Suppressing Dissent Human Rights Abuses and Political Repression in Ethiopia s Oromia Region

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Suppressing Dissent Human Rights Abuses and Political Repression in Ethiopia s Oromia Region"

Transcription

1 Human Rights Watch May 2005 Vol. 17, No. 7 (A) Suppressing Dissent Human Rights Abuses and Political Repression in Ethiopia s Oromia Region Summary... 1 Recommendations... 3 To the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Regional Government of Oromia State... 3 To International Election Observers... 4 To Donor Governments... 4 To the World Bank and United Nations Agencies Involved in Development in Ethiopia... 5 Introduction... 6 Political Competition in Oromia... 7 Historical Background... 7 Ethiopia and Oromia under EPRDF Rule... 8 The Oromo Liberation Front... 9 The Struggle for Political Control in Oromia during the Transition... 9 The May 2005 Elections...11 Government Use of Torture, Arbitrary Detention, Surveillance and Harassment to Discourage and Punish Dissent Arbitrary Detention and Torture Arbitrary Detention...13 Prolonged Arbitrary Detention of High-Profile Oromo Defendants...16 Torture and Other Mistreatment...18 Continuing Harassment of Targeted Individuals Targeting Oromo Students for Harassment and Abuse Pressuring Teachers to Monitor Students for Subversive Speech The Chilling Effect of Government Abuse on the Freedom of Expression Mechanisms Used by the Ethiopian Government to Control Rural Communities in Oromia The Kebele System The Gott and Garee System The Imposition of Gott and Garee on Rural Communities...30 Forced Labor under the Garee...32 Forced Attendance at Political Meetings...34 Using the Garee to Monitor Speech...35

2 The Chilling Effect of the Gott and Garee System on Speech...37 Restrictions on the Freedom of Movement...39 The International Response and Official Reactions of the Ethiopian Government to Criticism about its Human Rights Record Acknowledgements... 44

3 Summary On May 15, 2005, Ethiopia will hold national elections. The international community, including international donors, who have poured substantial amounts of aid into Ethiopia since the current government came to power fourteen years ago, will be watching these elections closely for signs that Ethiopia is moving towards real democracy. In advance of these elections, the government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi enacted reforms that could, on the surface, make the elections more open. However, as this report documents, the political freedoms required for elections to be a meaningful exercise of Ethiopian citizens fundamental right to participate in the selection of their government do not exist for many Ethiopians. In Oromia, the largest and most populous state in Ethiopia, systematic political repression and pervasive human rights violations have denied citizens the freedom to associate and to freely form and express their political ideas. As a result, on election day, most voters there are unlikely to be presented with real choices. Since 1992, regional authorities in Oromia have cultivated a climate of fear and repression by using state power to punish political dissent in often brutal fashion. Regional and local authorities have consistently harassed and abused perceived critics of the current government. And in the past year, these authorities have taken drastic new steps to consolidate their control over the region s large rural population. This backdrop of oppression must be factored into any assessment of the upcoming elections. Oromia is governed by the Oromo People s Democratic Organization (OPDO), which was formed by the Tigrayan People s Liberation Front (TPLF) in 1990 and integrated into the TPLF-controlled Ethiopian People s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition that seized power in and continues to hold power today. The OPDO has dominated politics in Oromia since 1992, when the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), which had much older and deeper roots in Oromia, withdrew from the transitional political process after clashes with the EPRDF and the OPDO in the run-up to the country s first national elections in Since then, OLF has waged a generally ineffectual armed struggle against the government and the OPDO, the TPLF s regional surrogate, has governed Oromia as if it were facing a serious military threat. Since 1992, security forces have imprisoned thousands of Oromo on charges of plotting armed insurrection on behalf of the OLF. Such accusations have regularly been used as a transparent pretext to imprison individuals who publicly question government policies or actions. Security forces have tortured many detainees and subjected them to continuing harassment and abuse for years after their release. That harassment, in turn, 1 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

4 has often destroyed victims ability to earn a livelihood and isolated them from their communities. In urban areas, regional authorities have treated Oromia s student population in particular with suspicion and mistrust. Between 2000 and 2004, Oromo students poured into the streets of major towns throughout the region several times to protest government policies. Police and security forces put those demonstrations down with unnecessary force and the regional government reacted by subjecting students in schools throughout the region to persistent and intrusive surveillance, both in and out of the classroom. Teachers have been required to gather information about their students for school administrators and government officials on pain of transfer to remote postings far from their homes and families. Students who have had the misfortune to be labeled subversives by government officials have been imprisoned, tortured or expelled from school. In the countryside, where more than eighty-five percent of Oromia s population resides, the government has gone to even greater lengths to maintain control and put down dissent. Expanding upon a pre-existing system of local government that was designed by the Derg primarily as a tool to maintain tight political control, regional authorities have created an entirely new set of quasi-governmental institutions that now monitor and control the activities, speech and movement of the rural population down to the level of individual households. Regional authorities claim that these new institutions, called gott and garee, are voluntary associations of like-minded farmers who have joined together to carry out development work in their communities. But farmers throughout Oromia told Human Rights Watch that woreda (district) authorities imposed these new structures on their communities and that the garee regularly require them to perform forced labor on projects they have no hand in designing. More disturbingly, regional authorities are using the gott and garee to monitor the speech and personal lives of the rural population, to restrict and control the movement of residents, and to enforce farmers attendance at meetings that are thinly disguised OPDO political rallies. These abuses stand in fundamental contradiction to the human rights principles enshrined in the Ethiopian Constitution and seriously call into question the Ethiopian government s claim that it is making real progress in putting in place democratic forms of governance. The thousands of Oromo who have been subjected to detention, torture and harassment for voicing their political opinions serve as examples that intimidate their neighbors and friends into silence. Improvements in the electoral process have HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 2

5 done nothing to change this reality. Instead, the pervasive pattern of repression and abuse documented in this report ensures that voting on May 15 will be a hollow exercise for most of Oromia s population. Human Rights Watch calls on the Ethiopian government to end the deeply entrenched patterns of human rights violations documented in this report. It also urges international observers charged with monitoring the May 2005 elections in Ethiopia to take into account the effects of pervasive human rights abuse on Ethiopians ability to exercise their right to free political expression. This report is based on a three-week Human Rights Watch research mission in March 2005 to the capital Addis Ababa and towns in Oromia s East Shewa, West Shewa, East Wollega, West Wollega and Jimma zones. Human Rights Watch interviewed about 115 persons; just over half were farmers from rural kebeles 1 in Oromia. The remaining interviews were of Oromo civil society and opposition figures, current and former government officials and residents of urban areas who have experienced various forms of human rights abuse. In most cases, names and other identifying details have been withheld to protect the security of victims and witnesses. Recommendations To the Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia and the Regional Government of Oromia State Prohibit gott and garee administrative units from dispensing punishment without due process, from engaging in forced labor, and from interfering with the freedoms of association, expression and movement. If decisive action is not taken to end these abuses, disband the gott and garee throughout Oromia. Take all necessary action to ensure that the police, armed forces and other security forces in Oromia abide by Ethiopia s obligations under international law, including respect for the rights to freedom from arbitrary arrest and detention, and from torture and other mistreatment. In accordance with the Ethiopian constitution, ensure that all persons taken into custody be brought before a judge within forty-eight hours, 1 The kebele is the smallest unit of government in Ethiopia, corresponding roughly to neighborhoods in urban areas and to larger geographic areas in more sparsely-populated areas of the countryside. 3 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

6 and have the right of access to family members and legal counsel, in addition to other due process rights. Conduct an independent investigation into violations of human rights committed in Oromia. Discipline or prosecute, as appropriate, government officials and members of the security forces at all levels who are implicated in abuses. Provide appropriate training to police and other security forces on human rights standards and the rule of law. In accordance with Ethiopian law and international standards, ensure that prosecutors do not initiate or continue prosecutions in cases where an impartial investigation shows that criminal charges are unfounded. Ensure, in accordance with international law, that persons whose rights have been violated have recourse to effective remedies. Prohibit local and regional officials from using members of the security forces, school administrators and teachers to monitor students speech and political opinions. Permit free and full access to domestic and foreign non-governmental organizations to monitor and report on the human rights situation in Oromia. To International Election Observers Prepare comprehensive reports on the electoral environment that take into account all aspects of the election process, including underlying patterns of human rights abuse that affect the ability of voters to freely express political opinions and determine who they want to govern them. To Donor Governments Recognizing that effective development programs depend on a government that respects the human rights of its citizens, publicly urge federal authorities in Ethiopia to conduct a thorough and independent HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 4

