# Low upper bound of ideals, coding into rich Π 0 1 classes

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1 Low upper bound of ideals, coding into rich Π 0 1 classes Antonín Kučera the main part is a joint project with T. Slaman Charles University, Prague September 2007, Chicago

2 The main result There is a low T -upper bound for the class of K-trivials A characterization of ideals in 0 2 degrees which have a low T -upper bound Motto: It is easy to handle ideals when they are low

3 Henri Matisse : The Dance

4 Algorithmic weakness There are several notions of computational weakness related to 1-randomness Definition 1. L denotes the class of sets which are low for 1-randomness, i.e. sets A such that every 1-random set is also 1-random relative to A. 2. K denotes the class of K-trivial sets, i.e. the class of sets A such that for all n, K(A n) K(0 n ) + O(1). 3. M denotes the class of sets that are low for K, i.e. sets A such that for all σ, K(σ) K A (σ) + O(1). 4. A set A is a basis for 1-randomness if A T Z for some Z such that Z is 1-random relative to A. The collection of such sets is denoted by B.

5 Theorem (Nies, Hirschfeldt, Stephan) K = L = M = B More precisely: Nies: L = M Hirschfeldt, Nies: K = M Hirschfeldt, Nies, Stephan: K = B Four different characterizations of the same class! However, these characterizations yield different information content

6 Basic facts about K K 0 2 K L 1 (i.e. K-trivials are low) More precisely: Chaitin: K 0 2 A.K.: L GL 1 (thus, L = K L 1 ) Nowadays there are easier ways to prove lowness of K-trivials Theorem (Nies; Downey, Hirschfeldt, Nies, Stephan) r.e. K-trivial sets induce a Σ 0 3 ideal in the r.e. T -degrees K-trivial sets induce an ideal in the ω-r.e. T -degrees generated by its r.e. members (in fact, a Σ 0 3 ideal in the ω-r.e. T -degrees)

7 Theorem (Downey, Hirschfeldt, Nies, Stephan; Nies) There is an effective sequence {B e, d e } e of all the r.e. K-trivial sets and of constants such that each B e is K-trivial via d e There is no effective sequence {B e, c e } e of all the r.e. low for K sets with appropriate constants There is no effective way to obtain from a pair (B, d), where B is an r.e. set that is K-trivial via d, a constant c such that B is low for K via c There is no effective listing of all the r.e. K-trivial sets together with their low indices

8 Theorem (Nies) For each low r.e. set B, there is an r.e. K-trivial set A such that A T B. Thus, no low r.e. set can be a T -upper bound for the class K. Comment The proof uses Robinson low guessing technique which is compatible for r.e. sets with a technique do what is cheap. Cheap is defined either by a cost function in case of K-trivials, or by having a small measure in case of low for random sets. However, in the more general case of 0 2 instead of r.e. sets, the Robinson low guessing technique does not seem to be compatible with a technique do what is cheap. In fact, it is not.

9 Since all K-trivials are low and every K-trivial set is recursive in some r.e. K-trivial set, we have, as a corollary, that the ideal (induced by) K is nonprincipal (in the 0 2 T -degrees) A more general result. Theorem (Nies) For any effective listing {B e, z e } e of low r.e. sets and of their low indices there is an r.e. K-trivial set A such that A T B e for all e. This result is, in fact, used to prove that there is no effective way to obtain low indices of (r.e.) K-trivial sets

10 Theorem (Nies) There is a low 2 r.e. set which is a T -upper bound for the class of K-trivials. Any proper Σ 0 3 ideal in the r.e. T -degrees has a low 2 r.e. T -upper bound Question Is there a low 0 2 T -upper bound for the class K?

