1 An Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Education Programme in Kenya
2 Gichana James Ongwae Telephone Number: Postal Address: P.O. Box City Square, Nairobi Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
3 Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education programme in Kenya. The study attempted to assess progress made towards the achievement of expected outcomes. It focused on the performance of entrepreneurship education programme. Evaluation research was used in this study as a disciplined inquiry. It was guided by scientific ideals and employed all the rigours, techniques and principles of scientific research. The major emphasis was on evaluation of entrepreneurship education programme that aimed at improving human conditions. Entrepreneurship education played a major role in instilling entrepreneurship culture to enhance employment creation and reduce poverty. Data was collected from public records, the media as well as education through experience in the field.
4 Abstract Contd. Case study, content analysis and historical study are used to analyze data. The study was interested in analyzing information in a systematic way in order to come to some useful conclusions and recommendations. This paper is hinged on the objective or goal-oriented evaluation model. The study obtained detailed information about entrepreneurship education programme in Kenya, and then tried to establish patterns, trends and relationships from the information gathered. The study found that there are two broad dimensions of entrepreneurship each of which is split into categories. The first is awareness, and the second is skills.
5 Abstract Contd. The study concludes that the supply of potential entrepreneurs is limited in Kenya because entrepreneurship is rarely portrayed in favourable light. Entrepreneurship is at the centre of science, technology and innovation. The study recommends that entrepreneurship education programme should be viewed positively and then be implemented at all levels of learning in Kenya. Key Words: Evaluation, Entrepreneurship Education Programme, Enterprise Culture
6 Introduction Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society s economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility (Hisrich, Langan- Fox, & Grant, 2007). Entrepreneurship education may take the form of an academic program, entrepreneurship training, and individual or peer coaching (Katz, 2007). Entrepreneurship education is currently a hot topic, and there has been a substantial increase in the number of courses offered in the past 20 years - over 2,000 courses 1,500 schools, and 100 funded centres in the United States alone (Kuratko, 2003). A similar trend has emerged in Europe and China. For example, the German government recently funded 25 chairs in entrepreneurship, and in China courses are taught in many higher education institutions (Hisrich, 2005).
7 Introduction Contd. Hisrich et al. (2007) have suggested that a dominant trend in the 21st century is likely to be ethnic entrepreneurship, with entrepreneurial activity in the developing world increasing because of free trade, the availability of venture capital, and the development of infrastructure. Entrepreneurship education can be used to make a person a more competent and a more professionalized business owner. However, all entrepreneurs are business people but not all business people are entrepreneurs. An entrepreneur applies his managerial efficiency to produce profit which is divided into retained profit earned by entrepreneur and interest earned by capitalist. An entrepreneur is an individual who creates (Bwisa, 2011) something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, assuming the accompanying financial, psychic and social risks and receiving the rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd, 2009).
8 Introduction Contd. The Government of the Republic of Kenya (2005) recognizes the strategic importance of improving the overall education level of Kenyans within the context of poverty reduction and economic growth. According to the Government of the Republic of Kenya (2011) science, technology and innovation sector seeks to achieve key objectives of enhanced access, equity relevance and quality of outcomes in higher education, science, technology and innovation. One of the problems facing the Kenyan economy is unemployment. This is due to low economic growth, corruption, nepotism and the negative attitude towards entrepreneurship. Approximately 503,500 graduates from a pool of 1,374,360 graduates enter the job market annually. More than 870,860 graduates remain unemployed because of the weak economic performance and the public sector reforms, which have adversely affected employment in Kenya. This study has been prepared within the framework of entrepreneurship education as a strategic approach to economic growth in Kenya (Nelson & Johnson, 1997).
9 Introduction Contd. One approach to enhancing entrepreneurial activity and enterprise growth in Kenya is to create an enterprise culture among the youth (Nelson & Mburugu,1991). This is important because by focusing on youth while they are still in school, this approach may provide a long term solution to the problem of job creation in Kenya. To achieve a wide spread enterprise culture in the long run; entrepreneurship education, training, research and development programme in Kenya must integrate self employment and entrepreneurship into the curriculum at all levels of learning. There has been an increased interest in entrepreneurship within the education system and the society in general with an increase in courses, incubators and other activities oriented to promote the topic of entrepreneurship.
10 Introduction Contd. This phenomenon takes place in both public and private universities, technical training institutes, institutes of technology, national polytechnics and youth polytechnics. There was therefore need to examine entrepreneurship education programme in Kenya to assess its effectiveness in providing a long term solution to the problem of job creation in Kenya. The questions addressed are: How relevant is the entrepreneurship education programme used on employment creation? Are we building capacity in entrepreneurship? What is the place of entrepreneurship in science, technology and innovation?
11 Literature Review The study is hinged on the objective oriented evaluation model that best fits the specific needs of entrepreneurship education programme in Kenya. The idea of achieving a wide spread enterprise culture in the long run, is supported by the Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond (1988). The document recommended that entrepreneurship training be taught in all technical training institutions. This study provides a systematic assessment (Weiss, 1998) of the operation and /or of the outcomes of entrepreneurship education programme compared to a set of explicit and implicit standards as a means of contributing to the improvement of the programme in Kenya. The study concludes with a description of an educational change initiative that is supporting the creation of an enterprise culture through entrepreneurship education.