7 investigation into human rights violations committed by security and police forces in Oromia and to make the findings public. Closely monitor the progress of any government investigation and insist that its findings result in appropriate action to hold responsible officials accountable and provide adequate remedies to victims. Demand that police officials and other members of the security forces responsible for human rights violations be held accountable. Publicly call for more robust and comprehensive training on human rights standards for police and security forces and support such training. Insist that the federal and Oromia regional governments immediately act to end rights violations by the gott and garee structures or urge that they be disbanded throughout the region. Take steps to ensure that all forms of military assistance and cooperation with the Ethiopian government do not, directly or indirectly, aid or abet those responsible for human rights abuses committed in Oromia. To the World Bank and United Nations Agencies Involved in Development in Ethiopia Urge regional and federal authorities in Ethiopia to ensure that development imperatives are not used as a pretext to justify intimidation, harassment, forced labor and other human rights violations by the gott and garee structures. Take action to monitor the human rights impact of the gott and garee system in Oromia. 5 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

8 Introduction On May 15, 2005, Ethiopia will hold national elections. These elections are seen by many observers as an important indicator of Ethiopia s progress toward democracy. 2 In anticipation of the international scrutiny these elections will receive, the Ethiopian government pushed through a number of electoral reforms that could make these elections appear more open and competitive than any previous national election. Those reforms include granting opposition candidates access to state-owned media outlets, relaxing onerous registration requirements for opposition candidates, and inviting international observers to monitor the election process. These reforms are a positive step. But, if international observers focus solely on the mechanics of electioneering and the conduct of the vote on May 15, they could end up presenting a distorted picture of the current state of democracy in Ethiopia. For elections to be a meaningful exercise of citizens fundamental right to participate in the selection of a government, they must take place in an environment where all citizens have the opportunity to freely form and express their political ideas and voters are offered real choices among parties and candidates. Unfortunately, that kind of freedom and choice does not exist in most of Ethiopia today. It especially does not exist in the state of Oromia, which is home to roughly one-third of the Ethiopian population and the nation s largest individual ethnic group, the Oromo. International election monitors can perform an important role in the process of encouraging democratization. Monitors need to look not only at what happens on election day but at the context in which elections are taking place to discover long-term, invidious repressive practices and human rights abuses in places like Oromia. Those kinds of practices and abuses clearly determine whether or not elections can be meaningful expressions of citizens democratic will. 3 Where, as in Oromia, a government systematically stifles and punishes dissent and uses its coercive power to prevent genuine opposition parties from emerging, even procedurally flawless elections cannot be regarded as meaningful expressions of the electorate s political will. 2 For example, on April 18, 2005, the Carter Center announced that former President Jimmy Carter will lead a delegation that will observe the elections; and Rachel Fowler, a senior associate at the Center, called the election an important step in the consolidation of democracy since the 1991 transition. Press Release, Carter Center, April 18, The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), which Ethiopia ratified in 1993, provides that: Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity [t]o take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through freely chosen representatives and [t]o vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot, guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), entered into force Mar. 23, 1976, article 25. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 6

9 Political Competition in Oromia To understand the context in which the 2005 election is taking place in Oromia and the underlying causes of the patterns of political repression and human rights abuses documented in this report it is necessary to understand the history of the competition for political control of Oromia. Historical Background Oromia is the largest and most populous of Ethiopia s nine regional states. It sprawls over 32 percent of the country s total land area and is home to at least 23 million people. 4 Oromia surrounds the nation s capital, Addis Ababa, and divides Ethiopia s southwestern states 5 from the rest of the country. While Oromia s population is ethnically diverse, the overwhelming majority of people who reside there are ethnic Oromo. 6 The Oromo population is quite diverse in terms of history, religion and other factors, but the group shares a common language, Afan Oromo and a strong and distinct sense of ethnic and national identity. Oromo nationalism has evolved in response to the Oromo people s long, difficult and often antagonistic relationship with the Ethiopian state. Much of what is now Oromia was conquered and forcibly incorporated into the Amhara-dominated Ethiopian empire towards the end of the nineteenth century. During the old imperial era, the Oromo people were subjected to widespread repression. The rulers in Addis Ababa adopted a policy of forced cultural assimilation and they took steps to suppress Oromo culture, including restricting the use and development of Afan Oromo. 7 Haile Selassie, the last Ethiopian emperor, was overthrown by the military in But the Derg, the 4 This estimate is based on a projection made by the 1994 National Census. This estimate is not without controversy, as many Oromo argue that the region s true population is substantially higher than this. It is also worth noting that there are substantial Oromo populations in other parts of Ethiopia, and the country s total Oromo population likely exceeds 27 million. 5 Namely, Gambella and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State. 6 According to the 1994 national census, ethnic Oromo make up 85 percent of Oromia s total population. 7 The Imperial government maintained control over this vast territory through a highly repressive system of governance that granted power at the local level to large numbers of armed, non-oromo settlers generally referred to as neftegna (which translates as rifleman. ) Because the Oromo constituted such a large proportion of the Ethiopian population after their incorporation into the state, Imperial authorities treated any expression of Oromo national consciousness as a potential threat to the territorial integrity of the empire and the continued dominance of its ruling Amhara elite. Many Oromo regard their absorption into the Ethiopian state as a form of colonial conquest. See, e.g., Mekuria Bulcha, Survival and Reconstruction of National Identity, in P.T.W. Baxter, et. al, eds., Being and Becoming Oromo: Historical and Anthropological Inquiries (Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press, 1996). 7 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

10 committee of military officers who seized control of the country, quickly evolved into an extremely brutal dictatorship that continued the oppression of the Oromo. 8 In 1991, after a long civil war, the Derg collapsed. The political vacuum that was created by the Derg s collapse was immediately filled by the TPLF-controlled Ethiopian People s Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) coalition, which has remained in power through the present day. The TPLF, led by Meles Zenawi, Ethiopia s current prime minister, gained control in Addis Ababa despite its humble origins as a narrowly based, ethnic guerilla movement with little support outside of the northern highlands. A major reason it was able to do so was the lack of strong potential rivals in much of the South and the respect it had earned by driving the Derg from power. But equally important was the TPLF s ability to include within the EPRDF groups claiming to represent different regions and ethnicities 9 ; and its enunciation of a new ethnic federalist vision of the Ethiopian state. Ethiopia and Oromia under EPRDF Rule Ethnic federalism promised, for the first time in Ethiopia s long history, to respect the country s incredible cultural diversity and give meaningful autonomy to its different ethnic groups. A new constitution was adopted in 1994 that divided Ethiopia into regions drawn roughly along ethnic lines. Under the new dispensation, the largest region by far was Oromia, a vast territory that had never before been governed as a single unit. One third of the seats in the national legislature are allocated to Oromia. In contrast, the TPLF s home region, Tigray, commands only seven percent of the seats in parliament. Thus, the TPLF s ability to remain in control in Addis Ababa depends entirely on the ability of its EPRDF allies in other regions, especially Oromia, to maintain regional political control. In Oromia, the TPLF s regional ally is the Oromo People s Democratic Organization (OPDO), which was created in 1990, as the Derg began to collapse. The OPDO was 8 Derg means committee in Amharic. This appellation refers to the committee of military officers who led the government when it seized power. 9 The EPRDF s members are the TPLF; the Oromo People s Democratic Organization (OPDO), which governs Oromia; the Amhara National Democratic Movement (ANDM), which governs Amhara region; and the Southern Ethiopia People s Democratic Front (SEPDF), which administers the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR). The TPLF has also created satellite parties in the country s other regions, but they are not full members of the EPRDF. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 8

11 created outside of Oromia without any grassroots political participation. 10 Thus, it started with very little popular support in Oromia. Its only real assets were the complete backing it received from the TPLF and a hope that the Oromo population, grateful for the role the EPRDF had played in liberating Oromia from the Derg, would rally behind its flag. 11 The Oromo Liberation Front The Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) had its origins in a protracted armed struggle in Oromia against the Haile Selassie government in the 1960s. 12 Thus, long before the OPDO was created in Tigray, the OLF had established itself as the leading voice of Oromo nationalism. By 1991, when the Derg collapsed, it enjoyed widespread popular support in much of the region and its leaders had longstanding ties to Oromo civil society. 13 In the later years of the struggle against the Derg, the OLF forged a loose alliance with the TPLF, but the two organizations were never formally affiliated and each regarded the other with suspicion and the TPLF s decision to create the OPDO exacerbated tensions between the two groups. 14 The Struggle for Political Control in Oromia during the Transition In 1991, the OLF joined the TPLF-led transitional government and continued to administer an area around Dembi Dollo in Western Wollega, which it had controlled in the final days of the war. National elections were scheduled for June In Oromia, the contest pitted the OPDO against the OLF. The run-up to election day was marred by widespread violence and harassment. OLF candidates were intimidated and 10 Most of the OPDO s initial membership consisted of Oromo POWs who had been fighting for the Derg and who were captured by the TPLF and recruited into the OPDO while in captivity. 11 Human Rights Watch interviews with former OPDO officials, Addis Ababa, March In fact, the OLF s exact origins are a matter of some controversy, but some trace the organization s roots back to a long armed struggle waged against Imperial rule throughout the Bale region of Oromia from roughly The Bale revolt remains a potent symbol of Oromo nationalism and the struggle for selfdetermination. 13 Perhaps most importantly, much of the OLF s leadership had been involved with the Mecha-Tulema Association, the first Oromo civil society organization and an organization widely credited with helping to revive and nurture a sense of nationalism among Ethiopia s educated Oromo elite. The OLF also had strong ties with the Mekene Yesus Church, the largest and most influential Protestant Church in Ethiopia. 14 Many within the OLF s leadership viewed the TPLF s creation of the OPDO as a hostile act, as it seemed to indicate that the country s new rulers had no desire to maintain a lasting alliance with the OLF. On the other hand, many within the TPLF believed that the OLF was intent on destroying the territorial integrity of the Ethiopian state by pressing for an independent Oromia. 9 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

