Ocean County College. Department of Biology. Submitted by Shai Elkayam #

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Ocean County College. Department of Biology. Submitted by Shai Elkayam #"

Transcription

1 Ocean County College Department of Biology Basic Chemistry for Investigating Living Systems Submitted by Shai Elkayam # Date Submitted: 09/17/2014 Date Performed: 09/15/2014 Lab Section: BIOL 161 DL1 Course Instructor: Professor M. LaBella Purpose To explain how colorimetry can be used to qualitatively detect cellular chemical components. To chemically differentiate between proteins, sugars, starches, and lipids. To identify the roles of molecular components in living systems. To comprehend the value using a systematic approach to research. To describe why hypothesis, controls, standards, and quality control are important in scientific research. To suggest scenarios where colorimetry can be applied to medical and industrial applications. Materials Distilled water, table salts, vegetable oil, potato, onion, tap water, egg, IKl indicator 2.1%, starch solution 1% stabilized, a- Amylaze powder, Biuret reagent, Benedict s reagent, Sudan lll, Glucose Solution 20%, ph 7.0 Buffer (Yellow). Discussion and Review All living material, whether it is mitochondria, cytoplasm, nuclear material, DNA, chloroplasts, or other type of cellular or intra- cellular component, consist of one of four major types of molecules: starch and sugars (carbohydrates), proteins, fats (lipids), nucleic acids (including DNA and RNA). Colorimetry is a type of analytical technique used to determine the presence or absence of a molecule such as lipids and sugars through qualitative analysis. It can be used in quantitative determinations. The term colorimetry refers to the detection of a molecule by the color change observed in the prepared sample as the result of the presence of the molecule of interest. The molecule of interest is also referred to as the sample to as the test substance. In colorimetry a reagent is added to the liquid sample and forms a color complex with the molecule for which it is specific. The presence of a molecule of interest is detected by a color change in the sample. There are a number of reagents which are specific to the detection of a given molecule.

2 Procedure of preparation prior to performing Lab Exercise 1% Albumen Solution: made of mixed 2mL egg white with 18mL ph buffer solution. Calculation: egg white contain 10% albumen protein, so 2mL egg white x 10% = 0.2 ml albumen. (0.2 ml / 20 ml solution) x 100 = Albumen solution 1%. Alpha- amylase solution: made of alpha- amylase powder mixed with distilled water. 0.4% Potato Starch solution: made of 5mL starch solution diluted with 12.5 ml distilled water. Calculation: (1% x 5 ml potato starch solution) / 12.5 ml water potato starch solution = 0.4% 1% Glucose solution: 1mL of 20% glucose solution diluted with 20m L distilled water. Calculations: (20% glucose/ml water) / 20mL water = 1% glucose/ml Onion juice solution: juice from fresh chopped onion. Potato juice solution: juice from fresh chopped potato. Exercise 1: Testing for the Presence of Proteins in Cells Procedure When protein molecules are present, Biuret Reagent reacts with the protein to form a violet color. 6 test tubes, one control and five different solutions, were filled from 1.0 cm from the bottom. Data Table 1: Biuret Reagent Test for protein (Student to fill in) Hypothesis: Is test substance Test Tube Contains Contains Protein Final Color present/ Yes or No? Absent? 1 Water No Almost colorless Absent 2 Albumen Yes Yellow - Violet Yes 3 Amylase Yes Light violet Yes Potato No Almost colorless Absent 4 Starch 5 Onion Juice No Yellow - purple Little concentration 6 Potato Juice No Yellow - purple Little concentration Labpaq questions A. What is the test substance? Answer: Protein B. Which test tube represents the control? Why? Answer: the distilled water represents the control because we know that it has no substance in it, thus any change in the other tubes can be compared to the control tube.

