Superpower Rivalries

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1 Europe and North America Section 2 Main Idea Content Statement: Superpower Rivalries As the Cold War continued, the world s two superpowers the Soviet Union and the United States competed for power and influence around the world. Analyze how the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. became super powers and competed for global influence.

2 Europe and North America Ch 15-2 vocabulary Section 2 Hydrogen bomb: Deterrence: Arms race: Sputnik (1957): Bay of Pigs invasion(1961): Cuban missile crisis (1962): Nonaligned nations: Détente:

3 Europe and North America Ch 15-2 vocabulary Section 2 Hydrogen bomb: a nuclear weapon that gets it power from the fusing together of hydrogen atoms. More powerful than atomic bomb. Deterrence: the development of or maintenance of military power to deter, or prevent, an attack. Arms race: competition between nations to gain an advantage in weapons. Sputnik (1957): the first artificial satellite; launched by the Soviet Union

4 Europe and North America Ch 15-2 vocabulary Section 2 Bay of Pigs invasion(1961): the failed attempt of Cuban exiles backed by the U.S. to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro. Cuban missile crisis (1962): confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba Nonaligned nations: nations who refused to ally with either side in the Cold War between the U.S and USSR Détente: efforts taken by President Nixon in the late 1960 s and early 1970 s to lower Cold War tensions. Reduce tensions between superpowers.

5 Europe and North America Section 2 During the 1950s and early 1960s nuclear war seemed to draw ever closer as the Soviet Union and the United States raced to develop powerful new weapons. This rivalry between the world s two superpowers became increasingly tense and dangerous. 1)The Nuclear Arms Race 1949, Soviets successfully tested atomic bomb. Shook America. Great military advantage of U.S. over Soviet Union gone U.S. sought to develop even more powerful weapons The Arms Race Begins 1)Hydrogen Bomb Atomic bombs used energy created by splitting atoms Nuclear fusion; fusing atoms together-larger explosion 1952, U.S. tested first fusionpowered hydrogen bomb, vaporizing island on which tested The U.S. technological advantage was short-lived. Less than one year later the Soviets tested their own hydrogen bomb.

6 2)Change Europe and in Tactics North America Section 2 Both sides forced to change military tactics Could no longer rely on conventional forces, like troops, tanks U.S., Soviets increased stockpiles of nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons central to deterrence 2)Strategy of Deterrence Deterrence, development of or maintenance of military power to prevent attack. Two superpowers locked in arms race to gain advantage in weapons U.S. had more weapons, but nuclear attack by either side would lead to terrible destruction

7 Europe and Causes North of America WWI and WWII (Cold Section War) 2 1) Militarism: building up of military weapons 2) Alliances: WWI: Triple Alliance (Central Powers) Triple Entente (The Allies) WWII: Axis Powers (Japan, Germany, Italy) Allied Powers. Cold War: NATO (U.S), Warsaw Pact (U.S.S.R) 3) Imperialism: expanding territorial claims 4) Nationalism: putting the interests of your nation above the interests of all others.

8 Soviet Union Launches Sputnik Europe and North America Section 2 3)In October 1957 the arms race took another leap forward with the Soviet Union s successful launch of Sputnik. 3) Sputnik Oct Sputnik, history s first artificial satellite object orbiting earth Americans always felt we had technological advantage. Soviet military technology now feared to be in the lead U.S. government established National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Agency would eventually return United States to forefront of space research 4)Public Fears Growing threat of nuclear war Significant impact on people Built bomb shelters to help protect from nuclear explosion Schools led air-raid drills to prepare for possible Soviet attack Books, movies, comic books had plots centered on dangers of radiation, nuclear war

9 Europe and North America Section 2

10 Europe and North America 4) Red Scare Section 2 Cold War led to so-called Red Scare in U.S. Many Americans feared possible Communist influence in U.S. government U.S. Senator Joseph McCarthy HYSTERIA!!! Prompted congressional committee in effort to expose Communists in American film industry, government, late 1940s, early 1950s Accused many innocent people of Communist activities

11 Europe and North America Section 2 The Korean War showed that Cold War rivalry could lead to conflict far from the United States or the Soviet Union. During the Cold War, this rivalry led to struggles for influence in countries around the world. 5) War in Southeast Asia End World War II, France tried to reestablish control over Southeast Asia Communist rebels in Vietnam fought back, forcing French to give up control Cold War Around the World 5)Vietnam Divided Peace agreement temporarily divided Vietnam in half Communists controlled North, anti-communist regime ruled South 5)American Support U.S. supported South Vietnam, when revolution broke out sent military troops We wanted to stop the spread of communism; containment Eventually North Vietnamese fought alongside rebels War dragged on until mid 1970s