12 prevented from campaigning effectively in most of Oromia, while, in the small area that was under OLF control, OPDO officials faced similar intimidation and restrictions. 15 After the OLF became convinced that it would not be allowed to compete fairly in the election, it withdrew from the race. 16 Relations between the OLF and EPRDF quickly degenerated into open conflict, and OLF ministers who had been serving in the transitional government withdrew and left the country. The result was complete disaster for the OLF. EPRDF military forces captured thousands of OLF fighters within the space of a few weeks and drove the OLF administration in Dembi Dollo out of the country. 17 Virtually overnight, it was almost entirely neutralized as a military force and excluded from the political process. After the OLF s departure, no other substantial party emerged in Oromia to challenge the OPDO. The OPDO currently controls 172 out of Oromia s 179 seats in the House of People s Representatives, Ethiopia s national legislature. 18 The OPDO s dominance is equally overwhelming at the local level. From top to bottom, the OPDO has had a near-total monopoly on political power in Oromia since Despite its defeat on the ground and long absence from the political scene, the OLF has retained its status as the most potent symbol of Oromo nationalism and continues in many ways to be the central focus of political discourse in Oromia. Since 1992, the OLF has waged what it calls an armed struggle against the EPRDF government; and in recent years, it has accepted military training and assistance from Eritrea. 19 The OLF has occasionally managed to infiltrate fighters into Ethiopia and it has been blamed by EPRDF officials for a number of terrorist attacks throughout the country. 20 But the OLF s military adventures proved largely ineffectual, and few if any observers regard 15 See Siegfried Pausewang, et. al., Ethiopia Since the Derg: A Decade of Democratic Pretension and Performance (London: Zed Books, 2002) at 30-32; National Democratic Institute, An Evaluation of the June 21, 1992 Elections in Ethiopia, (Washington: National Democratic Institute, 1992). 16 Human Rights Watch interviews with former high-ranking OLF officials, February and March Ibid.; see also Siegfried Pausewang, et. al., Ethiopia Since the Derg: A Decade of Democratic Pretension and Performance (London: Zed Books, 2002) at The opposition Oromo National Congress (ONC) won only one seat in the HPR. The other six non-opdo seats went to opposition or independent candidates widely believed to be supportive of the EPRDF. Nationwide, the EPRDF and affiliated parties won 520 out of 547 seats in the House of People s Representatives. 19 Much of the OLF s leadership is currently based in Asmara, Eritrea. 20 Most recently, in 2002 the OLF reportedly managed to infiltrate fighters into Wollega from Sudan with logistical support from the Eritrean government. Those fighters were quickly wiped out by EPRDF forces. There have not been any confirmed clashes between OLF and EPRDF forces since, although the OLF has periodically issued claims that its forces have engaged and defeated EPRDF soldiers. The OLF has also been blamed for a number of bomb attacks carried out against railroad installations and hotels. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 10

13 it as a serious military threat to the Ethiopian government. 21 Nevertheless, the OPDO has used the specter of an ongoing OLF armed struggle to justify the widespread repression that is described in this report. Regional government and security officials routinely accuse dissidents, critics and students of being OLF terrorists or insurgents. Thousands of Oromo from all walks of life have been targeted for arbitrary detention, torture and other abuses even when there has been no evidence linking them to the OLF. Even some apolitical civil society organizations have been treated as subversive threats to the regime, hampering their ability to operate effectively. 22 Thus, the OLF and the OPDO are engaged in a tragic charade: The OLF pretends to be waging the kind of armed struggle that Meles Zenawi and the TPLF fought to bring down the Derg. The OPDO and the TPLF/EPRDF use the OLF s quixotic guerrilla campaign to justify political repression. And the people of Oromia suffer from both sides pretentions. The May 2005 Elections The only Oromo parties of any real strength contesting the May 2005 elections are the Oromo National Congress (ONC), which until recently has not attempted to build a permanent base of support outside its leader s home region in Ambo woreda, and the Oromo Federal Democratic Movement (OFDM), which only emerged in mid Both parties claim that they will field candidates in a large proportion of Oromia s electoral constituencies and expect to win some seats, but neither is likely to pose a serious threat to the OPDO s regional political monopoly. One indication of the lack of genuine political competition in this year s election is that, as of March, when Human Rights Watch visited the area, there were no signs of any opposition presence or campaigning in rural areas outside of Ambo woreda. In addition, many of the individuals Human Rights Watch interviewed did not know whether any opposition parties were running in their constituencies, or what opposition parties existed in Oromia. 21 Human Rights Watch interviews with western diplomatic and intelligence sources and other observers, March and April Human Rights Watch interviews with Oromo civil society leaders and western diplomatic officials, Addis Ababa, Nekemte and Dembi Dollo, March Neither of these parties has any apparent link with the OLF, although OPDO officials have made such accusations in some communities. 11 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

14 Government Use of Torture, Arbitrary Detention, Surveillance and Harassment to Discourage and Punish Dissent Many local authorities and security officials in Oromia routinely commit various human rights violations against people they believe to be critical or unsupportive of the government. These abuses range from arbitrary detention and torture to long-term patterns of surveillance and harassment that isolate targeted individuals from their communities and destroy their livelihoods. In much of Oromia, these abuses are so widespread and so arbitrarily inflicted that they have left many people afraid to engage in any kind of public discussion related to issues of concern to their communities. These abuses take on an added importance in the context of the coming elections, as they have tainted the entire electoral process by leaving many voters convinced that government authorities are certain to punish any sign of support for the political opposition. Arbitrary Detention and Torture Since 1992, security officials have arrested tens of thousands of Oromo whom they have accused of being members or supporters of the OLF since that organization was banned in According to former Ethiopian President Negasso Gidada, when he left office in 2001 roughly 25,000 people were in prison on OLF-related charges throughout Oromia and in Addis Ababa and no public moves have since been made to substantially reduce the number of detainees. 25 Oromo civil society and community leaders have long complained that allegations of OLF involvement are used as a thinly veiled pretext to detain government critics and intimidate others into silence 26. One leading Oromo opposition figure, voicing an often-repeated complaint, lamented that If you are a young man you are liable to ask questions. But if you ask questions you are liable to go to jail as an OLF suspect. 27 A prominent Oromo academic put it this way: OPDO officials feel that if you are not with them then you are their enemy. If you are not OPDO, you are OLF, and if you are OLF you are a terrorist and a criminal While there is no provision in the Ethiopian criminal code dealing specifically with the OLF, allegations of involvement with the organization can lead to charges of inciting or participating in armed insurrection against the government, arms trafficking and treason, among other offenses. 25 Human Rights Watch interview with Dr. Negaso Gidada, Addis Ababa, March This figure includes a large number of OLF fighters who were captured almost immediately after relations between the OLF and TPLF broke down in Human Rights Watch interviews with Oromo civil society leaders, Addis Ababa, Nekemte and Dembi Dollo, March Human Rights Watch interview with Bulcha Demeksa, Addis Ababa, March 2, Human Rights Watch with Addis Ababa University professor, March HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 12

15 Human Rights Watch interviewed forty-one individuals who have been detained and released since 2001 by local or security officials who accused them of conspiring against the government. Many had been arrested more than once and some had been arrested as many as ten times since Most were accused of providing support to the OLF or of plotting acts of armed insurrection on the organization s behalf. Many were individuals who had been outspokenly critical of government actions or policies. In all forty-one cases investigated by Human Rights Watch, courts or police investigators ultimately found the allegations against these detainees to be unsupported by any sort of evidence. None were ever tried for any offense related to the allegations that led to their arrest, but all were nonetheless imprisoned for weeks or months before being released. 29 In many cases, police and military officials also subjected these detainees to interrogation and torture aimed at forcing them to produce information about OLF activities that they did not possess. Taken together, their testimonies describe a widespread climate of suspicion and abuse within which many security and government officials make widespread use of arbitrary imprisonment as a weapon in an ongoing war against dissent. Arbitrary Detention Police and security officials often target people who publicly criticize government policies for arrest and detention. One farmer from a village near Agaro said that he has been arrested four times since 1992 and accused of providing support to the OLF but has never been formally charged. In several public meetings in June and July of 2004, he stood up and argued that Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi should be required to stand down because he has been too long in power. 30 In August 2004, he was arrested along with more than a dozen other people and accused of conspiring with the OLF to make the [May 2005] elections unsuccessful. 31 No evidence was presented against him, but he was detained for six weeks before being released. In meetings, I speak out, he said. The others don t. That is my crime. 32 Another man from Nekemte told Human Rights Watch that in the past, many times in meetings when they said, you are free to talk, I stood up and talked about the oppression that is taking place and said that these things should be corrected. I used to ask why people were being arrested. In early 2004, he was arrested and detained for 29 None of the detainees interviewed by Human Rights Watch outside of Addis Ababa benefited from any legal representation. 30 Human Rights Watch interview, Agaro, March 15, Documentation provided by police officials to interviewee, on file with Human Rights Watch. 32 Human Rights Watch interview, Agaro, March 15, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