3 C. Which test tube contained the most test substance? Answer: the albumen has the most protein. D. Other than the control, which test tube contained the least test substance? Answer: potato starch E. Did the results agree with your initial hypothesis in every case? Why or why not? Answer: I assumed that except albumen and amylase, potato juice and onion juice both will not show protein in the test. However, since potato and onion juice have low amounts of protein (1% and 2%), the protein substance show little concentration of protein in their tubes. F. What are your conclusions about your results? Answer: Certain foods, like eggs, are rich in protein such as the albumen in the egg- white, and some enzymes, such as Amylase, are made of protein. Every living system contains some amount of protein since they are made of cells, but the Biuret Reagent is not able to detect very small amount of protein, such as in the potato and the onion. G. If the color change is not as you expected, what might be the reasons? Answer: it indicates that the test substance is not present in that sample. H. Add another 5 drops of Biuret Reagent to each test tube and stir as before. Do your results change? Answer: No change. Labpaq discussion A. What is the purpose of this exercise? Answer: the purpose of this exercise is to use Biuret Reagent as a colorimetric indicator of the presence of protein in a number of samples. When protein molecules are present, Biuret react with the protein to form violet color. B. Why is it important to clean droppers and equipment between chemical uses? Answer: Clean equipment is important to prevent cross- contamination which can skew the test results. C. What other types of foods or substances contain high levels of protein? Answer: Muscle fibers, hair, nails, skin, enzymes, and certain foods. D. Suggest a situation where you might use the Biuret Reagent colorimetric test. Answer: conditions such as diabetes or chronic kidney failure can be detected using urine test. These types of diseases allow proteins to path through the kidneys and end up in the urine which can then be found by a protein test as colorimetry with Biuret Reagent.

4 E. What other types of analytical procedures detect the presence of proteins? Answer: Dumas method, Kjeldhal method, Lowry protein assay, Turbidimetry, and Bradford protein assay. Exercise 2: Testing for the presence of starch in cells Procedure When starch molecules are present, Iodine Indicator Solution reacts with the starch to form a black- blue color. 6 test tubes, one control and five different solutions, were filled from 1.0 cm from the bottom. Observations Data Table 2: Iodine Solution Test for Starch (Student to fill in) Hypothesis Is test substance present/ Test Tube Contains Contains Starch Final Color absent? Yes or No? 1 Water No Orange- yellow Absent 2 Albumen No Orange- yellow Absent 3 Amylase No Orange- yellow Absent Potato 4 Yes Black- blue Yes Starch 5 Onion Juice No Orange- yellow Absent 6 Potato Juice Yes Black- blue Absent Labpaq questions A. What is the test substance? Answer: Starch. B. Which test tube represents the control? Why? Answer: the distilled water represents the control because we know that it has no substance in it, thus any change in the other tubes can be compared to the control tube. C. Which test tube contained the most test substance? Answer: Potato starch. D. Other than the control, which test tube contained the least test substance? Answer: albumen and amylase. E. Did the results agree with your initial hypothesis in each case, why or why not? Answer: the results agreed with my initial hypothesis. Albumen and amylase are proteins so they do not contain starch. Onion is not a starchy vegetable (1.1% average protein) so I did not suspect that there is any significant amount of starch. And potato juice and potato starch are both rich in starch and the colorimetry test proved that by presenting the expected black color.

5 F. What are your conclusions about the results? Answer: there are different ways in nature to save carbohydrate as energy for growth. Onion save carbohydrates in the form of sugars while potato saves carbohydrates in the form of starch (large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds). G. If the color change is not as you expected it to be, what might be the reasons? Answer: all the colors came as expected. Labpaq discussion A. What is the purpose of this exercise? Answer: since iodine solution reacts with carbohydrates to form a blue- black color, a substance that contains carbohydrates can be detected by this colorimetry test. B. What other types of foods or substances contain high levels of starch? C. Answer: starch produced by most green plants as an energy store and is contained in large amounts in staple foods as potatoes, wheat, maize (corn), and rice. D. Suggest a situation where you might use the iodine colorimetric test. Answer: test for starch concentration in the gastrointestinal system can be made with the starch colorimetry test. E. What other types of analytical procedures detect the presence of starch? Answer: methods like chromatographic method, gravimetric method and electrographic method. Exercise 3: Testing for the presence of sugar in cells Procedure: When sugar molecules are present, Benedict s reagent (copper sulfate) reacts with the sugar to form a green color (lowest concentration) orange red brown color (highest concentration). 6 test tubes, one control and five different solutions, were filled from 0.5 cm from the bottom. Observations Data Table 3: Benedict s Reagent Test for Sugar (Student to fill in) Hypothesis Is test substance present/ Test Tube Contains Contains Sugar Final Color absent? Yes or No? 1 Water No Translucent blue Absent Glucose Yes Red- brown Yes high concentration 3 Albumen No Blue Absent Potato No Blue Absent 4 Starch 5 Onion No Orange- red Yes small concentration 6 Potato Juice No Green- orange Yes - trace amount

