1 Unit III Biological Bases of Behavior Overview At the core of what it means to behave and have mental processes is our biology. The brain s intricate and complex arrangement is what drives, compels, quiets, and consoles us. Unit III explores the mechanisms and processes by which we move our body, think about a friend, aim for a lofty goal or handle daily setbacks. The basics of neuroanatomy and neural transmission begin the unit, which then turns to a discussion of the nervous system as a whole. The endocrine system s role in regulating hormonal control of our body is discussed in detail, followed by a review of the various brain structures and their functions. Michael Gazzaniga s classic work with splitbrain patients serves as the jumping off point to discuss hemisphere lateralization, plasticity, and neurogenesis, and both genetics and evolution are investigated as key foundations to the modern-day brain. Modules 9 Biological Psychology and Neurotransmission 10 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems 11 Studying the Brain, and Older Structures 12 The Cerebral Cortex 13 Brain Hemisphere Organization and the Biology of Consciousness 14 Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences 15 Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature Tip #3 Use Mnemonic Devices to Remember Key Material This unit is by far one of the most vocabulary-rich in the course. As you learned in Unit I, making useful and meaningful vocabulary cards with examples and references, questions and observations is a sure fire way to master the terminology. In addition, you will want to develop key mnemonic devices (memory tricks) to learn the structures and functions of the brain and nervous system. One such device is called the Method of Loci. (Loci is the plural of the Latin locus, meaning place or location.) You begin by visualizing a location you know well, such as your home. Then you insert items you wish to recall into various rooms and places in your home. For instance, in this module you will be learning about the amygdala, a structure in the brain that plays a key role in extreme feelings such as rage and anger. Perhaps, in your visual home you place an image of the amygdala (it doesn t have to actually look like an amygdala, try just placing the word) in your diary next to your bed. A diary is a place you might record emotions such as rage and anger. Following this idea, you might place your hypothalamus in the refrigerator. Any guesses as to the function of the hypothalamus? You ll find out in this unit! 44 44
2 While You Read 45 Module 9 Biological Psychology and Neurotransmission Module Summary Before You Read Module 9 revisits the early Greeks philosophies as they relate to the mind-body connection and discusses the work of Franz Gall as one of the pioneers of the exploration of the brain and mind. The early contributions of the Greeks are debunked as the science of modern brain studies is introduced. A thorough discussion of neural transmission segues into neuroanatomy and neuronal function and ends with a brief introduction to neurotransmitters, agonists, and antagonists. Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms you will encounter. You may wish to make vocabulary cards for each. Key Terms biological psychology neuron dendrites axon myelin sheath action potential refractory period threshold all-or-none response synapse neurotransmitters reuptake endorphins agonist antagonist While You Read 9-1 Answer the following questions. 1. Where in the body did Plato believe the mind was located? in the spherical head 2. How did Aristotle disagree with Plato? Aristotle thought the mind was in the heart.! Remember your charts from Module 1? Return now and add this additional information about Plato and Aristotle to make your chart more complete.
3 46 Module 9 Biological Psychology and Neurotransmission 3. How did Franz Gall contribute to the mind-body question? He proposed that phrenology (studying bumps on the skull) could reveal a person s mental abilities and character traits. 4. In what way was Franz Gall incorrect? In what way was he correct? He was incorrect because bumps on a skull can t tell you anything about a person s personality or the brain s underlying functions. However, he was correct that biological activity can be linked to psychological events. Different parts of the brain do control different aspects of behavior. 9-2 Answer the following questions, and complete the diagram and chart below. 1. What happy fact allows us to study animal brains to learn about human brains? The information systems of humans and other animals operate so similarly that you could not distinguish between small samples of brain tissue from a human and a monkey. This allows researchers to study other animals to discover how our own systems work. 2. Fill in the chart below with the functions of these neural structures. Structure dendrite Function receives messages and conducts impulses toward the cell body. cell body the cell s life-support center; contains the nucleus axon passes messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands. terminal branches form junctions with other cells; contain the vessicles with neurotransmitters myelin sheath a fatty tissue layer that enables vastly greater transmission speed as neural impulses hop from one node to the next.
4 While You Read Describe what the action potential is and why it is important to neural communication. The action potential is the electrical impulse that travels down anaxon. Without an action potential, there is no neural communication. 4. Use page 79 and Figure 9.3 to help you complete this paragraph describing the process of the action potential: The fluid outside the axon membrane is largely made up of positively charged ions but the fluid inside the membrane is primarily made up of negatively charged ions. This state is referred to as the resting potential. We refer to the axon s surface as selectively permeable since it will only allow particular ions to pass through. When a neuron fires, the axon membrane becomes permeable and positively charged sodium ions flow into the cell. This depolarizes that part of the axon and then causes the next section of the membrane to become permeable. This occurs over and over down the line of the axon and serves to push the nerve impulse down the neuron. During the refractory period, the positive ions are pumped back out of the cell and the axon returns to the original state of polarity, called the resting potential, prepared to fire again. 5. What is the difference between an excitatory nerve signal and an inhibitory nerve signal? Excitatory signals act like the accelerator of a car and cause neural activity. Inhibitory signals act like the brake of a car and prevent neural activity. Excitatory signals must outweigh inhibitory signals for an action potential to occur. 6. What is a threshold? The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse. 7. What happens when the level of neural stimulation above the threshold is increased? Why? It does not increase the impulse intensity; it merely activates the action potential. Neurons fire according to the all-or-none law: They either fire or do not fire, there are not degrees of firing. 8. Create a metaphor or simile for the process of neural transmission. Neural transmission is like... Answers will vary.