16 four months on charges of being a member of an OLF cell. 33 A court ordered his release in May 2004 after the police failed to produce any evidence to substantiate the charges. Human Rights Watch interviewed several other people who were detained shortly after publicly criticizing the government or specific actions of local officials. All were eventually released after one or more months in prison without being charged with any crime. 34 Not all of those arrested by security officials on allegations of OLF involvement are outspoken critics of the government. In fact, many of those interviewed by Human Rights Watch were at a loss to explain why they or their family members had been targeted for arrest. One distraught mother whose teenage son had repeatedly been arrested and accused of being involved with the OLF and was being held in Dembi Dollo prison when she spoke with Human Rights Watch said: They say he is a shifta [bandit] and that he raises unrest among the people. I don t know why they say this about him. I was asking [the woreda] many times but they started showing signs they suspected me also and so I stopped asking them. [My son] doesn t speak much and because of this many people think he doesn t like people or is hiding something. But really he is just a quiet fellow. Now every night at home I look at his exercise books and cry because my home seems so empty. 35 The young man had not formally been charged with the commission of any crime and had never been tried on any of the other occasions when he was arrested. In some cases, arrests of suspected OLF terrorists border on the absurd. One 77 year-old farmer who has not seen his son since he ran away from home in 1992 told Human Rights Watch that he had been imprisoned ten times since his son s disappearance and accused of collaborating with him to carry out acts of terrorism on behalf of the OLF: The last time they arrested me was in September [2004]. I am not sure exactly what it is all about but it has something to do with my son. He 33 Documentation provided by police officials to interviewee, on file with Human Rights Watch. 34 Human Rights Watch interviews, Addis Ababa, Ambo, Nekemte, Agaro, Tokke, Jimma and Dembi Dollo, March Human Rights Watch interview, Dembi Dollo, March 18, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 14

17 disappeared a long time ago but the imprisonment continues up until now. They always tell me to bring them my child and I tell them that I have lost him myself. They also say that I send provisions to the OLF. They never bring any evidence or take me to court. I go to jail and then I come out, sometimes after a month, sometimes after two weeks. 36 In early 2004, police in Dembi Dollo arrested a twelve-year-old schoolboy and imprisoned him after discovering that he had tattooed ABO, the Afan Oromo acronym for OLF, onto his hand. They said he was a terrorist, his father said. They said he was a supporter of the OLF. 37 The child s family petitioned the local authorities and secured his release after two weeks of detention, but the police continued to follow and harass the boy until the family was forced to send him to live with relatives in Addis Ababa. At least twenty other children under the age of fifteen have been imprisoned for similar reasons in Dembi Dollo alone since A relative of one of those boys shook his head incredulously when remembering the incident that led to his arrest in early I had an eleven-year old relative who wrote ABO on the blackboard at school. He was dragged off to the police station and imprisoned there. They released him after several days because there was too much noise about it. I mean, come onyou re not supposed to imprison 11 year-olds. That child also experienced problems with the police after his release and eventually left to live with relatives in Canada. 39 In most of the cases reported to Human Rights Watch, the courts eventually stepped in to order the release of detainees when the police failed to produce any evidence in support of the accusations against them. This has not, however, prevented the authorities from detaining people for periods long enough to be punitive, or from detaining the same people repeatedly without any evidence. In many cases, the courts allowed police to hold detainees for several months by acquiescing to repeated requests for more time to look for evidence even though the police had already failed to meet one or more court-imposed deadlines for the production of such evidence. While prosecutors are legally obligated to promptly dismiss charges that are not supported by any evidence, they did not exercise that discretion in any of the cases documented by Human Rights Watch. 40 Human Rights Watch also interviewed several people who had been detained on between five to ten separate occasions on allegations of OLF 36 Human Rights Watch interview, Nekemte, March 10, Human Rights Watch interview, Dembi Dollo, March 18, Human Rights Watch interviews, Dembi Dollo, March 16-18, 2005; Documentation provided by parents of child detainees, on file with Human Rights Watch. 39 Human Rights Watch interview, Dembi Dollo, March 17, See Ethiopian Criminal Procedure Code, Article 42(1)(a). 15 HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

18 involvement only to be released each time when the police failed to produce evidence against them. 41 Of the thirty-three people interviewed by Human Rights Watch who had been detained on suspicion of involvement with the OLF, not one had ever been brought to trial or confronted with any evidence that they had committed a crime. Some were released after several weeks or months without explanation while others were released after a court ordered the police to free them if they could not produce any evidence that they had committed a crime. 42 Police detained several of them for weeks without being brought before a judge, in violation of the Ethiopian Constitution. 43 Prolonged Arbitrary Detention of High-Profile Oromo Defendants In relatively high-profile cases involving Oromo civil society leaders, regional and federal authorities have used several methods to keep persons in detention for longer periods despite prosecutors inability to produce any evidence against them. As of April 2005, four prominent Oromo civil society leaders were being kept in detention after having been released on bail and then quickly rearrested and eventually charged with new offenses arising out of the same allegations. 44 Four leaders of the Mecha-Tulema Association, the oldest and most prominent Oromo civil society organization, 45 were arrested in May 2004 and accused of providing support to the OLF and of having plotted a grenade attack at Addis Ababa University that took place on April 29, A court ordered their release on bail just over three months later, but 41 Human Rights Watch interviews, Agaro, Addis Ababa, Dembi Dollo and Nekemte, March Human Rights Watch interviews, Addis Ababa, Nekemte, Jimma, Agaro, Tokke, Ambo and Dembi Dollo, March Article 19(3) of the Ethiopian Constitution requires that every detainee to be brought before a court within 48 hours of their arrest. 44 The right to bail is guaranteed by the Ethiopian Constitution and protected under international law. Article 19(6) of the Ethiopian Constitution provides that Persons arrested shall have the right to be released on bail. Article 9(3) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) provides that bail be reasonably available to detainees as an alternative to pre-trial detention. Pre-trial detention generally is lawful only in exceptional cases where release on bail would impede due process of law. 45 The Mecha-Tulema Association (MTA) was established in 1963 and played a leading role in building and nurturing a sense of Oromo nationalism among Ethiopia s educated Oromo elite. The MTA has always been a highly political organization; the OLF and most prominent contemporary Oromo civil society groups trace their roots back to Mecha Tulema, and many of their leaders are among those who helped to found and grow the MTA in the 1960s. The MTA was banned by the Imperial government in 1967 after the Association s leadership was implicated in an abortive assassination attempt against Emporer Haile Selassie. The Derg did not permit any sort of independent civil society to exist in Ethiopia, including the MTA. When the EPRDF government came to power in 1991, it won widespread praise among educated Oromo when it allowed the Association to resurrect itself and resume its work. 46 The Association had aroused the ire of the authorities by organizing a large, unauthorized public demonstration in January 2004 to protest the Oromia regional government s decision to move the regional capital from Addis Ababa to Adama. The police broke that demonstration up by force and the event led to the Association s being formally banned in July 2004 for involvement in political activities in violation of its charter. HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 16

19 all four defendants were rearrested one week later. When a second judge ordered that the original grant of bail be respected, the four were released only briefly before being rearrested on new charges of homicide related to the same grenade attack. As of April 2005, nearly a year after the date of their original arrest, all four remained in detention awaiting trial. One of the men responsible for organizing their defense told Human Rights Watch that he was not aware of any evidence that had been produced in support of the charges against them. 47 In late April 2004, police arrested two employees of the state-owned Ethiopian Television s Afan Oromo service, Shiferu Insermu and Dhabasa Wakjira, and charged them with involvement in acts of terrorism, transferring information to the Eritrean government and to the OLF, and acting as a link between the OLF abroad and students in Ethiopia. 48 Shiferu was released on bail several months later but was then rearrested in August 2004 on new charges alleging his involvement in arms trafficking. As of April 2005, roughly a year since the date of their original arrest, no evidence had been produced to substantiate the charges against either defendant. I have no doubt that they will be acquitted, their lawyer told Human Rights Watch. But it may happen only after two or three years. 49 In another prominent case, eight founding members of the Human Rights League, an organization that set out to report on human rights issues affecting Ethiopia s Oromo community, were detained in October 1998 and charged with involvement in terrorist activity. No evidence was produced in support of these charges, but by the time the detainees were acquitted and released in 2002 they had spent three-and-a-half years in detention. The organization itself fared little better; federal authorities denied the Human Rights League the registration it needed to operate legally for eight years; the League obtained formal recognition only in March 2005, two years after a federal court ordered the government to recognize the organization. 50 All of the lawyers and Oromo civil society leaders interviewed by Human Rights Watch said that they believed that these delays were deliberately used to keep outspoken Oromo in detention despite the lack of evidence implicating them in any crime, and to use their detention as an example to intimidate others into silence Human Rights Watch interview, Addis Ababa, March 3, Human Rights Watch interview, Addis Ababa, March 21, Human Rights Watch interview, Addis Ababa, March 21, Human Rights Watch interviews with Human Rights League representatives, March 4, 2005 and March 21, 2005; Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Garoma Waqassa, former Human Rights League detainee, February 26, Human Rights Watch interviews, Addis Ababa, March HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A)