6 Labpaq questions A. What is the test substance? Answer: Sugar B. Which test tube represents the control? Why? Answer: the distilled water represents the control because we know that it has no substance in it, thus any change in the other tubes can be compared to the control tube. Since the tube is translucent blue and it has no sugar and orange- red color indicates sugar, the right comparison can be made to determine if sugar is present. C. Which test tube contained the most test substance? Answer: the tube with the glucose. D. Besides the control, which test tube contained the least test substance? Answer: the tube with the potato starch had the least amount of sugar. E. Did the results agree with your initial hypothesis in every case? Why or why not? Answer: my hypothesis for onion and potato juice is that not enough sugar will be indicated by the test. However, the Orange- red color after the reagent was added indicated that both the onion and the potato juice tubes showed small amount of sugar in the test. F. What are you conclusions about the results? Answer: Benedict's reagent is used in a test for the presence of reducing sugars, so the positive test in the glucose tube indicates that glucose is a reducing sugar which reacts with Benedict s reagent. G. If the color change is not as expected, what might be the reasons? Answer: it can be the result of cross- contamination and/or wrong amounts of solutions and reagent. Labpaq discussion A. What is the purpose of this exercise? Answer: to use colorimetry with the Benedict s reagent to qualitatively detect sugar molecules in various solutions. Benedict s reagent test is positive for sugar when the tested solution color is changed to orange or red or brown. B. Suggest a scenario where you might use the Benedict s reagent colorimetric test. Answer: one example is to use this reagent to test for blood sugar level for people with diabetes. C. How might one determine whether the potato or onion contains more sugar? Answer: The potato solution color turned to green- orange color and the onion solution turned to orange- red color turned when the Benedict s reagent was introduced to these tubes. Thus, by the reagent know color scale of green color (lowest concentration) orange red brown color (highest concentration) we could determine that onion cells have more sugar than potato cells. D. What other types of foods or substances contain high levels of sugar? Answer: milk, fruits, sugar cane, and honey for example.

7 E. What other types of analytical procedures detect the presence of sugars? Answer: electrophoretic method, gravimetric method, and chromatographic method for example. Exercise 4: Testing for the presence of lipids in cells Procedure When lipids molecules are present, Sudan lll stain dissolve when in contact with lipids. 6 drops of the Sudan lll stain were placed on a filter paper, and after they dried up, a circle was drawn with a pencil around each stain drop. Then, one drop from 6 different tested solutions and liquids were placed on the dried stain spots. If the stain spot dissolves and pushed beyond the circle, it indicates that the tested substance has lipids because like dissolves - like, and the Sudan lll stain, as a fat soluble dye, was dissolved. Observations Data Table 4: Lipid Test Results Macromolecule Being Tested Hypothesis: Contains lipids, or not? Results from Test Potato Starch No No Onion Juice No No Vegetable Oil Yes Yes Distilled Water No No Albumen No No Potato Juice No No Labpaq questions A. What is the test substance? Answer: lipids B. Which test tube represents the control? Answer: the distilled water represented the control since we know that lipids are not water soluble, and it will not dissolve in the Sudan lll stain. C. Which test tube contained the most test substance? Answer: vegetable oil. D. Other than the control, which test tube contained the least test substance? Answer: the onion juice, potato starch, and amylase. E. Did the results agree with your initial hypothesis in every case? Explain why or not. Answer: yes, the results agreed with my initial hypothesis in every case.