5 48 Module 9 Biological Psychology and Neurotransmission 9-3 Answer the following questions. 1. What is a synapse? The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron. 2. How do neurons communicate with each other? When an action potential reaches the knob-like terminals at an axon s end, it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters. Within milliseconds, the neurotransmitters cross the synaptic gap and bind to the receptor sites on the receiving neuron. The receiving neurons unlock ion channels, the ions flow in and either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron s ability to fire. 3. What is reuptake? A neurotransmitter s reabsorption by the sending neuron. 9-4 Answer the following questions/prompts. 1. Give an example of an agonist and describe how it functions in the nervous system. Answers will vary. 2. Give an example of an antagonist and describe how it functions in the nervous system. Answers will vary. 3. Describe how Botulin functions as an antagonist for acetylcholine. Botulin causes paralysis by blocking ACh release. The toxin is enough like acetylcholine that it can occupy the receptor site intended for ACh and block its effect. 4. What effect does the release of endorphins have on the body? Endorphin, or endogenous morphine, is a type of neurotransmitter similar to morphine that is released in response to pain and vigorous exercise. The release of endorphins has a calming, painrelieving effect on the body.
6 After You Read 49 After You Read Module 9 Review Complete the diagram, then the section of matching questions below to see if you have mastered the basics. Label and describe the function of the five main parts of the neuron. NEURON a. dendrites b.terminal branches d. axon e. myelin sheath c. cell body Terms D H J L O F I M C K B E G N A 1. biological psychology 2. neuron 3. dendrites 4. axon 5. myelin sheath 6. action potential 7. refractory period 8. all-or-none response 9. threshold 10. synapse 11. neurotransmitters 12. reuptake 13. endorphins 14. agonist 15. antagonist Definitions A. Molecule that binds to a receptor and inhibits a response B. Chemical messengers that cross the synapse between neurons C. Level of physical stimulation required to trigger an impulse D. Study of the links between biological and psychological processes E. Reabsorption of the neurotransmitter by the sending neuron F. Brief electrical charge that travels down an axon G. Opiate-like neurotransmitters linked to pain control H. Basic building block of the nervous system I. A period of inactivity after a neuron fires J. Receives neural messages and sends impulse to cell body K. The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrites of the receiving neuron L. Extension of neuron that passes messages through its branches to other neurons, muscles or glands M. Neural reaction of either firing or not firing N. Molecule similar to a neurotransmitter that triggers a response O. Fatty tissue layer encasing the axon
7 Module 10 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems Module Summary Before You Read Module 10 lays out the divisions and subdivisions of the nervous system and describes how each division helps us function. In addition, the nature and function of the endocrine system is discussed. Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms you will encounter. You may wish to make vocabulary cards for each. Key Terms nervous system central nervous system peripheral nervous system nerves sensory (afferent) neurons motor (efferent) neurons interneurons somatic nervous system autonomic nervous system sympathetic nervous system parasympathetic nervous system reflex endocrine system hormones adrenal glands pituitary gland 50
8 While You Read 51 While You Read 10-1 Complete the diagram and answer the prompts below. 1. Using the information from your text on the functional divisions of the human nervous system and Figure 10.1, fill in the chart below. Component: nervous system Function: to receive information from the environment, process it, and make decisions to send back through the body Component: peripheral nervous system (PNS) Function: gathers information and transmits CNS decisions to other body parts Component: central nervous system (CNS brain ad spinal cord) Function: the body s decision maker Component: autonomic nervous system Component: somatic nervous system Function: controls self-regulated action of internal organs and glands Function: voluntary control of skeletal muscles Component: sympathetic nervous system Component: parasympathetic nervous system Function: arouses and expends energy Function: conserves energy and calms the body after arousal 2. Provide an example from your own life of when each of the subdivisions of the nervous system would be involved. Answers will vary. a. peripheral: e. sympathetic: b. central: f. parasympathetic: c. autonomic: d. somatic:
9 52 Module 10 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems 3. Use Figure 10.2 to complete the chart below describing the physiological changes that occur when the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are stimulated. A few have been filled in for you. Effect When Sympathetic Nervous System Is Stimulated Pupil of the eye Dilates Contracts Effect When Parasympathetic Nervous System Is Stimulated Heart Accelerates Decelerates Stomach Inhibits digestion Stimulates digestion Liver Glucose is released by the liver No effect Gallbladder No effect Stimulates Adrenal glands Stimulates secretion of epinephrine No effect and norepinephrine Bladder Relaxes Contracts Sex organs Stimulates ejaculation Allows bloodflow to sex organs 4. Label the diagram below with the three types of neurons used to carry reflex information to and from the spinal cord. interneurons Spinal cord s internal communication sensory neurons in from the body s tissues and sense receptors motor neurons out to the body s muscles and glands
10 While You Read Answer the questions and complete the chart below. 1. In what ways do the endocrine and nervous systems act similarly? In what ways do they act differently? Both secrete chemical messages within the body. The endocrine system secretes hormones and works slower than the nervous system, which secretes neurotransmitters and works very fast. 2. How does the endocrine system s release of hormones influence us? It influences our interest in sex, food, aggression, and so on. 3. Use the information from your text and Figure 10.5 to complete the chart of endocrine system structures and functions below. Structure Function Hypothalamus controls pituitary gland secretes female hormones Adrenal glands triggers fight-or-flight response releases growth hormone, oxytocin, and other hormones affects metabolism Testis secretes male hormones regulates the level of sugar in the blood Parathyroid regulates level of calcium in the blood 4. Why is the pituitary gland referred to as the master gland? It regulates other endocrine glands under the influence of the hypothalamus.