20 Torture and Other Mistreatment Police officials in Oromia often subject individuals who are arrested on suspicion of OLF-related activities to torture and other forms of mistreatment. In some cases torture is applied in the course of interrogations, while in other cases it is used as a form of punishment. Human Rights Watch interviewed several former detainees who had been severely beaten in police custody in 2003 and One nineteen-year-old woman who had recently been expelled from school after arguing with another student was arrested in Agaro in August 2004 and accused of working with other detainees to sabotage the May elections: They told me that I had gone to school not for education but to do politics. They told me that I knew how much money [the other detainees] were receiving from abroad from the party [OLF]. Then they forced me to take off my clothes and I was naked except for my underwear when they started kicking me. They had some kind of a stick and they hit me with that one as well. [Then] they put a pistol in my mouth and said that they would kill me. I couldn t go to the bathroom after that because of how they kicked me. 52 An elderly man who was arrested at the same time described being taken to an office inside the police station and beaten by several police officers. He said, I told them, I am an old man. Are you not afraid of God at least? But they beat me a lot. After that they didn t touch me but the others were taken out at night and beaten. 53 In other cases, Ethiopian military personnel have taken people accused of OLF involvement into their custody and subjected them to torture during interrogation in their own facilities. Human Rights Watch interviewed one man who had been detained in a military camp near Mendi in West Wollega in He was interrogated about his alleged involvement with the OLF and beaten severely by soldiers who nearly killed him when they fractured his skull with a blow from one of their rifles. Nearly four years later when Human Rights Watch interviewed him, his forehead was marked by a deep depression left by that fracture. In April 2004, the same man was again arrested and taken to a military garrison near Nekemte where he was imprisoned and tortured for nearly six months without ever being brought before a judge. His release came when 52 Human Rights Watch interview, Agaro, March 15, Human Rights Watch interview, Agaro, March 15, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH VOL. 17, NO.7 (A) 18

CRIMINAL LAW & YOUR RIGHTS MARCH 2008

CRIMINAL LAW & YOUR RIGHTS MARCH 2008 CRIMINAL LAW & YOUR RIGHTS MARCH 2008 1 What are your rights? As a human being and as a citizen you automatically have certain rights. These rights are not a gift from anyone, including the state. In fact,

More information

Appeal of Oromo Student s Union (OSU) to International Community

Appeal of Oromo Student s Union (OSU) to International Community Appeal of Oromo Student s Union (OSU) to International Community To: February 10, 2016, Finfinne (Addis Ababa), Ethiopia Multinational organizations (UN, EU, AU, and others) Countries supporting the Ethiopian

More information

One Hundred Twelfth Congress of the United States of America

One Hundred Twelfth Congress of the United States of America H. R. 515 One Hundred Twelfth Congress of the United States of America AT THE FIRST SESSION Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the fifth day of January, two thousand and eleven An Act

More information

HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA

HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA HOW A TYPICAL CRIMINAL CASE IS PROSECUTED IN ALASKA The Office of Victims Rights receives many inquiries from victims about how a criminal case in Alaska is investigated by police and then prosecuted by

More information

a threat made in school

a threat made in school a threat made in school ADAM S BACKGROUND LEADING UP TO THE CRIME Adam, 15, is the youngest of four children. His parents are divorced. He lives with his mother, has regular contact with his father, and

More information

S Korea's National Security Law

S Korea's National Security Law Page 1 S Korea's National Security Law Editor's note: This is an unofficial translation of the National Security Law (see below for the original document). The sole purpose of this translation is to make

More information

EXTRADITION UP-TO-DATE FULL TEXT TRANSLATIONS. of the. EXTRADITION LAW and the

EXTRADITION UP-TO-DATE FULL TEXT TRANSLATIONS. of the. EXTRADITION LAW and the EXTRADITION UP-TO-DATE FULL TEXT TRANSLATIONS of the EXTRADITION LAW 5714-1954 and the EXTRADITION REGULATIONS (LAW PROCEDURES AND RULES OF EVIDENCE IN PETITIONS) 5731-1970 1. Extradition only under this

More information

DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS

DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS DESCRIPTION OF THE FEDERAL CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM FOR DEFENDANTS This pamphlet has been provided to help you better understand the federal

More information

Draft Resolution for the United Nations Human Rights Council 30 th Session, September 14-25, 2015. Situation of Human Rights in Venezuela

Draft Resolution for the United Nations Human Rights Council 30 th Session, September 14-25, 2015. Situation of Human Rights in Venezuela Draft Resolution for the United Nations Human Rights Council 30 th Session, September 14-25, 2015 Situation of Human Rights in Venezuela The Human Rights Council, Guided by the Charter of the United Nations

More information

Bail in Rape Cases. CONFERENCE ROOM 3 o clock. I need to take this phone call. I will return in a few minutes. AT THE SAME TIME...

Bail in Rape Cases. CONFERENCE ROOM 3 o clock. I need to take this phone call. I will return in a few minutes. AT THE SAME TIME... Bail in Rape Cases CONFERENCE ROOM 3 o clock I need to take this phone call. I will return in a few minutes. A FEW MINUTES LATER... AT THE SAME TIME... LATER THAT DAY... You have been arrested on suspicion

More information

Domestic Violence. (b) Assaulting, attacking, beating, molesting, or wounding a named individual.

Domestic Violence. (b) Assaulting, attacking, beating, molesting, or wounding a named individual. Domestic Violence Domestic Violence is one of the 12 factors of the best interests test set forth at MCLA 722.23. The best interest factors were modified in 1993 to include domestic violence as factor

More information

Decades of Successful Sex Crimes Defense Contact the Innocence Legal Team Now

Decades of Successful Sex Crimes Defense Contact the Innocence Legal Team Now Criminal Court Felonies The U.S. has the highest rate of felony conviction and imprisonment of any industrialized nation. A felony crime is more serious than a misdemeanor, but the same offense can be

More information

Project: Youth Criminal Justice Workshop

Project: Youth Criminal Justice Workshop Ontario Justice Education Network Project: Youth Criminal Justice Workshop Classroom Presentation Resources & Lesson Plan 1 Youth Criminal Justice Workshop Project In class, youth criminal justice workshops

More information

No Taxation Without Representation!! Actions that led to the Revolutionary War

No Taxation Without Representation!! Actions that led to the Revolutionary War No Taxation Without Representation!! Actions that led to the Revolutionary War Raising Taxes The French and Indian War had caused the British to be in a great deal of debt. They decided to keep a standing

More information

An Introduction to the Federal Public Defender=s Office and the Federal Court System

An Introduction to the Federal Public Defender=s Office and the Federal Court System Some Things You Should Know An Introduction to the Federal Public Defender=s Office and the Federal Court System Office of the Federal Public Defender Southern District of West Virginia 300 Virginia Street

More information

Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards

Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards Annex 1 Primary sources for international standards 1. The United Nations The 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 20 1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.