8 Labpaq discussion A. What is the purpose of this exercise? Answer: the purpose of the exercise was to qualitatively detect lipids in some cellular chemical compounds. Sudan lll is a fat- soluble dye used for staining lipids that helps to detect lipids when they placed in this stain since Sudan lll dissolves when reacts with lipids. In this experiment, the lipid is dissolved in Sudan lll and spread outside of the circle. B. Explain the molecular basis as to why Sudan III can be used to detect the presence of lipids, but not sugar or proteins. Why can Biuret, Benedict's and Iodine Reagents detect the presence of proteins, starches, and sugars, but not lipids? Answer: It has lots of rings, which are hydrophobic (the avoid water). The fatty acid tails of lipids are also hydrophobic and just like hydrophilic molecules will dissolve in water, hydrophobic molecules will dissolve in other hydrophobic materials - in this case, lipids C. What other types of foods or substances contain high levels of lipids? Answer: cooking oil, nuts, and fat tissues. D. What other types of analytical procedures detect the presence of lipids? Answer: Babcock method, Gerber method, and detergent method. E. Fill in the summary Table 5 in the Lab Report Assistant section, by noting which complexing reagents (dyes) can be used to determine which cellular components. Use + to indicate that the dye will detect the component, and to indicate that it will not detect the component. Data Table 5: Testing the Chemical Composition of Cells Indicate a + mark if the reagent reacts with test substance Indicate a - mark if the reagent does NOT react with test substance Test Substance Biuret Solution Iodine Stain Benedict s Reagent Sudan III Protein (Albumen) Sugar Starch Lipid References: 1. Hands- On Labs, Inc., Experiment: Basic Chemistry for Investigating Living Systems 2. Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman (2013), Biology in Focus, Campbell

5 E Lesson Plan. Common Core State Standards: (written out): Lesson Objectives:

5 E Lesson Plan. Common Core State Standards: (written out): Lesson Objectives: 5 E Lesson Plan Title: You Are What You Eat: Testing for Organic Compounds in Foods Grade Level and Course: 8 th grade, Physical Science 10 th grade, Biology 11 th grade, Chemistry Materials: 8 test tubes

More information

CHEMICAL DIGESTION WORKSHEET. a. Define digestion and explain the two different major processes that take place.

CHEMICAL DIGESTION WORKSHEET. a. Define digestion and explain the two different major processes that take place. CHEMICAL DIGESTION WORKSHEET Name: Due Date: I. Enzymatic Action in Digestion a. Define digestion and explain the two different major processes that take place. b. Define enzyme based on its detailed structure

More information

Macromolecules. Detected: Reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group; typically mono or disaccharides) Iodine Starch Carbohydrates

Macromolecules. Detected: Reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group; typically mono or disaccharides) Iodine Starch Carbohydrates Macromolecules Abstract: There are four broad classes of macromolecules that can be found in living systems. Each type of macromolecule has a characteristic structure and function in living organisms.

More information

Macromolecules in my food!!

Macromolecules in my food!! Macromolecules in my food!! Name Notes/Background Information Food is fuel: All living things need to obtain fuel from something. Whether it is self- made through the process of photosynthesis, or by ingesting

More information

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids

BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids BIO 3A LABORATORY Biologically Important Molecules Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids Objectives To perform tests that detect the presence of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Lab #18H The Biochemistry of Digestion

Lab #18H The Biochemistry of Digestion Name Date Period Lab #18H The Biochemistry of Digestion Background: The most common organic compounds found in living organisms are lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. Common foods, which

More information

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2

Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Organic Molecules of Life - Exercise 2 Objectives -Know the difference between a reducing sugar and a non-reducing sugar. -Distinguish Monosaccharides from Disaccharides and Polysaccharides -Understand

More information

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods. Abstract. Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, Determination of Specific Nutrients in Various Foods Abstract Humans need to consume food compounds such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins to meet their energy requirements. In this lab, reagents

More information

Using Indicators to Test for Compounds

Using Indicators to Test for Compounds Title of Lab: Using Indicators to Test for Compounds Name Date Period Purpose of the Lab: ( pts) (How can you determine the presence of a certain organic compound in a substance?) Hypothesis: ( pts) Materials:

More information

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules

McMush Lab Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules 5 Testing for the Presence of Macromolecules OBJECTIVE Students will learn confirmation tests for the presence of glucose, starch, lipids and proteins. Students will then apply the test procedures to a

More information

Hillsborough Community College - Ybor City Campus 1025C Laboratory Exercise 2: Indicator Tests for Important Nutrients Introduction

Hillsborough Community College - Ybor City Campus 1025C Laboratory Exercise 2: Indicator Tests for Important Nutrients Introduction What are Indicators? Hillsborough Community College - Ybor City Campus 1025C Laboratory Exercise 2: Indicator Tests for Important Nutrients Introduction Indicators are chemicals that help identify the

More information

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives.