11 54 Module 10 The Nervous and Endocrine Systems After You Read Module 10 Review Complete the questions below to see if you have mastered the basics. 1. After placing your hand on a hot stove, pain signals are sent from the sense receptors in your skin through sensory (afferent) to the spinal cord where the signal is processed by interneurons and finally to the neurons muscles in your hand via the motor (efferent), causing you to remove your hand from the stove. neurons 2. When the morning announcements call for you to rise to recite the Pledge of Allegiance, the signal to stand up on your feet is sent by way of which system? The somatic nervous system 3. The control of your heartbeat is regulated by which system? The autonomic nervous system 4. While taking your first AP exam, a test that is causing you great anxiety, what physical reactions will your body have due to the sympathetic nervous system? Any sympathetic nervous system respnse from Figure 10.2 is acceptable. 5. After finishing the AP Exam and realizing you probably scored a 5 because you worked so hard to prepare this year, what physical reactions will your body have due to the parasympathetic nervous system? Any parasympathetic nervous system respnse from Figure 10.2 is acceptable.
12 Module 11 Studying the Brain, and Older Brain Structures Module Summary Before You Read Module 11 begins the two-module exploration of brain structures by introducing the more primitive structures of the hind- and mid-brain. The functions of the brainstem structures, and the more evolved limbic system structures, are explained through detailed diagrams and examples. In addition, this module contains a thorough review of the scanning technologies that allow us to view inside the brain. Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms you will encounter. You may wish to make vocabulary cards for each. Key Terms lesion electroencephalogram (EEG) CT (computed tomography) scan PET (positron emission tomography) scan MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) fmri (functional MRI) brainstem medulla thalamus reticular formation cerebellum limbic system amygdala hypothalamus Complete the charts and answer the questions While You Read 1. What does it mean to lesion the brain? Why is this procedure important in studying the brain? To lesion the brain is to destroy tiny clusters of brain cells to study functions of specific parts of the brain. By destroying a portion of the brain, scientists can learn what behaviors/thoughts/ emotions/memories, and so on were controlled by that part of the brain
13 56 Module 11 Studying the Brain, and Older Brain Structures 2. As you learn about each of the methods used to scan the brain, complete the chart below. Full name of brain scan technology Abbreviation Method Used to Produce Image Electroecephalogram EEG electrodes placed on the scalp Computed tomography scan CT X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by a computer into a composite Positron emission tomography PET brain activity detected by a radioactive form of glucose Magnetic resonance imaging MRI magnetic fields and radio waves Functional magnetic resonance imaging fmri comparing successive MRI scans 3. What do each of the brain scanning methods reveal or show us about brain function? EEG: Shows electrical activity across the brain s surface CT: Reveals brain structure, including brain damage PET: Shows hot spots where brain areas are active as a person does various activities MRI: Provides detailed pictures of soft tissues, including the structure of the brain fmri: Reveals brain functioning as well as structure In general, what are the functions of the brainstem structures? The brainstem structures are responsible for automatic survival functions, such as heartbeat and breathing.