More information

The role of lawyers in the prevention of torture

The role of lawyers in the prevention of torture The role of lawyers in the prevention of torture January 2008 Introduction The Association for the Prevention of Torture (APT) believes that the effective prevention of torture requires three integrated

More information

Glossary. To seize a person under authority of the law. Police officers can make arrests

Glossary. To seize a person under authority of the law. Police officers can make arrests Criminal Law Glossary Arrest Charge Convicted Court Crime/Offence Crown Attorney or Prosecutor Criminal Custody Guilty Illegal Innocent Lawyer To seize a person under authority of the law. Police officers

More information

The support you should get if you are a victim of crime

The support you should get if you are a victim of crime The support you should get if you are a victim of crime This is an EasyRead booklet showing you what to do. About this booklet The Ministry of Justice wrote this information. This is an EasyRead guide

More information

An overview of pre- trial justice in Malawi

An overview of pre- trial justice in Malawi An overview of pre- trial justice in Malawi By Justice Andrew Nyirenda SC, Judge of the Supreme Court of Appeal INTRODUCTION The criminal justice system in Malawi has a long history. Most of you may agree

More information

Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for

Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for Keynote Address by former Prime Minister of Malaysia Are We Really Civilized? Make War a Crime Mahathir bin Mohamad Firstly, I would like to thank the organizers of this symposium for this opportunity

More information

Terence Halliday, Center on Law and Globalization co-director, addresses the Council on. Foreign Relations on China s Future

Terence Halliday, Center on Law and Globalization co-director, addresses the Council on. Foreign Relations on China s Future A Partnership of the American Bar Foundation and the University of Illinois College of Law FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE Contact: Lucinda Underwood E-mail: lunderwood@abfn.org Phone: 312.988.6573 Fax: 312.988.6579

More information

Global Information Society Watch 2014

Global Information Society Watch 2014 Global Information Society Watch 2014 Communications surveillance in the digital age This report was originally published as part of a larger compilation, which can be downloaded from GISWatch.org Association

More information

IMPRISONED DOCTORS/OPPOSITION FIGURES

IMPRISONED DOCTORS/OPPOSITION FIGURES EXTERNAL AI Index: ASA 16/11/93 Distrib: PG/SC Date: 24 November 1993 IMPRISONED DOCTORS/OPPOSITION FIGURES Dr Ma Thida, Dr Aung Khin Sint and Than Min MYANMAR (formerly Burma) On 15 October 1993 Dr Ma

More information

Amnesty International What Is A Fair Trial?

Amnesty International What Is A Fair Trial? Amnesty International What Is A Trial? Introduction A fair trial is a right that all the people of the world are entitled to according to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights. But what makes a trial

More information

Torture in Israel A Question of Getting Away With It

Torture in Israel A Question of Getting Away With It Torture in Israel A Question of Getting Away With It Bana Shoughry-Badarne Attorney and the Legal Director of the Public Committee Against Torture in Israel The question always arises of whether we should

More information

COMPENSATION IN THE CASES OF FORCIBLY MOBILIZED REFUGEES

COMPENSATION IN THE CASES OF FORCIBLY MOBILIZED REFUGEES COMPENSATION IN THE CASES OF FORCIBLY MOBILIZED REFUGEES COMPENSATION IN THE CASES OF FORCIBLY MOBILIZED REFUGEES 1 Mojca Šivert Mojca Šivert The circumstances under which 705.667 2 persons have left the

More information

Criminal Justice (Scotland) Bill [AS INTRODUCED]

Criminal Justice (Scotland) Bill [AS INTRODUCED] Criminal Justice (Scotland) Bill [AS INTRODUCED] CONTENTS Section PART 1 ARREST AND CUSTODY CHAPTER 1 ARREST BY POLICE 1 Power of a constable 2 Exercise of the power Arrest without warrant Procedure following

More information

Principles of Oversight and Accountability For Security Services in a Constitutional Democracy. Introductory Note

Principles of Oversight and Accountability For Security Services in a Constitutional Democracy. Introductory Note Principles of Oversight and Accountability For Security Services in a Constitutional Democracy Introductory Note By Kate Martin and Andrzej Rzeplinski The 1990 s saw remarkable transformations throughout

More information

CRIMINAL LAW AND VICTIMS RIGHTS

CRIMINAL LAW AND VICTIMS RIGHTS Chapter Five CRIMINAL LAW AND VICTIMS RIGHTS In a criminal case, a prosecuting attorney (working for the city, state, or federal government) decides if charges should be brought against the perpetrator.

More information

RE: No US certification of Egypt government on human rights

RE: No US certification of Egypt government on human rights 14 March 2012 RE: No US certification of Egypt government on human rights The Honorable Hillary Rodham Clinton Secretary of State 2201 C Street NW Washington, DC 20520 Dear Secretary Clinton, Amnesty International

More information

Name _Pennie M. Thrower Party Affiliation R Incumbent N

Name _Pennie M. Thrower Party Affiliation R Incumbent N Judicial Candidate Questionnaire Name _Pennie M. Thrower Party Affiliation R Incumbent N 1. Why do you want to be judge? Because it s my responsibility as a lawyer to improve our legal system, and it s

More information

Human Rights. 1. All governments must respect the human rights of all persons.

Human Rights. 1. All governments must respect the human rights of all persons. Human Rights 1. All governments must respect the human rights of all persons. Governments must respect human rights for three reasons: First, human rights are necessary for democracy. If the people do

More information

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS: OBJECTIVES

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS: OBJECTIVES Labor but were upset at the class divisions it encouraged between workers and bosses. That set people apart instead of bringing them together as citizens. They saw Labor as a selfish party, caring for

More information

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS AUSTIN DIVISION ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORIGINAL COMPLAINT

UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS AUSTIN DIVISION ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ORIGINAL COMPLAINT UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE WESTERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS AUSTIN DIVISION WALTER ALLEN ROTHGERY, v. Plaintiff, GILLESPIE COUNTY, TEXAS, Defendant. Cause No. ORIGINAL COMPLAINT Plaintiff Walter Allen

More information

Naime Ahmeti A DEFENDANT RIGHTS OF THE DEFENDANT IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS

Naime Ahmeti A DEFENDANT RIGHTS OF THE DEFENDANT IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS Naime Ahmeti A DEFENDANT RIGHTS OF THE DEFENDANT IN CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS ABSTRACT Rights of the defendant in criminal proceedings are guaranteed by the Constitution and the Criminal Procedure Code of Kosovo,

More information

Chapter 3. Justice Process at the County Level. Brooks County Courthouse

Chapter 3. Justice Process at the County Level. Brooks County Courthouse Chapter 3 Justice Process at the County Level Brooks County Courthouse Chapter Three: Judice Process at the County Level Developmental Assets: Life Skills: TEKS: Objectives: 10. Safety 30. Responsibility

More information

Crime statistics in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia for the period of. January March 2012* 2012-05-09 Nr. (6-2) 24S-38 22059 14,8 11908 NA 9570 0,3

Crime statistics in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia for the period of. January March 2012* 2012-05-09 Nr. (6-2) 24S-38 22059 14,8 11908 NA 9570 0,3 Crime statistics in Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia for the period of January March 2012* 2012-05-09 Nr. (6-2) 24S-38 No. Criminal offences Lithuania Latvia Estonia Registered In comparison Registered In comparison

More information

My name is Michelle Tupper. I am an attorney with Dickstein Shapiro and a board

My name is Michelle Tupper. I am an attorney with Dickstein Shapiro and a board Testimony of E. Michelle Tupper Board Member, DC Lawyers for Youth Dickstein Shapiro LLP Department of Corrections Oversight Hearing before the D.C. Council October 29, 2007 Members of the Council, good

More information

Thank you for running for the Salt Lake City Council,

Thank you for running for the Salt Lake City Council, Nate Salazar Thank you for running for the Salt Lake City Council, This survey was developed by a group of community members who want to see change and improvement in the law, policy, culture, and practice

More information

What is DOMESTIC VIOLENCE?

What is DOMESTIC VIOLENCE? What is DOMESTIC VIOLENCE? Domestic violence is a pattern of control used by one person to exert power over another. Verbal abuse, threats, physical, and sexual abuse are the methods used to maintain power

More information

High School Law Project This program is funded by the Law Foundation of Ontario. Youth Criminal Justice Act. Table of Contents

High School Law Project This program is funded by the Law Foundation of Ontario. Youth Criminal Justice Act. Table of Contents High School Law Project Youth Criminal Justice Act Table of Contents Lesson Plan - To Be Completed Before the Lesson 2 Lesson Plan Summary (Day 1).. 3 Lesson Plan Summary (Day 2).. 4 Lesson Plan Detailed

More information

Swedish Code of Statutes

Swedish Code of Statutes Swedish Code of Statutes Act on criminal responsibility for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes SFS 2014:406 Published 11 June 2014 issued on 28 May 2014. In accordance with a decision by

More information

Facts for. Federal Criminal Defendants

Facts for. Federal Criminal Defendants Facts for Federal Criminal Defendants FACTS FOR FEDERAL CRIMINAL DEFENDANTS I. INTRODUCTION The following is a short summary of what will happen to you if you are charged in a federal criminal case. This

More information

As part of their course on law and/or sociology in this module, participants will be able to:

As part of their course on law and/or sociology in this module, participants will be able to: Correctional Service Service correctionnel Service correctionnel Correctional Service Law Correctional Service : At the Heart of Criminal Justice Description The Correctional Service of : At the Heart

More information

All the children around the world should have the same rights, regardless of

All the children around the world should have the same rights, regardless of 1 Children s Rights in Saudi Arabia All the children around the world should have the same rights, regardless of where they live or what their religion is. The United Nations wrote a covenant to save the

More information

Self-Defense and Predominant Aggressor Training Materials

Self-Defense and Predominant Aggressor Training Materials Self-Defense and Predominant Aggressor Training Materials Self Defense and Defense of Self; There is a Difference The following materials provide an outline of topics to cover by someone in your community

More information

Maricopa County Attorney s Office Adult Criminal Case Process

Maricopa County Attorney s Office Adult Criminal Case Process The following is a brief description of the process to prosecute an adult accused of committing a felony offense. Most misdemeanor offenses are handled by municipal prosecutors; cases involving minors

More information

Domestic Violence: Can the Legal System Help Protect Me?