11 Theorem (Yates) For any r.e. set A TFAE: 1. A T 2. {x : W x T A} is a Σ 0 3 set 3. the class {W x : W x T A} is uniformly r.e. Together with Nies result, we have the following characterization. Fact An ideal of r.e sets has a low 2 r.e. T -upper bound if and only if it is a subideal of a proper Σ 0 3 ideal. Open A characterization of Σ 0 3 ideals in the r.e. T -degrees for which there is a low T -upper bound, not necessarily r.e.(!) (similarly for ideals in 0 2 T -degrees)

12 Theorem Let C be a Σ 0 3 ideal in the r.e. T -degrees. Then TFAE: 1. there is a function F recursive in which dominates all partial functions recursive in any member of the ideal C, 2. there is a low T -upper bound for C A slightly more general result. Theorem Let C be an ideal in 0 2 T -degrees. Then TFAE: 1. (a) C is contained in an ideal A which is generated by a sequence of sets {A n } n such that the sequence is uniformly recursive in and (b) there is a function F recursive in which dominates any partial function recursive in any set with T -degree in A, 2. there is a low T -upper bound for C.

13 Corollary There is a low T -upper bound for the class K (the class of K-trivials). Proof Nies proved that the ideal (induced by) K is generated by its r.e. members and r.e. K-trivial sets induce a Σ 0 3 ideal in the r.e. T -degrees. A.K. and Terwijn proved that there is a function F recursive in which dominates all partial functions recursive in any member of K {Remark: Jump traceability of K-trivials is implicit in this result}. Thus, Corollary follows from the previous Theorem. Remark Since every low set has a low PA set T -above it, low T -upper bounds which are PA are the most general case in this characterization (more about PA later).

14 The following lemma is the heart of the matter. Lemma Given a function F recursive in, there is a uniform way how to obtain from a -index of a set A with the property that any partial function recursive in A is dominated by F both a low set A and an index of lowness of A such that A T A, i.e. there are recursive functions f, g such that if Φ e ( ) is total and equal to some set A so that any partial function recursive in A is dominated by F then Φ f (e) ( ) is a low set, g(e) is its lowness index and A T Φ f (e) ( ).

15 Comment. It is not possible, in general, to reach A T A uniformly in an index of A, otherwise we would have a contradiction with a result of Nies (no effective listing of K-trivials together with their low indices). Similarly, sets A cannot be, in general, obtained uniformly as r.e. sets. Main idea To combine forcing with Π 0 1 classes (like Low Basis Theorem) with coding sets into rich Π 0 1 classes, namely into subclasses of PA. A substantial use of {0, 1}-valued DNR functions, i.e. PA sets.

16 Definition Let PA(B) denote the class of {0, 1}-valued B-DNR functions, i.e. the class of functions f 2 ω such that f (x) Φ x (B)(x) for all x. If B is we simply speak of PA. Definition (Simpson) b << a means that every infinite tree T 2 <ω of degree b has an infinite path of degree a. Theorem (D. Scott and others) The following conditions are equivalent: 1. a is a degree of a {0, 1}-DNR function 2. a >> 0 3. a is a degree of a complete extension of PA 4. a is a degree of a set separating some effectively inseparable pair of r.e. sets.

17 Remark 1. PA is a kind of a universal Π 0 1 class 2. {0, 1}-valued DNR functions are also called PA sets and degrees >> 0 are called PA degrees. 3. (Simpson) (a) The partial ordering << is dense (b) a << b implies a < b. Definition Let M be an infinite set and {m 0, m 1, m 2,...} be an increasing list of all members of M. If f 2 ω then by Restr(f, M) we denote g 2 ω defined for all i by g(i) = f (m i ) Similarly, if A 2 ω then by Restr(A, M) we denote a class of functions {g : g = Restr(f, M) f A}. (Idea: an analogue of a projection.)

18 Lemma (A.K.) For every Π 0 1 class A PA there is an infinite recursive set M such that if A is nonempty then Restr(A, M) = 2 ω, i.e. for every g 2 ω there is a function f A such that Restr(f, M) = g. For every Π 0,B 1 class A PA(B) there is an infinite recursive set M such that if A is nonempty then Restr(A, M) = 2 ω, where (an index of) M can be found uniformly from an index of A, i.e. it does not depend on B. Remark This is basically Gödel incompleteness phenomenon It can be modified to a dynamic process, i.e. given an effective sequence of Σ 0 1 and Π0 1 events, we can close (i.e. code) true Σ 0 1 ones while leaving open true Π0 1 ones.