14 While You Read Complete the chart of brainstem structures below: Mnemonic Device to Remember Structure Function Structure/Function Medulla Controls heartbeat and breathing Answers will vary. Pons Coordinates movements Answers will vary. Thalamus Brain s sensory control center; directs Answers will vary. messages to the sensory receiving areas of the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla. Reticular Controls arousal Answers will vary. formation Cerebellum Processes sensory input, coordinates Answers will vary. movement output and balance, and enables nonverbal learning and memory In general, what are the functions of the limbic system structures? The limbic system structures are generally responsible emotions and drives. 2. Complete the chart of limbic system structures below: Mnemonic Device to Remember Structure Function Structure/Function Amygdala Plays a role in emotion Answers will vary. Hippocampus Processes conscious memories Answers will vary. Hypothalamus Directs maintenance activities (eating, Answers will vary. drinking, body temperature) helps govern the endocrine system, and is linked to emotion and reward Nucleus Dopamine-related reward system Answers will vary. accumbens
15 58 Module 11 Studying the Brain, and Older Brain Structures 3. What have experiments revealed about a dopamine-related reward pathway in humans? Experiments have revealed that the pleasure received from the release of dopamine can impact behavior people choose options that have been linked to dopamine release? Use Figure on page 101 to check your two charts above. Combine the information from the text and the diagram to make sure your chart is as complete as possible. Module 11 Review After You Read Complete the questions below to see if you have mastered the basics. Terms D B A C E 1. EEG 2. CT scan 3. PET scan 4. MRI 5. fmri Definitions A. Shows brain activity by tracking glucose absorption B. Reveals brain damage through use of X-rays C. Depicts brain structures through the use of magnetic fields and radio waves D. Provides an amplified readout of brain waves by using electrodes on the scalp E. Reveals brain activity and functioning by tracking increased oxygen-laden bloodflow 6. Use your knowledge of the hindbrain and limbic system structures to identify which structure(s) would be involved and what role they would play in the following task/function. a. punting a football The pons would coordinate movement; the cerebellum would work in concert with the pons to control voluntary movement. b. hearing your stepdad call you home from playing outside The thalamus routes auditory input to auditory cortex. c. a cat arching its back and hissing at a potential predator The amygdala registers fear and aggression; the cerebellum and pons control the voluntary movements, and the reticular formation sends signals through the thalamus to increase arousal. d. learning a set of new geometry theorems The hippocampus processes new memories of facts and events. e. returning again and again to a video game that you are having increased success playing The nucleus accumbens, in the front of the hypothalamus, is a reward center.
16 After You Read 59 Multiple Choice Circle the correct answer. 1. Identify the correct brain structure-function pairing. a. amygdala: thirst, sex and hunger b. cerebellum: conscious memories c. medulla: breathing and heart rate d. pons: aggression and fear e. hypothalamus: breathing and heart rate 2. In the final seconds of the Georgia-Florida game, the field-goal kicker accurately sends a 55-yard kick into the goal to score and GEORGIA WINS! Most likely, the precision and accuracy of this challenging kick was a result of neural functioning in the a. hippocampus b. hypothalamus c. medulla d. cerebellum e. amygdala 3. Which of the following senses does not send neural messages through the thalamus? a. taste b. smell c. touch d. sight e. hearing 4. In the climax of the Alfred Hitchcock thriller, Psycho, you are in a state of extreme fear. If viewed on a PET scan, which area of your brain would be bright white (or highly stimulated)? a. thalamus b. hippocampus c. cerebellum d. pons e. amygdala 5. At the movie theater, you feel a strong urge to eat popcorn and buy a drink. Most likely, this area of your brain is sending neural impulses influencing your thirst and hunger. a. hippocampus b. nucleus accumbens c. thalamus d. hypothalamus e. amygdala
17 Module 12 The Cerebral Cortex Module Summary Before You Read Module 12 explores the lobes and association areas of the cerebral cortex. Detailed examples and illustrations elaborate on the motor and sensory functions of our brain s complex control center. The module concludes with a discussion of plasticity. Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms and names you will encounter. You may wish to make vocabulary cards for each. Key Terms cerebral cortex glial cells (glia) frontal lobes parietal lobes occipital lobes temporal lobes motor cortex somatosensory cortex association areas plasticity neurogenesis Key Names Paul Broca Carl Wernicke While You Read Answer the following questions In general, what are the functions of the various cortex regions? The motor cortex controls motor movements, the visual cortex is involved in visual perception, the auditory cortex is involved in auditory processing, and the somatosensory cortex registers and processes body touch and movement sensations. 60
18 While You Read How do glial cells support neurons? They provide nutrients and insulating myelin to neurons. They also guide neural connections and mop up ions and neurotransmitters. They also chat with neurons, possibly participating in information transmission and memory. 3. What are the four lobes of the cortex and what basic function does each serve? Frontal lobes: speaking, muscle movements, making plans and judgments Parietal lobes: receives sensory input for touch and body position Occipital lobes: includes areas that receive information from the visual fields Temporal lobes: includes the auditory areas, each receiving information from the ears 4. A homunculus (literally meaning little man ) is a scaled figure used to illustrate physiological functions. In Figure 12.2, a somatosensory and motor homunculus is drawn to explain which functions of the body take up more or less space on the cortex. Using that diagram, answer the following questions: a. Which area(s) of the body is/are depicted as overly large in the motor cortex shown on the left of the diagram? Thumbs and lips b. Why would these structures need greater space in the motor cortex? Thumbs are essential to human action and require precise control. Lips are involved in speaking, eating, smiling, etc. all of which are key human behaviors that ensure survival. c. What area(s) of the body is/are depicted as overly large in the somatosensory cortex shown on the right of the diagram? Thumbs and lips d. Why would these structures need greater space in the somatosensory cortex? Because they are so essential, they have many nerve endings that receive sensory input from the environment and will need a great deal of space in the somatosensory cortex. 5. In which lobe is the motor cortex located? How does the location of the motor cortex help us to better understand the function? The motor cortex s location in the rear of the frontal lobe helps us understand that its function involves coordinating voluntary movements with the rest of the body.