12 Literature Review Contd. The first formal entrepreneurship education programme was developed in Kenya in the early 1990s (Bwisa, 2011). Since then entrepreneurship education, has been a fast growing area in the country. Its growth is particularly speedy at the tertiary level of education. One of the key factors explaining this phenomenon is the fact that wage employment, particularly in the public sector is no longer a guarantee. There is a belief that entrepreneurship education can assist learners develop and pursue entrepreneurial careers which may help them become successful self employed citizens. Entrepreneurship education may also be called citizenship education because it provides learners with the skills to take action and make changes which will improve the environment within their community. Manu, Nelson and Thiongo (2002) have argued that if entrepreneurship development is to have a single purpose, it could well be expressed as improvement in the quality of life or, put another way, the provision of life skills.
13 Methodology This study used extant literature reviews and actual observations. Data was collected from public records, the media as well as education through experience in the field. Case study, content analysis and historical study were used to analyze data. The study analyzed information in a systematic way in order to come to some useful conclusions and recommendations. The study obtained detailed information about entrepreneurship education programme in Kenya and then tried to examine patterns, trends and relationships.
14 Key findings The study established four main findings on entrepreneurship education programme in Kenya. First, despite the growth of entrepreneurship education programme, many remain largely tradition - bound. Many institutions entrepreneurship curricula are incomplete in course content matter. Second, institutions seem to have proceeded on the assumption that entrepreneurs are born, not made. Entrepreneurship education and training is provided by assuming that students have pre existing entrepreneurship characteristics and attitudes. Third, institutions seem to have confused small business management with entrepreneurship. Finally, institutions use non entrepreneurship instructors in non entrepreneurship settings to teach entrepreneurship.
15 Conclusions Based on the fore mentioned findings, the goals and objectives of entrepreneurship education programme cannot be sufficiently achieved in Kenya. Entrepreneurship education will continue to be viewed as another cup of tea. Yet, entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. The supply of potential entrepreneurs is limited in Kenya because entrepreneurship is rarely portrayed in favourable light. The Kenyan scene reveals that the typical students attitude towards self employment has long been negative.
16 Recommendations Entrepreneurship is at the centre of technological research, scientific exploration, product creation and market transitions. Thus, entrepreneurship education programme need to be accorded the necessary attention and support by all the institutions for immediate improvement in its overall performance in Kenya. There is need to build capacity in entrepreneurship education at all levels of education, training, research and development in Kenya. At each level of the education, it is reasonable to expect different outcomes as students mature and build on previous knowledge. But the overall purpose remains to develop expertise as an entrepreneur.
17 Recommendations Contd. Entrepreneurship education programme should be a lifelong learning process. This is embraced by the America Consortium for Entrepreneurship Education that entrepreneurship education is a lifelong learning process that has at least five stages of development. That is: stage one, covering primary and secondary schools and focusing on basics of entrepreneurship education; stage two, covering vocational schools and focusing on competency awareness; stage three, covering tertiary colleges and focusing on creative applications; stage four, covering college and university and focusing on start up; and stage five, covering university and focusing on growth. What is needed is a knowledge, skills and abilities analysis of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs need to be multi skilled for the purpose of creating technical capabilities, technical functions, social insights and customer value. Kenya still needs more entrepreneurship education graduates for the realization of Vision 2030.
18 References Bwisa, H.M. (2011). Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice: A Kenyan Perspective. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation. Government of the Republic of Kenya (1988). Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond. Nairobi: Government Printer. Government of the Republic of Kenya (2005). Ministry of Education, Science and Technology: Sessional Paper No.1 of 2005 on a Policy Framework for Education, Training and Research. Nairobi: Government Printer. Government of the Republic of Kenya (2011). Second Annual Progress Report: On the Implementation of the First Medium Term Plan ( ). Nairobi: Government Printer. Hisrich, R.D. (2005). Entrepreneurship Education and Research. Wiesbaden: Deutsche University Press. Hisrich, R., Langan Fox, J., & Grant, S. (2007). Entrepreneurship Research and Practice: A Call to Action for Psychology. American Psychologist, 62(6),
19 References Contd. Hisrich, R.D., Peters, M.P., & Shepherd, D.A. (2009). Entrepreneurship. New York: McGraw Hill Education. Katz, J.A. (2007). Education and Training in Entrepreneurship. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Kuratko, D.F. (2003). Entrepreneurship Education : Emerging Trends and Challenges for the 21st Century. Muncie, IN: Ball State University. Manu, G., Nelson, R., & Thiongo, J. (2002). Know About Business: Entrepreneurship Education in Vocational and Technical Training. Turin: International Training Centre of the ILO. Nelson, R.E., & Johnson, S.D. (1997). Entrepreneurship Education as a Strategic Approach to Economic Growth in Kenya. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education. Vol. 35 No. 1. Nelson, R.E., & Mburugu, J.B. (1991). Exporting Entrepreneurship. Vocational Education Journal. 66(5), Weiss, C.H. (1998). Evaluation (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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