19 The Lemma is crucial for coding into members of (nonempty) Π 0 1 classes A which are subclasses of PA. We may code either an individual set C (by Restr(A, M) = {C} ) or nest another class E 2 ω (by Restr(A, M) = E ) Similarly with coding into members of nonempty Π 0,B 1 classes which are subclasses of PA(B). Nesting in this way a Π 0,C 1 class into a Π 0,B 1 class we obtain Π 0,B C 1 class.

20 Idea of the proof of the main lemma (given a function F recursive in and a set A with described properties). An extremely simplified version : having a low index of A. 1. Code A into PA, and get a Π 0,A 1 class (by Restr(PA, M) = A, where M is an infinite recursive set used for coding) 2. Apply relativized Low Basis Theorem to get a member of the class. A full version: we do not have a low index of A.

21 Missing low index of A is replaced by approximations provided by F to A -questions. Since (A ) has to be uniformly recursive in, our -construction of both A and (A ) cannot change any decision about (A ) (x) that it has already made. A wrong approximation to A -question given by F leads eventually to a conflict with coding of A. We have to keep all our commitments about (A ) (x) that we have already made and we have to start with a new coding strategy. If A and F satisfy the given assumptions our method will guarantee that the approximations given by F will be correct from some point on, i.e. a coding strategy will eventually stabilize yielding A T A. Since we use Π 0 1 subclasses of PA, we can always find a place for a new coding strategy (i.e. for coding an infinitary information). Here we substantially use the fact that (nonempty) Π 0 1 subclasses of PA are rich

22 We use terms: ω-extendability and F -extendability of a string in a tree (consider recursive trees yielding Π 0 1 classes PA or A-recursive trees yielding Π 0,A 1 classes PA(A) ). Shortly, strings may be ω-good, F (...)-good etc. We always have to keep ω-extendability of our strings in our recursive trees (trees for Π 0 1 subclasses of PA ) (only) F -extendability of these strings in A-recursive trees (trees for Π 0,A 1 subclasses of PA(A)). We explain the idea on a picture (first some notation).

23 Let G be a recursive function such that lim s G(α, s) = F (α). We build an A-partial recursive function H, such that whenever we are in a real trouble, the value of H at such place will be greater than the value of F. Since F has to eventually dominate H, from some point on there is no trouble at all and we win, i.e. a coding strategy will be stable and F -extendability will be, in fact, ω-extendability.

24 F -good, ω-bad (F doesn t know!) still F -good, ω-bad (F doesn t know!) d = extendability, H(..) = d > F (..) both F -bad, d 0, d 1 = extenadability F (..) > d 0, d 1 F knows! but A doesn t know! Wait for t 0 with G(.., t 0 ) > d 0, d 1 Here A knows! We can synchronize and A-construction We start a new coding strategy here Note: a finite injury is behind, A doesn t know efectively where this happens

25 As a corollary of a result of Nerode and Shore there is an exact pair for the class K in 0 2 T -degrees. Question 1. Is there an exact pair for the class K in the r.e. T -degrees? 2. Is there a low exact pair for the class K in the 0 2 T -degrees? Comment The desribed method (to produce a low T -upper bound) does not seem to be easily applicable to produce low exact pairs for ideals in question. Example: there is no minimal pair of PA degrees below.

26 A very difficult and sharp question is the following. Question Is there a low 1-random set which is a T -upper bound for the class K? Observe, that for any T -upper bound given by a low 1-random set A r.e. K-trivials = {B : B is r.e. & B T A}. A very sharp property. Even a much weaker question is open. Question Does for any K-trivial set A exist an incomplete 1-random set Y such that A T Y? (Important case: r.e. K-trivials).

27 PART II OTHER APPLICATIONS

28 Posner-Robinson For every nonrecursive set Z : A(Z A T A ) (with A T Z ). It is obvious that in the above such A may be chosen to be a PA set (i.e. A PA). There is a direct and a slightly more general method for that. Idea: Isolated paths through recursive trees are recursive.

