founded On Piles, So As To Get Through Soft Soils. 1 2

13 SYSTEM SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Future Uses Of The Site Differential Deflection Or Settlement Of Wall Sections Project-Specific Special Features SYSTEM SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Long- And Short-Term System Stability Comparable Degree Of Safety Accessibility To Construction Site SYSTEM SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Staged-Construction Limitations Right-Of-Way Limits Site-Imposed Physical Limitations SYSTEM SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Seismic Activity Wall Inundation Aesthetics SYSTEM SELECTION CONSIDERATIONS Environment Sensitivity Construction Time Restraints Economics ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS WHEN SELECTING A GROUP 2 SYSTEM Fill Section Or Cut Section? Wall Area Average Wall Height 1 3

14 ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS WHEN SELECTING A GROUP 2 SYSTEM Foundation Conditions Availability And Cost Of Select Backfill Availability And Cost Of Right Of Way ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS WHEN SELECTING A GROUP 2 SYSTEM Complex Horizontal And Vertical Alignment Changes Need For Temporary Excavation Support Systems Maintenance Of Traffic During Construction GEOTECHNICAL INFORMATION REQUEST Field Check Plans Stage: System s Beginning And Ending Stations Top And Bottom Elevations Locations Of Steps DESIGN GUIDELINES Earth Retaining Systems Are To Be Designed In Accordance With AASHTO Standard Specifications For Highway Bridges. In The Current Edition, This Information Is Mostly In Part I, Section 5. DESIGN GUIDELINES Chapter 68 of The Indiana Design Manual s New Part VI, Structures, Is Forthcoming This Year, And Will Include Everything We ve Discussed Today In More Detail. HEIGHT RANGE R / W COST PER Meiers Feet REQD. nr ft2 WALL TYPE SPECS COMMENTS FILL, GROUP 1 CONCRETE GRAVITY SS USED FOR SHORTEST CONCRETE WALL REQUIRED REINF. CONC. CANTILEVER SS THE BASIC MOST COMMON GROUP 1 FILL WLL TYPE REINF. CONC. COUNTERFORT SS USED IF TALLER CANTILEVER WALL REQUIRED GABIONS RSP BEST WHERE AESTHETICS NOT A CONCERN REINFORCED SOIL SLOPES U RELATIVELY NEW FILL, GROUP 2 CONCRETE CRIBWALL U RARELY USED MSE, PRECAST PANELS RSP THE MOST COMMON GROUP 2 WALL TYPE MSE, GEOGRIDFACINC U RARELY USED MODULAR BLOCK, WITH R0NF RSP STILL LIMITED USE, MOSTLY LOCAL AGENDES MODULAR BLOCK, W/ O REINF RSP GROUP 2 COMPLEMENT TO CONCRETE GRAVITY WLL BINWALL U RARELY USED CUT, GROUP 1 SHEET PILING SS MOST COMMON CUT WLL TYPE; MOST OFTEN TEMP. SOLDIER PILES U MAY BETEMPORARY OR TIEBACK ANCHORED WALL U RELATHELY NEW; MAY BE TEMPORARY SOIL NAILING U RELATHELY NEW; MAY BE TEMPORARY R / WREQD. - Required Portion of Wall Height Shown SPECS - SS: In Standard Specifications RSP: Among Rscifring Special Provisions U: Unique Special Provision Cuirently Reqired 1 4

15 SUMMARY OF WALL TYPES AND PROPERTIES WALL TYPE HEIGHT RANGE Meters Feet R /W REQD. COST PER m2 ft2 FILL, GROUP 1 CONCRETE GRAVITY REINF. CONC. CANTILEVER REINF. CONC. COUNTERFORT GABIONS REINFORCED SOIL SLOPES FILL, GROUP 2 CONCRETE CRIBWALL MSE, PRECAST PANELS MSE, GEOGRID FACING MODULAR BLOCK, WITH REINF MODULAR BLOCK, W /O REINF BINWALL CUT, GROUP 1 SHEET PILING SOLDIER PILES OR TIEBACK ANCHORED WALL SOIL NAILING R /W REQD. - Required Portion of Wall Height Shown SPECS - SS: In Standard Specifications RSP: Among Recurring Special Provisions U: Unique Special Provision Currently Required

16 SPECS COMMENTS SS SS SS RSP U USED FOR SHORTEST CONCRETE WALL REQUIRED THE BASIC MOST COMMON GROUP 1 FILL WALL TYPE USED IF TALLER CANTILEVER WALL REQUIRED BEST WHERE AESTHETICS NOT A CONCERN RELATIVELY NEW U RSP U RSP RSP U RARELY USED THE MOST COMMON GROUP 2 WALL TYPE RARELY USED STILL LIMITED USE, MOSTLY LOCAL AGENCIES GROUP 2 COMPLEMENT TO CONCRETE GRAVITY WALL RARELY USED SS U U U MOST COMMON CUT WALL TYPE; MOST OFTEN TEMP. MAY BE TEMPORARY RELATIVELY NEW; MAY BE TEMPORARY RELATIVELY NEW; MAY BE TEMPORARY

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