Domestic Violence: Can the Legal System Help Protect Me? Domestic Violence: Can the Legal System Help Protect Me? What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is a pattern of physically and/or emotionally abusive behavior used to control another person with

More information

Domestic Violence Case Management Plan

Domestic Violence Case Management Plan Domestic Violence Case Management Plan From the commencement of litigation to its resolution, whether by trial or settlement, it is the goal of this Court to reduce delay and enable just and efficient

More information

Tunisia. New Constitution JANUARY 2015

Tunisia. New Constitution JANUARY 2015 JANUARY 2015 COUNTRY SUMMARY Tunisia Tunisia achieved significant progress in strengthening human rights protections following the adoption of a new constitution on January 26, 2014, three years after

More information

In Tanzania, the albinos bodies are worth more than gold. Witchdoctors use their appendages including noses, genitals, tongues, fingers, hands, and

In Tanzania, the albinos bodies are worth more than gold. Witchdoctors use their appendages including noses, genitals, tongues, fingers, hands, and The Darkest Shade of White: An in depth look into the lives of Tanzania s persecuted albinos In Tanzania, the albinos bodies are worth more than gold. Witchdoctors use their appendages including noses,

More information

Because Fear Makes No Class Distinctions Abuse Support Group Helps Affluent Women End Silent Suffering

Because Fear Makes No Class Distinctions Abuse Support Group Helps Affluent Women End Silent Suffering 11:42 PM CDT on Saturday, April 9, 2005 Because Fear Makes No Class Distinctions Abuse Support Group Helps Affluent Women End Silent Suffering By Kim Horner, The Dallas Morning News Dallas lawyer Julianne

More information

Australia s counter-terrorism laws

Australia s counter-terrorism laws Australia s counter-terrorism laws & Questions and answers OFFENCES This pamphlet is a reference to help explain Australia s counter-terrorism laws. There are five main sections to this pamphlet: Terrorist

More information

Self-Help Guide for a Prosecutorial Discretion Request

Self-Help Guide for a Prosecutorial Discretion Request Self-Help Guide for a Prosecutorial Discretion Request In June 2011, Immigration and Customs Enforcement ( ICE ) announced it would not use its resources to deport people it considers low priority and

More information

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY POLICE DEPARTMENT Chief David L. Perry

FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY POLICE DEPARTMENT Chief David L. Perry FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY POLICE DEPARTMENT Chief David L. Perry 830 West Jefferson Street 850-644-1234 VICTIMS' RIGHTS BROCHURE YOUR RIGHTS AS A VICTIM OR WITNESS: ------- We realize that for many persons,

More information

WHAT IS MY ROLE AS THE LAWYER FOR A JUVENILE CLIENT?

WHAT IS MY ROLE AS THE LAWYER FOR A JUVENILE CLIENT? WHAT IS MY ROLE AS THE LAWYER FOR A JUVENILE CLIENT? First Defense Volunteers go to the Police Station on all calls involving minors, including misdemeanors. This requirement includes cases where the child

More information

10 Victims and the law 57

10 Victims and the law 57 10 Victims and the law 57 10: Victims and the law This section gives a summary of the law in relation to victims of crime. Introduction The court may call a victim as a witness in a criminal case. However,

More information

The Federal Criminal Process

The Federal Criminal Process Federal Public Defender W.D. Michigan The Federal Criminal Process INTRODUCTION The following summary of the federal criminal process is intended to provide you with a general overview of how your case

More information

OBJECTIVES CRIMINAL PROCESS- PROSECUTING ATTORNEY S OFFICE NAVIGATING THE CRIMINAL AND CIVIL PROCESS IN CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT CASES

OBJECTIVES CRIMINAL PROCESS- PROSECUTING ATTORNEY S OFFICE NAVIGATING THE CRIMINAL AND CIVIL PROCESS IN CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT CASES NAVIGATING THE CRIMINAL AND CIVIL PROCESS IN CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT CASES LORI FLUEGEL ASSISTANT PROSECUTING ATTORNEY JACKSON COUNTY OBJECTIVES UNDERSTANDING OF THE CRIMINAL AND CIVIL PROCESS OF CHILD

More information

DIAMOND LEE JAMAL GRIFFIN

DIAMOND LEE JAMAL GRIFFIN State of Minnesota County of Hennepin District Court Fourth Judicial District CCT LIST CHARGE STATUTE ONLY MOC GOC 1 609.19 H2313 X 2 609.19 H2313 A 3 609.222 A2223 X 4 609.19 H2313 A 5 609.222 A2423 X

More information

APPENDIX C. HARASSMENT, BULLYING, DISCRIMINATION, AND HATE CRIMES (Adaptedfrom the Attorney General's Safe Schools initiative)

APPENDIX C. HARASSMENT, BULLYING, DISCRIMINATION, AND HATE CRIMES (Adaptedfrom the Attorney General's Safe Schools initiative) APPENDIX C HARASSMENT, BULLYING, DISCRIMINATION, AND HATE CRIMES (Adaptedfrom the Attorney General's Safe Schools initiative) This section of the Code of Conduct has been adapted from the Greenfield Public

More information

H U M A N R I G H T S W A T C H. They Know Everything We Do. Telecom and Internet Surveillance in Ethiopia

H U M A N R I G H T S W A T C H. They Know Everything We Do. Telecom and Internet Surveillance in Ethiopia H U M A N R I G H T S W A T C H They Know Everything We Do Telecom and Internet Surveillance in Ethiopia They Know Everything We Do Telecom and Internet Surveillance in Ethiopia Copyright 2014 Human Rights

More information

Human Rights Crisis in Puerto Rico;

Human Rights Crisis in Puerto Rico; Human Rights Crisis in Puerto Rico; FIRST AMENDMENT UNDER SIEGE While the world celebrates the democratic revolution in Egypt, major violations of basic human rights are occurring in our own backyard.

More information

Suggested List of Issues to Country Report Task Force on the United States. December 17, 2012. Center for Constitutional Rights

Suggested List of Issues to Country Report Task Force on the United States. December 17, 2012. Center for Constitutional Rights Violations of Human Rights Obligations under the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights through the New York Police Department s Stop and Frisk Practices Suggested List of Issues to Country

More information

Morgan County Prosecuting Attorney Debra MH McLaughlin

Morgan County Prosecuting Attorney Debra MH McLaughlin Morgan County Prosecuting Attorney Debra MH McLaughlin Directions: From Fairfax Street Entrance, Enter Main Door, turn Right through door, up the narrow staircase. Office is at top of steps. (Old Circuit

More information

PARENT GUIDE TO THE JUVENILE COURT CHIPS PROCESS

PARENT GUIDE TO THE JUVENILE COURT CHIPS PROCESS PARENT GUIDE TO THE JUVENILE COURT CHIPS PROCESS INTRODUCTION This booklet has been prepared to help parents gain a better understanding of what to expect in Juvenile Court CHIPS proceedings (Chapter 48

More information

Bill for the Protection of Women and Family Members Against Domestic Violence

Bill for the Protection of Women and Family Members Against Domestic Violence Bill for the Protection of Women and Family Members Against Domestic Violence Article 1: The provisions of the present law shall apply to domestic violence as per the rules established in the Articles

More information

BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY

BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY BRYCE A. FETTER ORLANDO JUVENILE CHARGES ATTORNEY People make mistakes, especially young people. Juvenile lawyer Bryce Fetter believes children should get a second chance through rehabilitation rather

More information

Patrimoine canadien. Canadian. Heritage. The. Canadian. Charter of Rights and Freedoms

Patrimoine canadien. Canadian. Heritage. The. Canadian. Charter of Rights and Freedoms Canadian Heritage Patrimoine canadien The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Whereas Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God

More information

THE MINNESOTA LAWYER

THE MINNESOTA LAWYER THE MINNESOTA LAWYER September 6, 2004 MN Court of Appeals Allows Testimony on Battered-Woman Syndrome By Michelle Lore A District Court judge properly allowed an expert on battered-woman syndrome to testify

More information

6Would Happen When. If you ve decided to carry a firearm for self-defense, THINGS YOU DIDN T KNOW. The Police Arrive

6Would Happen When. If you ve decided to carry a firearm for self-defense, THINGS YOU DIDN T KNOW. The Police Arrive THINGS YOU DIDN T KNOW 6Would Happen When The Police Arrive If you ve decided to carry a firearm for self-defense, you ve undoubtedly thought about the reality of having to use it. You ve thought about

More information

Working on child friendly justice in Tanzania Professor Carolyn Hamilton 1

Working on child friendly justice in Tanzania Professor Carolyn Hamilton 1 European responses to global children s rights issues: exchanging knowledge and building capacity European Progress in Achieving Child Friendly Justice 4 February 2014, Brussels Introduction Working on

More information

Information for Crime Victims and Witnesses

Information for Crime Victims and Witnesses Office of the Attorney General Information for Crime Victims and Witnesses MARCH 2009 LAWRENCE WASDEN Attorney General Criminal Law Division Special Prosecutions Unit Telephone: (208) 332-3096 Fax: (208)

More information

PART II - CODE OF ORDINANCES GENERAL ORDINANCES Chapter 2 - ADMINISTRATION ARTICLE XVI. - BOARDS, COUNCILS, COMMISSIONS AND AUTHORITIES

PART II - CODE OF ORDINANCES GENERAL ORDINANCES Chapter 2 - ADMINISTRATION ARTICLE XVI. - BOARDS, COUNCILS, COMMISSIONS AND AUTHORITIES DIVISION 11. CITIZEN REVIEW BOARD Sec. 2-2201. Establishment of the Atlanta Citizen Review Board. Sec. 2-2202. Appointment of members. Sec. 2-2203. Composition of board. Sec. 2-2204. Time limit on appointments.