19 62 Module 12 The Cerebral Cortex 6. In which lobe is the somatosensory cortex located? How does the location of the somatosensory cortex help us to better understand the function? It s located in the parietal lobe. This lobe is concerned with the receiving of stimuli from the environment. 7. Why do you think the motor and somatosensory cortexes are located adjacent to one another? Answers will vary. 8. In which lobe is the visual cortex located? How about the auditory cortex? Visual cortex: occipital lobes Auditory cortex: temporal lobes 9. List three of the varied functions of the association areas. Any three of these: They are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking. 10. How might the functions of #9 assist in debunking the myth that humans use only a minor percentage of our brains? A majority of the brain is devoted to higher mental functions. 11. How does the case of Phineas Gage illustrate the function of the frontal lobe? His personality changed drastically after the accident. The link between the frontal lobes, which control judgment and decision making, and the limbic system, the seat of emotionality, caused an unfiltered expression of varied and discordant emotions in Gage. 12. What role do Broca s area and Wernicke s area play in language? Broca s area is involved in expressive language and damage to this area causes speech disruption. Wernicke s area is involved in receptive language and damage to this area disrupts understanding.
20 While You Read What is plasticity and what are two instances in which it could occur? Plasticity is the brain s ability to change, especially during childhood, by reorganizing after damage or by building new pathways based on experience. Answers will vary. 2. What is the significance of plasticity? It helps an individual compensate for loss of function and continue functioning to some degree. 3. Give two examples from the text of the brain s ability to reorganize or reassign brain functions. A stroke victim who had lost function of one hand and arm was put to work cleaning tables with the bad arm. New pathways developed and the bad arm recovered its skills. A blind person who reads Braille with one finger shows an increase in the brain area dedicated to the function of that finger and neural pathways form in the visual cortex that is unused. 4. How is neurogenesis different from plasticity? Plasticity involves the reuse of existing brain areas for new purposes, while neurogenesis involves the creation of new brain cells.
21 64 Module 12 The Cerebral Cortex Module 12 Review After You Read Complete the matching questions below to see if you have mastered the basics. Terms B E A C D F G 1. cerebral cortex 2. glial cells 3. motor cortex 4. somatosensory cortex 5. association areas 6. plasticity 7. neurogenesis Definitions A. Area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements B. The body s ultimate control and processing center that covers the cerebral hemispheres C. Area at the front of the parietal lobes that processes body touch and movement sensations D. Areas of the cortex involved in higher mental functions such as learning and speaking E. Cells that support, nourish, and protect neurons F. The brain s ability to reorganize after damage or build new pathways based on experience G. The formation of new neurons Label the lobes and identify the brain s hemispheres in the cross-section. Then, briefly describe each lobe s function below. a. Frontal lobe b. Parietal lobe c. Temporal lobe d. Occipital lobe Left hemisphere Right hemisphere a. motor movement and judgment and decision making c. auditory processing b. sensory information d. visual processing
22 Module 13 Brain Hemisphere Organization and the Biology of Consciousness Module Summary Before You Read Module 13 discusses the early and now classic work in split-brain patients that yielded vast information about the lateralization of the brain hemispheres. Detailed graphics and diagrams assist in conveying the key aspects of right- and left-brain functions. The module closes with the biology of consciousness and the explanation of dual processing. Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms and names you will encounter. You may wish to make vocabulary cards for each. Key Terms corpus callosum split brain consciousness cognitive neuroscience dual processing Key Names Michael Gazzaniga Roger Sperry Answer the questions and complete the charts below. While You Read What is lateralization, and why is it important in the way our brain functions? Lateralization is the differing functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain. Research over the years has shown that damage to one hemisphere or the other can produce different problems and knowing this can help predict behavior. 2. What is meant by the term split brain? Is it correct to refer to this condition as having two brains? Split brain is a term used to describe the brain after cutting the corpus callosum. No, this is not two brains, but rather, one brain with two hemispheres that no longer communicate
23 66 Module 13 Brain Hemisphere Organization and the Biology of Consciousness 3. Fill in the chart below with some of the tasks served by each hemisphere of the brain. As you continue to read this module, return to this chart and add new information as you learn it. Left Hemisphere Functions Right Hemisphere Functions reading perceptual tasks writing making inferences speaking modulating speech certain arithmetic reasoning/calculating orchestrating our sense of self 4. Why do the tasks listed above lend themselves to the myth that we are right- or left- brained? Using the information regarding the brain structures and association areas you learned in the last two modules, address why this myth is erroneous. Answers will vary; however, strong answers will indicate an understanding that strength in any task is not due solely to the activation of structures in only one hemisphere but is a coordinated, holistic process that includes the entire brain. 5. What role does the corpus callosum play in relation to the two hemispheres? It connects the two hemispheres and relays messages between them. 6. Using Figures 13.2 and 13.3, and your knowledge of brain structures, explain step-by-step why Gazzaniga s patients were able to: a. say the word ART ART was flashed in the right visual field of the screen and was transmitted to the left hemisphere of the brain. The left hemisphere contains language centers such as Broca s and Wernicke s area and is able to send a signal to the motor cortex to direct the person to say ART. b. point to the word HE with their left hand HE was flashed in the left visual field of the screen and was transmitted to the right hemisphere of the brain. The right hemisphere controls the motor coordination of the left side of the body and will direct the left arm to point to the word HE.