12 Europe and North America Section 2 Crossing Over After Communist East Germany, democratic West Germany formed in 1949, tens of thousands of East Germans crossed from East to West Berlin Some wanted to live in free nation, other simply wanted to find work West Berlin thrived while East Berlin s economy suffered after Soviet purge of industrial equipment Berlin Wall Communist Brutality Barrier, Berlin Wall, heavily guarded 6)Another Crisis in Berlin By 1961, up to 1,000 per day made daily trip between homes in East Germany, jobs in West Berlin. 1 st half of 1961, 200,000 had escaped to West Berlin. To stop exodus, East Germany erected barrier between two halves of city Anyone attempting to cross risked being shot by East German guards Succeeded in slowing flight of East Germans, became symbol of Communist system brutality

13 Europe and North America Section 2

14 Europe and North America Section 2

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16 Europe and North America Berlin Wall Section 2

17 7) Communism in Cuba Europe and North America Section , rebels led by Fidel Castro overthrew Cuba s dictator Installed Communist government Centrally planned economy, (command economy)close ties with Soviets Actions worried United States; Cuba near Florida coast Cuba s alliance with Soviet Union brought Cold War close to American territory 8)Bay of Pigs U.S. government secretly trained invasion force to overthrow Castro April 1961, force came ashore at Cuba s Bay of Pigs American officials believed invasion would start uprising against Castro Instead 1500 invaders quickly defeated U.S forced to pay $52 million in food and medical supplies to Cuba. 8)Cuban Missile Crisis 1962, Cuban missile crisis, two week confrontation between U.S., Soviet Union over installation of nuclear missiles in Cuba US starts blockade; Soviets take firm stand Soviets turn back After standoff missiles removed; U.S. agreed to remove missiles from Turkey, not attack Cuba Both sides agree to talks to ease tensions red phone

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19 Europe 9)Other and Cold North War America Conflicts US vs. USSR everywhere Section 2 Suez Canal 1956, Egypt angered West by taking over Suez Canal, had been controlled by Britain and France. Britain, France, Israel attacked Egypt; Soviet Union threatened to take Egypt s side U.S. demanded Western allies halt attack; conflict came to end The Congo Ending of European colonial rule in Africa brought superpower involvement 1960 Belgium ended control of Congo; U.S., other western countries supported military dictator Joseph Mobutu as good ally against Soviet Union Angola 1975, Angola won independence from Portugal U.S., Soviet Union supported opposing sides in ensuing civil war which lasted until 1991

20 The Americas Europe and North America Section 2 10)Central and South America 10)Nonaligned Nations U.S. supported efforts to overthrow regimes allied with Soviet Union in Central, South America 1970s, U.S. secretly supported opposition to Chile s socialist leader Salvador Allende, who was overthrown in , U.S. forces ousted Communist regime on island of Grenada Many countries sought to avoid being caught up in worldwide rivalry between superpowers Beginning in 1950s, number of nations refused to support either side So-called nonaligned nations sought to use combined strength to promote interests of poorer countries

21 Europe and North America Section 2

22 Attempts at Arms Control Europe and North America Section 2 While relations between East and West were largely hostile throughout the Cold War, some attempts at cooperation were made. 11)Early Arms Control Eisenhower proposed open skies treaty with Soviet Union Each side could fly over other s territory, gather accurate weapons information With accurate information, neither side would have to imagine worst about enemy Soviets rejected proposal 11)Test Ban Treaty Soviet leaders proposed TOTAL nuclear disarmament United States rejected idea President Kennedy favored limited nuclear weapons tests. Slow development of new, more deadly technology Cuban missile crisis convinced both sides important to make arms control progress 1963 U.S., Soviets agreed on Test Ban Treaty outlawing nuclear testing in the atmosphere, outer space and under water.

23 Europe and North America Section 2 12 )SALT I (Strategic Arms Limitations Talks) U.S. President Richard Nixon sought détente, reduced tension between superpowers; started negotiations called Strategic Arms Limitations Talks SALT I talks led to agreements limiting nuclear weapons held by each side 12)ABM Treaty 12)SALT II SALT I and SALT II Also led to Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty, preventing development of weapons designed to shoot down nuclear missiles Meant to ensure each side remained vulnerable to other s nuclear weapons Vulnerability key to deterrence, which many felt was an important factor in the prevention of nuclear war. Vulnerability important element of principle of deterrence Two sides began new round of talks called SALT II Talks resulted in arms control treaty in 1979: never ratified by U.S. Senate

24 Europe and North America Section 2 Reagan Presidency Reagan took aggressive position against Soviet Union Wanted to develop missile defense system 13)The 1980s Arms Reduction Talks Idea of system seemed to violate spirit of ABM Treaty Began arms reduction talks with Soviet leader Gorbachev INF Treaty 1988, two countries ratified Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty Called for elimination of certain types of missiles Improving Relations After many years of conflict, relationship between U.S., Soviet Union began to improve

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