Lab 2 Biochemistry. Learning Objectives. Introduction. Lipid Structure and Role in Food. The lab has the following learning objectives. 1 Lab 2 Biochemistry Learning Objectives The lab has the following learning objectives. Investigate the role of double bonding in fatty acids, through models. Developing a calibration curve for a Benedict

More information

Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein

Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein Conduct A Qualitative Test For Starch, Fat, A Reducing Sugar, A Protein Biology Leaving Cert Experiments Materials/Equipment Starch solution (1%) Iodine Solution Glucose Solution (1%) 100 C) Benedict s

More information

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio.

macromolecule: monomer: polymer: a. The elements found in carbohydrates occur in a specific ratio. Describe that ratio. NAME: DATE: Biological Macromolecule Poster Project HOUR: BIOLOGY You and your table mates will be researching and creating an informational poster on one of four biological macromolecules: carbohydrates,

More information

Who took Jerell s ipod? -- An organic compound mystery 1

Who took Jerell s ipod? -- An organic compound mystery 1 Who took Jerell s ipod? -- An organic compound mystery 1 Jerell is a 10 th grade student who works at McDonald s on the weekends. While on break, Jerell was studying for his biology test and listening

More information

Testing for Life s Molecules

Testing for Life s Molecules Testing for Life s Molecules Overview All known life is made up of a small group of chemical compounds called organic molecules. Common organic molecules include proteins, glucose, starch, lipids, and

More information

Lab 3046 Identifying Nutrients in Foods. Students will use chemical tests to determine composition of foods and practice safe laboratory procedures.

Lab 3046 Identifying Nutrients in Foods. Students will use chemical tests to determine composition of foods and practice safe laboratory procedures. Lab 3046 Identifying Nutrients in Foods ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES Students will use chemical tests to determine composition of foods and practice safe laboratory procedures. PURPOSE/OVERVIEW Students will determine

More information

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules

McMush. Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules Biology McMush Testing for the Presence of Biomolecules MATERIALS AND RESOURCES EACH GROUP aprons beaker, 250 ml 2 clamps, test tube goggles graduated cylinder, 50 ml paper towels test tube brush test

More information

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: FOOD TEST 6 FEBRUARY 2013

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: FOOD TEST 6 FEBRUARY 2013 ORGANIC COMPOUNDS: FOOD TEST 6 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: Definition of Organic Compounds and Inorganic compounds Important terminology Summary of the

More information

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Laboratory Exercise Three

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM. Laboratory Exercise Three DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Laboratory Exercise Three INTRODUCTION: The human digestive system consists of a tube running from the mouth to the anus with specialized regions for the breakdown of food. The food is

More information

Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion

Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion Biology 13A Lab #13: Nutrition and Digestion Lab #13 Table of Contents: Expected Learning Outcomes.... 102 Introduction...... 103 Food Chemistry & Nutrition.... 104 Activity 1: Testing for the Presence

More information

Chemical Processes of Digestion

Chemical Processes of Digestion Chemical Processes of Digestion Objective: To explain in short essays or diagrams how carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested into end products that can be absorbed into the blood, at the level

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Recognizing Organic Molecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins Oct 15 8:05 PM What is an Organic Molecule? An Organic Molecule is a molecule that contains carbon and hydrogen and oxygen Carbon is found

More information

Hands-On Lab. Identifying Organic Nutrients. Timing: one 90-minute class session

Hands-On Lab. Identifying Organic Nutrients. Timing: one 90-minute class session Hands-On Lab Identifying Organic Nutrients Timing: one 90-minute class session Objective(s): Students will use chemical indicators to test unknown substances for the presence of certain organic molecules

More information

Plant oils and their uses

Plant oils and their uses Plant oils and their uses 94 minutes 94 marks Page of 36 Q. The label on a bottle of salad dressing shows that the dressing contains the following ingredients. Water Vegetable oil Egg yolk Sugar Flour

More information

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES

LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical

More information

Q1. (a) The diagrams show the results of shaking a vegetable oil with the substances indicated.