24 While You Read What is the relationship between handedness and speech processing? 96% of right-handers process speech in the left hemisphere; 70% of left-handers process speech in the left hemisphere. The remainder process speech in either the right hemisphere or both hemispheres. 8. How does split-brain research help us to understand the functions of our two brain hemispheres? By severing the corpus callosum and the communication between each hemisphere, researchers can study the functions of each hemisphere separately How is cognitive neuroscience changing the way we understand mental processes? Cognitive neuroscience relates specific brain states to conscious experiences and thus helps us to understand the how of the brain. 2. How does consciousness help humans survive? It helps us act in our long-term interests by considering consequences rather than merely seeking short-term pleasure and avoiding pain. It also promotes our survival by anticipating how we seem to others and helping us read their minds. 3. What is dual processing? Give an example from the text of dual processing. Give an example from your own life of dual processing. Dual processing is the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks. An example from the text would be the dual processing of vision, which is made up of a visual perception track and a visual action track. Answers will vary. 4. How does the example of the hollow face illusion (Figure 13.7) demonstrate dual processing? Our conscious mind sees the illusion as a protruding mask, yet our unconscious mind will reach into the inverted mask to flick off a buglike target. What our conscious mind does not know, our unconscious does.
25 68 Module 13 Brain Hemisphere Organization and the Biology of Consciousness Module 13 Review After You Read Answer the questions below to see if you have mastered the basics. 1. Jonathon undergoes an MRI and his doctor discovers a tumor in the left hemisphere of his brain. Which of the following functions may be impacted by this tumor? a. Jonathon s perceptual abilities b. the control of the left side of Jonathon s body c. Jonathon s ability to speak d. Johathon s ability to understand subtleties and inferences in literature or poetry e. Jonathon s understanding or sense of self 2. Myung Li was involved in a car collision and suffered severe injuries to the right side of her head. Her doctor has been giving her a battery of tests to determine to what extent her various functions are affected. In a remote-associates test in which Myung Li views three words (such as butter, fire and fruit) and is asked to produce a fourth word that would be able to pair with each of the three words to produce a new word, Myung Li is likely to a. modulate her speech when producing the answer. b. be able to quickly draw a picture of the word with her left hand. c. quickly produce the required word. d. be able to rapidly write the answer with her left hand. e. be unable to make the inference necessary to produce the word. 3. In Michael Gazzaniga s classic HEART experiment with split-brain patients, he found that patients were able to a. use their right hand to point to the word ART. b. use their right hand to point to the word HE. c. verbally express the word HE. d. verbally express the word HEART. e. use their left hand to point to the word ART. 4. In a controlled replication of Gazzaniga s experiment, when shown an image of a frog in the left visual field and an image of a football in the right visual field, split-brain patients were able to correctly a. use their left hand to point to a picture of a football. b. use their right hand to point to a picture of a frog. c. use their left hand to point to a picture of a frog. d. use either hand to point to both the frog and the football. e. verbally express the word FROG. 5. In order to reduce or eliminate epileptic seizures in patients, surgeons Philip Vogel and Joseph Bogen severed a. the amygdala. b. the corpus callosum. c. the hypothalamus. d. the limbic system. e. the cerebellum.
26 Module 14 Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences Module Summary Before You Read Module 14 defines genes, and describes how behavior geneticists explain our individual differences. The potential uses of molecular genetics research are explored and the concept of heritability is explained. The interaction of heredity and environment and the relationship of heritability to individuals and groups are discussed. Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms you will encounter. You may wish to make vocabulary cards for each. Key Terms behavior genetics environment chromosomes DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) genes genome identical twins (monozygotic) fraternal twins (dizygotic) molecular genetics heritability interaction epigenetics Answer the following questions/prompts. While You Read Using key terms from the text, complete the three analogies below: a. Your book of life: You b. chromosomes : the chapters in your book c. words in the chapter: genes 2. Using #1 as a model, create your own analogy for the relationship between genes, chromosomes, and DNA. Answers will vary
27 70 Module 14 Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences 3. Genes can either be active/expressed or inactive. What does this mean? Genes can either be turned on or off. 4. Why are psychologists interested in variations found at particular gene sites in humans? They are interested in the small variations because they give clues to our uniqueness why one person has a disease that another does not, why one person is short and another tall, outgoing or shy, and so on. 5. Identical twins form from a single fertilized egg cell and are genetically identical. What are two important qualifications to the statement above? Although they have the same genes, they don t always have the same number of copies of those genes one twin may be more at risk for certain illnesses. Most twins share a placenta but one of every three has two separate placentas one twin s placenta may provide slightly better nourishment which would contribute to twin differences. 6. Fraternal twins form from separate fertilized eggs. They share a fetal environment but are genetically no more similar than brothers and sisters.. 7. How are identical twins behaviorally more similar than fraternal twins? Studies show that on both extraversion and neuroticism, identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins. Identical twins, more than fraternal twins, also report being treated alike. 8. Discuss the findings of Bouchard s twin studies. He studied identical twins raised apart and found similarities in tastes, physical attributes, personality, abilities, interests, and even fears. 9. What is a criticism leveled at Bouchard s studies? The plural of anecdote is not data; in other words if researchers brought together a control group of unrelated strangers and had them spend several hours together comparing stories and histories, they would find many similarities that might seem striking. 10. According to the text, what is the rather counterintuitive finding regarding adoptive families versus biological families? People who grow up together, whether biologically related or not, do not much resemble each other in personality. Adopted children are more similar to their biological parents than to their adopted parents, with whom they live. 11. The environment shared by a family s children has virtually no discernible impact on their personalities. a. Describe what is meant by this statement, and why people are often surprised by this finding. Environment really doesn t have that large of an impact on personality and this is surprising because most people would argue that it does. In fact, children in the same family are often very different. b. In what ways does the statement above seem true for your family, extended family, or friends and their siblings? Answers will vary.