More information

IMMIGRATION ARRESTS IN THE COMMUNITY WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO PROTECT YOUR RIGHTS

IMMIGRATION ARRESTS IN THE COMMUNITY WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO PROTECT YOUR RIGHTS IMMIGRATION ARRESTS IN THE COMMUNITY WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW TO PROTECT YOUR RIGHTS I D P Immigrant Defense Project has been monitoring Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) community arrests. Learn

More information

ARREST! What Happens Now?

ARREST! What Happens Now? Personal Injury Wrongful Death Slip & Fall Automobile Accidents Trucking Accidents Motorcycle Accidents Medical Malpractice Criminal Defense You re Under ARREST! What Happens Now? Do NOT Speak to Police

More information

Questionnaire for compiling the 2011 Press Freedom Index The period runs from 1 December 2010 to 30 November 2011

Questionnaire for compiling the 2011 Press Freedom Index The period runs from 1 December 2010 to 30 November 2011 Questionnaire for compiling the 2011 Press Freedom Index The period runs from 1 December 2010 to 30 November 2011 Give as many examples as possible. Answers must be limited to events that took place during

More information

court. However, without your testimony the defendant might go unpunished.

court. However, without your testimony the defendant might go unpunished. Office of State Attorney Michael J. Satz VICTIM RIGHTS BROCHURE YOUR RIGHTS AS A VICTIM OR WITNESS: CRIMINAL JUSTICE PROCESS The stages of the criminal justice system are as follows: We realize that for

More information

C RIMINAL LAW O V E RVIEW OF T H E T E XAS C RIMINAL J USTICE P ROCESS

C RIMINAL LAW O V E RVIEW OF T H E T E XAS C RIMINAL J USTICE P ROCESS T E X A S Y O U N G L A W Y E R S A S S O C I A T I O N A N D S T A T E B A R O F T E X A S C RIMINAL LAW 1 0 1 : O V E RVIEW OF T H E T E XAS C RIMINAL J USTICE P ROCESS A C RIMINAL LAW 1 0 1 Prepared

More information

ADDRESSING POLICE MISCONDUCT

ADDRESSING POLICE MISCONDUCT U.S. Department of Justice Civil Rights Division ADDRESSING POLICE MISCONDUCT LAWS ENFORCED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE The vast majority of the law enforcement officers in this country

More information

BURUNDI: SUSPECTED MASS GRAVES OF VICTIMS OF 11 DECEMBER VIOLENCE

BURUNDI: SUSPECTED MASS GRAVES OF VICTIMS OF 11 DECEMBER VIOLENCE BURUNDI: SUSPECTED MASS GRAVES OF VICTIMS OF 11 DECEMBER VIOLENCE AI INDEX: AFR 16/3337/2016 29 JANUARY 2016 New satellite images, video footage, and witness accounts analyzed by Amnesty International

More information

Juvenile Court Mock Trial

Juvenile Court Mock Trial Juvenile Court Mock Trial CAST: One of the Judges of the juvenile court will preside. Defense Attorney: Attorney court tour guide. Prosecutor: Attorney court tour guide. A student selected by the teacher.

More information

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS LEGAL STUDIES Wednesday 19 October 2011 Time allowed: 2 hours and 30 minutes (11:00am 1:30pm) NO EXTRA TIME (NO OTHER TIME) Candidates

More information

Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF CORRECTIONS

Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF CORRECTIONS Chapter 1 OVERVIEW OF CORRECTIONS AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE Criminal Justice as Social/Governmental Institution Social Institutions established groupings people beliefs practices three main characteristics

More information

Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard

Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard Arab revolutions: Why West was caught off-guard In early November, Mondial interviewed Ziad Abdel Samad, Executive Director of the Arab NGO Network for Development (ANND, based in Beirut). ANND is a regional

More information

REPLIES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON PROTECTION OF WITNESSES AND PENTITI IN RELATION TO ACTS OF TERRORISM POLAND

REPLIES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON PROTECTION OF WITNESSES AND PENTITI IN RELATION TO ACTS OF TERRORISM POLAND REPLIES TO THE QUESTIONNAIRE ON PROTECTION OF WITNESSES AND PENTITI IN RELATION TO ACTS OF TERRORISM POLAND a. General Information 1. Please describe the framework (legal provisions and established practice)

More information

CHILD ABUSE REPORTING PROCEDURES

CHILD ABUSE REPORTING PROCEDURES CHILD ABUSE REPORTING PROCEDURES REASON FOR INVESTIGATION The Grand Jury received a citizen s complaint concerning the possible mishandling of a Suspected Child Abuse Report (SCAR) by the Nevada County

More information

Glossary of Court-related Terms

Glossary of Court-related Terms Glossary of Court-related Terms Acquittal Adjudication Appeal Arraignment Arrest Bail Bailiff Beyond a reasonable doubt Burden of proof Capital offense Certification Charge Circumstantial evidence Citation

More information

Know your rights. Q: What If police, FBI, or immigration agents contact me? Do I have to answer questions?

Know your rights. Q: What If police, FBI, or immigration agents contact me? Do I have to answer questions? Know your rights What rights do I have as a non-immigrant, F-1/J-1 visa holder? Whether or not you re a citizen, you have rights under the United States Constitution. The Fifth Amendment gives every person

More information

A Guide to the Human Rights Act

A Guide to the Human Rights Act A Guide to the Human Rights Act A booklet for People with Learning Disabilities Human Rights Human Rights Illustrations by CHANGE Picture Bank What s inside This booklet,..................................1

More information

KEROSKY PURVES & BOGUE ATTORNEYS AT LAW

KEROSKY PURVES & BOGUE ATTORNEYS AT LAW SANTA ROSA OFFICE 131 A STONY CIRCLE SUITE 500 SANTA ROSA, CA. 95401 TELEPHONE: (707) 433-2060 ckerosky@youradvocate.net www.youradvocate.net KEROSKY PURVES & BOGUE ATTORNEYS AT LAW AN ASSOCIATION OF ATTORNEYS

More information

RESTRAINING ORDERS IN MASSACHUSETTS Your rights whether you are a Plaintiff or a Defendant

RESTRAINING ORDERS IN MASSACHUSETTS Your rights whether you are a Plaintiff or a Defendant RESTRAINING ORDERS IN MASSACHUSETTS Your rights whether you are a Plaintiff or a Defendant Prepared by the Mental Health Legal Advisors Committee October 2012 What is a restraining order? A restraining

More information

Domestic Violence and Protective Orders

Domestic Violence and Protective Orders Domestic Violence and Protective Orders Domestic violence (also called family violence) is a pattern of behavior and a method of control which results in physical injury or places one in reasonable apprehension

More information

The Chicago Conspiracy Trial Suggestions for Judges

The Chicago Conspiracy Trial Suggestions for Judges The Chicago Conspiracy Trial Suggestions for Judges Judges can make an important contribution to students understanding of the cases included in the s Teaching Judicial History project. When meeting with

More information

Information about the Criminal Justice System**

Information about the Criminal Justice System** 1 Victim s Guide to the Nebraska Criminal Justice System Information about the Criminal Justice System** ** Please note that the information contained in this booklet is only in relationship to felony

More information

Walking Through a Trial

Walking Through a Trial Lesson Overview Overview: This lesson will teach students how the legal system works and how a case progresses through the state courts. Objectives: Students will be able to Define key terms related to

More information

Shadow Report ahead of the Human Rights Committee s Adoption of a List of Issues on Kuwait in its 115 th Session

Shadow Report ahead of the Human Rights Committee s Adoption of a List of Issues on Kuwait in its 115 th Session Shadow Report ahead of the Human Rights Committee s Adoption of a List of Issues on Kuwait in its 115 th Session Prepared by: Kuwait Watch Organization for Human Rights and Americans for Democracy & Human

More information