29 Given a (nonempty) Π 0 1 class A PA, and an infinite recursive set M with Restr(A, M) = 2 ω and for each string effectively a Σ 0 1 question (or condition, like forcing the jump) there has to exist a σ Z such that either for both σ i (i = 0, 1) a Σ 0 1 event happens or for both σ i (i = 0, 1) a Π 0 1 event happens more precisely, let B i A (i = 0, 1) be Π 0 1 classes such that Restr(B i, M) = σ i 2 ω, (r.sp. σ i is coded in A), either both B i force a Σ 0 1 property or both B i force a Π 0 1 property. In case of a Σ 0 1 event we can take such σ longer than all Σ 0 1 witnesses in question. Then take B i for i Z( σ ), i.e. code a difference from Z. R.sp. a piece of Z is coded into members of A and from that piece we can recognize what happened (whether Σ 0 1 or Π0 1 case).

30 Definition A LR B if every set 1-random in B is also 1-random in A. Definition B is almost complete if is K-trivial relative to B, i.e. n ( K B ( n) K B (0 n ) + O(1) ) Lemma (Nies) B is almost complete B LR B Thus, for 0 2 sets: B is almost complete LR B

31 Psedo-jump inversion. Theorem (Jockusch,Shore,1983) For every r.e. operator W, there is an r.e. set B such that B W B T. Corollary (Nies) There is an almost complete r.e. set B < T. Theorem There is an almost complete PA set A < T For every nonrecursive Z T, there is an almost complete PA set A such that A Z T. The same technique as in a version of Posner-Robinson theorem for PA sets (above) applied to the r.e. operator obtained by relativizing a low for random r.e. set construction (or r.e. K-trivial set construction). Thus, we have a cone avoidance by almost complete PA sets.

32 Coding into Π 0 1 classes of positive measure. Theorem (A.K,1989) There is an incomplete high 1-random set A < T. For every set B r.e.a. in and every nonrecursive 0 2 set C there is a random set A such that A T B and A T C. Theorem (Nies) There is an almost complete 1-random set A < T For every r.e. operator W there is a 1-random set A T such that A W A T.

33 Remark In fact, the jump inversion technique in Theorem (A.K. 1989: high incomplete 1-random) yields immediately also a pseudo-jump inversion method and produces an incomplete 1-random almost complete set. See: Simpson simpson paper: Mass Problems and Almost Everywhere Domination where this is desribed. (Other good paper of Simpson is about LR-reducibility, almost everywhere domination, a relation LR A, etc. is: Almost Everywhere Domination and Superhighness.)

34 Definition Let K 0 denote the set of r.e. K-trivials which are T -below all almost complete 1-random sets. Theorem (Hirschfeldt, Miller) For every Σ 0 3 null class C there is a nonrecursive r.e. set which is T -below all 1-random sets in C. Corollary (Hirschfeldt, Miller) K 0 (a subclass of the r.e. members of K) contains also nonrecursive r.e. sets. Sets in K 0 are ML-noncuppable, i.e. for such sets A, A Z < T for all random sets Z < T. (Nies was the first proving the existence of a ML-noncuppable r.e. K-trivial set).

35 Known so far Every DNR function T bounds a nonrecursive r.e. set Even for every -sequence of -indices of DNR functions there is a nonrecursive r.e. set which is T -below all of them (Hirschfeldt, Miller) For every Σ 0 3 null class C there is a nonrecursive r.e. set which is T -below all 1-random sets in C there is no nonrecursive r.e. set T -below all almost complete PA sets (and there is no nonrecursive r.e. set T -below all 0 2 almost complete PA sets)

36 Thus, there is no cone avoidance by almost complete 1-random sets, since at least some (all?) nonrecursive K-trivials have all almost complete 1-random sets T -above. Recall: there is a cone avoidance by almost complete PA sets (even by 0 2 ones). Question Is there a cone avoidance by almost complete r.e. sets? Other open questions Is K 0 equal to r.e. members of K? Are there minimal pairs of r.e. almost complete sets? Can a K-trivial set be ML-cuppable?

37 Comment Many obstacles in solving the above questions concerning 1-randomness are connected with a problem of coding an information into 1-random sets. While we can code an infinitary information into PA sets (or into members of Π 0 1 subclasses of PA), coding an information into 1-random sets (or into members of Π 0 1 classes of positive measure) is less powerful and it is still not completely understood.

38 The paper about low upper bounds of ideals is submitted to a journal, a preprint can be found at slaman/papers

39 Thank you

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