28 While You Read What is molecular genetics? Why is it important to the study of human behavior? Molecular genetics is the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes. The study of molecular genetics is important to the study of human behavior because genetics influence human behavior. 2. What are some ways in which DNA gathering techniques are being used to help humans? People s genes can reveal if they are at risk for learning disorder, depression, schizophrenia, and alcohol use disorder How is heritability defined? Heritability is the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. Heritability may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied. 2. As environments become more similar, heredity as a source of difference becomes more important. Why is this the case? Because as environments are more alike, any differences between people are increasingly due to genes. If everyone was raised in a loving, healthy home, then if one person differed from another in any significant way, genes would explain the difference better than environment Heredity deals the cards; environment plays the hand. C. Brewer, 1990 (p. 131) How does Charles Brewer s quote above explain the interaction between heredity and environment? You are born with a certain set of genes (your hand) and how you play it either to win or lose the hand is the environment. 2. How is the example of two babies born with different genetic personalities used to explain how heredity and environment work together? The baby with the attractive, sociable, and easygoing genetics (heredity) attracts the more affectionate and stimulating care (environment) and thus develops into a warmer and more outgoing person.
29 72 Module 14 Behavior Genetics: Predicting Individual Differences 3. What does it mean to say that genes react? How might this cause differences between traits of identical twins? Genes have the potential to influence development but environment can turn them on or off. Genes react to the environment and, even in identical twins, different environments (classrooms, friends, sports teams, and so on) can trigger a particular gene to react and thus launch a series of environment and hereditary interactions that result in differences between the twins. 4. What example from your own life can you give to show how heredity and environment work together Answers will vary. Module 14 Review After You Read Complete the questions below by noting whether the answer is high or low to see if you have mastered the basics of heritability. 1. Conor and Aidan, fraternal twins raised in the same home, have many traits in common. Both boys are outgoing, interested in building puzzles and playing soccer. However, Conor is compliant and easy-going, while Aidan is stubborn and rigid. Psychologists would gauge the heritability of this personality difference as high. high or low 2. Students attending Japanese schools are often reported as having higher math and science scores than students attending American schools. The heritability of these math and science differences would likely be low. high or low 3. Olivia and Dantelle are identical twins that were separated at birth and raised in two different homes. Olivia grew up in Georgia and Dantelle was raised in New York City. They each enjoy unflavored yogurt, pickles and horseradish, and both laugh with a distinctive throaty sound. Yet, Olivia is curious and inquisitive, while Dantelle seems uninterested in learning new things. The heritability of their personality differences would likely be low. high or low 4. True or False? As environments become more similar, heritability of differences between groups from those environments increases. 5. True or False? If differences among people are mostly attributable to genes, then the heritability is closer to 0.
30 While You Read 73 Module 15 Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature Module Summary Before You Read Module 15 discusses the concept of natural selection and adaptation in an evolutionary context and explores some of the work evolutionary psychologists do. The criticisms of evolutionary psychology and the responses from those that work in the field are presented. Lastly, the biopsychosocial approach to explaining behavior and mental processes is presented and explained. Before beginning the module, take a moment to read each of the following terms and names you will encounter. You may wish to make vocabulary cards for each. Key Terms evolutionary psychology natural selection mutation Key Name Charles Darwin Answer the following questions/prompts. While You Read How were researchers Belyaev and Trot able to produce domesticated foxes? They selected and mated the tamest 5 percent of males and 20 percent of females. Over more than 30 generations of foxes, they repeated this procedure. Eventually they had a new breed of foxes that were domesticated. 2. What are the larger implications of Belyaev and Trot s study? When generations of a species are selected for a particular trait, the offspring become fixed into that particular trait. 73
31 74 Module 15 Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature 3. No more than 5 percent of the genetic differences among humans arise from population group differences. Some 95 percent of genetic variation exists within populations. (Rosenberg et al, 2002 in Myers, p. 136) a. How does the text s author explain the statement above using the examples of Icelandic villagers and Kenyans? The typical genetic difference between the two Icelandic villagers or between the two Kenyans is much greater than the average difference between the groups. b. How might this statement be explained using a different group, for example, males and females? The genetic differences between two males is greater than the average difference between males and females. 4. How do contemporary scientists feel about Darwin s theory of natural selection? They admire and use it. 5. What is the second Darwinian revolution and why is it significant? The second Darwinian revolution is the application of Darwinian principles to psychology. Evolutionary psychologists ask what over time has caused certain behaviors and fears, such as phobias of snakes over more dangerous threats such as guns. 6. How does evolutionary psychology explain behavior tendencies? The behaviors that promote success in survival become selected over generations.