Q1. (a) The diagrams show the results of shaking a vegetable oil with the substances indicated. Q. (a) The diagrams show the results of shaking a vegetable oil with the substances indicated. (i) Give a reason for the result in Flask. () Explain the result in Flask 2. (b) Saturated fats are linked

More information

6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin

6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin 6 Characterization of Casein and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) Objectives: A) To separate a mixture of casein and bovine serum albumin B) to characterize these proteins based on their solubilities as a function

More information

TOTAL PROTEIN FIBRINOGEN

TOTAL PROTEIN FIBRINOGEN UNIT: Proteins 16tproteins.wpd Task Determination of Total Protein, Albumin and Globulins Objectives Upon completion of this exercise, the student will be able to: 1. Explain the ratio of albumin and globulin

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients

Absorption and Transport of Nutrients Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into

More information

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers)

10-ml Graduated cylinder 40 ml 3% Hydrogen peroxide solution (found in stores) Straight-edged razor blade Scissors and Forceps (tweezers) Name: Class: Date: Objectives * Measure the effects of changes in temperature, ph, and enzyme concentration on reaction rates of an enzyme catalyzed reaction in a controlled experiment. * Explain how environmental

More information

Cell Biology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Cell Biology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Cell Biology Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells Observation of cells and organelles In this lab you will be looking at an example of a Prokaryotic cell (Bacillus cereus) and a some examples of Eukaryotic

More information

Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (available at ).

Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas (available at  ). Teacher Preparation Notes for A Scientific Investigation What types of food contain starch and protein? by Dr. Ingrid Waldron, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, 2013 1 In this activity

More information

A Scientific Investigation What types of food contain starch and protein? 1

A Scientific Investigation What types of food contain starch and protein? 1 A Scientific Investigation What types of food contain starch and protein? 1 In this activity you will learn about starch and proteins and investigate which types of food contain starch and which types

More information

Science Building Blocks Food and Digestion

Science Building Blocks Food and Digestion Video Education Australasia Bringing Learning to Life Program Support Notes Science Building Blocks Food and Digestion Junior Secondary 26mins Teacher Notes by Sue Wright B.Sc., Dip. Ed. Produced by Video

More information

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance

Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Name Biology 3 ID Number Lab 3 Organic Molecules of Biological Importance Section 1 - Organic Molecules Section 2 - Functional Groups Section 3 - From Building Blocks to Macromolecules Section 4 - Carbohydrates

More information

A Scientific Investigation What types of food contain starch and protein? 1

A Scientific Investigation What types of food contain starch and protein? 1 A Scientific Investigation What types of food contain starch and protein? 1 In this activity you will learn about starch and proteins and investigate which types of food contain starch and which types

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens. How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens How Sweet It Is: Enzyme Action in Seed Germination Overview This experiment is intended to familiarize students with the macromolecule starch,

More information

Digestive Enzyme Lab

Digestive Enzyme Lab Digestive Enzyme Lab Objectives 1. To describe the enzymatic digestion of carbohydrates by salivary amylase 2. To describe the enzymatic digestion of protein by pepsin 3. To describe the emulsification

More information

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant

Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall Unit 1: Scientific Method. Independent Variable. Dependent Variable. Control. Constant Benchmark Study Guide Biology Fall 2016 Name: Unit 1: Scientific Method Term Definition Independent Variable Dependent Variable Control Constant 1. Holly wants to know which plant food is the best for

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

A Scientific Look at Nutrition. Supplement for CEV DVD #80121

A Scientific Look at Nutrition. Supplement for CEV DVD #80121 A Scientific Look at Nutrition Supplement for CEV DVD #80121 A Scientific Look at Nutrition Supplement for CEV DVD #80121 Goal: To understand the purpose and function of the six essential nutrients Objectives:

More information

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement

Digestive System Why is digestion important? How is food digested? Physical Digestion and Movement Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down

More information

Testing for Sugars and Starch

Testing for Sugars and Starch The Science of Nutrition Laboratory Science 70 Testing for Sugars and Starch Carbohydrates are the body's most important and readily available source of energy. Even though they've gotten a bad reputation

More information

Running Head: ACTION OF CATALASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES 1. Action of Catalase in Different Tissues. San Nguyen. SanNguyen2@my.unt.edu. Biol 1730.

Running Head: ACTION OF CATALASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES 1. Action of Catalase in Different Tissues. San Nguyen. SanNguyen2@my.unt.edu. Biol 1730. Running Head: ACTION OF CATALASE IN DIFFERENT TISSUES 1 Action of Catalase in Different Tissues San Nguyen SanNguyen2@my.unt.edu Biol 1730.537 October 12, 2012 Aswad Khadilka October 12, 2012; 8:00 am

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Exampro GCSE Chemistry

Exampro GCSE Chemistry Exampro GCSE Chemistry C Chapter 6 higher Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 46 Marks: 46 Comments: Page of 9 Q. Cooking oils contain unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats are more healthy than saturated fats.