32 While You Read What arguments do evolutionary psychologists make that support men s increased interest in sex? One man can spread his genes through many females, and is capable of fathering more children at once than a woman can mother/carry. 2. What arguments do evolutionary psychologists make that support women s increased interest in partnering and pairing? Women have to incubate and nurse one infant at a time and by pairing wisely, a woman increases the odds that her genes will pass into the future. 3. What is significant about these presumed gender differences in mating preferences? People believe them to be true and women look for older, mature, and settled males for partners, while men look for younger, fertile women for partners List three criticisms of evolutionary psychology. starts with an effect and works backward suggests a genetic determinism blurs the line between genetic legacy and social-cultural tradition Using Figure 15.1, discuss the three influences on individual development according to the biopsychosocial model. Answers will vary, but a strong answer discusses biological influences, psychological influences, and social-cultural influences from the figure.
33 76 Module 15 Evolutionary Psychology: Understanding Human Nature 2. Using the trait of aggressiveness, list possible a. biological components: Answers will vary. sample answer: genetic predisposition to behave aggressively b. social components: Answers will vary. sample answer: aggressive treatment by parents and/or peers c. psychological components: Answers will vary. sample answer: a belief that one has to be aggressive to succeed in the world 2. Why do you think the text author included this section in this module? Answers will vary. Module 15 Review After You Read Complete the matching questions below to see if you have mastered the basics. Terms or Names Definitions or Descriptions B D C E A 1. evolutionary psychology 2. natural selection 3. mutation 4. biopsychosocial approach 5. Charles Darwin A. Evolutionary theorist B. The study of the gradual change over time of behavior and the mind C. A random error in gene application that leads to a change D. The principle that inherited traits that contribute to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations E. The belief that we are products of our genes, our environment, and our psychological decisions
34 Check Yourself 77 3 Check Yourself Now that you have mastered the basics, work through the problems below to see if you can synthesize, evaluate, and analyze what you have learned. Samuel is a cross-country runner for your school and has qualified for the state crosscountry meet. He has been training for years and is in top shape for the event. In order for Samuel to successfully perform at the meet, several key biophysiological functions will occur simultaneously from the neural impulses his brain sends and the release of key neurotransmitters, to the structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems and endocrine systems. 1. Describe the neural transmission occurring in Samuel s body while he is warming up for the race. Be sure to include how a message moves through each part of a neuron and how messages communicate between neurons. The dendrites of Sam s neurons are picking up signals and conveying them through the cell body (soma) and into the axon. The action potential occurs and the impulse speeds down the myelinated axon toward the terminal branches. The vesicles within release neurotransmitters (see #2 below) into the synapse where they are received by receptor sites on the post-synaptic neuron s dendrites. The signal moves to the next neuron and reuptake occurs as the neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the vesicles. 2. What neurotransmitters are likely being released at the synapse while Sam is competing at the meet? Sample answer: glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter, might be released as neurons increase the speed of the nervous system functions. Sample answer 2: acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that enables muscle action might be released as Sam s interneurons send signals to the efferent(motor) neurons to contract his leg muscles. Additional responses may be correct student should correctly state a neurotransmitter (from the chart on page 82, Module 9) that would plausibly be involved in the running of a cross country meet. 3. Choose four brain structures and discuss how each structure is active in Samuel as he runs. Be sure to include how these particular brain structures are associated with Samuel and the cross-county meet. Sample answer: Samuel s cerebellum is active as it controls balance and coordination as Samuel runs. Additional responses may be correct student should correctly state a structure (and its function) that would plausibly be involved in the running of a cross country meet. 4. What function are the three types of neurons serving as Samuel hears the signal to start the race? a. sensory (afferent) neurons: These neurons pick up the auditory signal from the auditory nerve and transmit it to the brain. b. interneurons: These neurons move the signal to the temporal lobe where it will be processed in the auditory cortex. Then these neurons initiate transmission to the motor cortex of the frontal lobe signaling the leg muscles to move. c. motor (efferent) neurons: These neurons carry the motor signal down Samuel s body to his legs to alert the muscles to begin running.
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NERVOUS SYSTEM Academic Resource Center Overview of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system-pns cranial nerves spinal nerves ganglia peripheral nerves enteric plexuses sensory receptors Overview of