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Section 3: Factors That Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions best

Section 3: Factors That Affect the Rate of Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions best Biology 12 Name: Metabolism Practice Test Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only 1

More information

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism

Carbohydrates. Pentose-carbon sugars MONOSACCHARIDES. Chemical Formulas. Hexose-carbon sugars. Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Carbohydrates Chapter 3 Carbohydrates and Metabolism Anatomy and Physiology Text and Laboratory Workbook, Stephen G. Davenport, Copyright 2006, All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication can be used

More information

Biology Practical/BI706/

Biology Practical/BI706/ INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION/UPI/ Faculity of science and mathematics Education DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY Primary School Teacher guide for the experiment on how sensitive is the iodine test on starch

More information

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids

The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The Structure and Function of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids & Phospholipids The FOUR Classes of Large Biomolecules All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: Carbohydrates

More information

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets

Chapter 2. The Chemistry of Life Worksheets Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter

More information

fossum/files/2012/01/10 Enzymes.pdf

fossum/files/2012/01/10 Enzymes.pdf http://www.laney.edu/wp/cheli fossum/files/2012/01/10 Enzymes.pdf Enzyme Catalysis Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for biological reactions. Enzymes, like all catalysts, speed up reactions without

More information

Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice

Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice 1 Vitamin C Content of Fruit Juice Introduction Vitamin C Vitamins are organic compounds that have important biological functions. For instance, in humans they enable a variety of enzymes in the body to

More information

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2

Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats. Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats Chapter 5 Lesson 2 Carbohydrates Definition- the starches and sugars found in foods. Carbohydrates are the body s preferred source of energy providing four

More information

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions

Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions Name: Date: Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions amylase What are Enzymes? starch glucose Enzymes are compounds that assist chemical reactions by increasing the rate at which they occur. For example,

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Metabolism Practice Test KEY

Metabolism Practice Test KEY Biology 12 Metabolism Practice Test KEY Name: Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only

More information

Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1

Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1 Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1 1. Which substances are inorganic compounds? A. water and salts B. proteins and carbohydrates C. fats and oils D. enzymes and hormones 2. Which substance is an inorganic

More information

5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules.

5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. 1. In the diagram below, which substance belongs in area Z? 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. A)

More information

Process of Science: Using Diffusion and Osmosis

Process of Science: Using Diffusion and Osmosis Process of Science: Using Diffusion and Osmosis OBJECTIVES: 1. To understand one way to approach the process of science through an investigation of diffusion and osmosis. 2. To explore how different molecules

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

BREAKING DOWN STARCH USING SALIVARY AMYLASE

BREAKING DOWN STARCH USING SALIVARY AMYLASE Caution: You will be using a Bunsen burner and glassware to create your own constant water bath. Appropriate caution should be exercised when dealing with the Bunsen burner, hot water, and glassware. Purpose:

More information

HiPer Carbohydrates Estimation Teaching Kit (Qualitative)

HiPer Carbohydrates Estimation Teaching Kit (Qualitative) HiPer Carbohydrates Estimation Teaching Kit (Qualitative) Product Code: HTBC002 Number of experiments that can be performed: 25 Duration of Experiment: 4 hours Storage Instructions: This kit is stable

More information

Procedure for Protein Analysis. Protein Extraction

Procedure for Protein Analysis. Protein Extraction Name Section Lab 6 Protein, Fats, Sugars and Starch Plants are composed of a variety of compounds, many of which humans use for food, drugs oils and cosmetics. Besides water, certain plant organs have

More information

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison

ATP. Division Avenue High School Regents Biology. Types of cells. Cells & Cell Organelles. Why study cells? Cell size comparison Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life AP Biology 2008-2009 animal cells Eukaryotes - organelles Cell size comparison Animal cell Bacterial

More information

Experiment 10 Enzymes

Experiment 10 Enzymes Experiment 10 Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts for biological reactions. Enzymes, like all catalysts, speed up reactions without being used up themselves. They do this by lowering the

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Cells & Cell Organelles

Cells & Cell Organelles Cells & Cell Organelles The Building Blocks of Life H Biology Types of cells bacteria cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cells Cell size comparison Animal cell

More information

Diffusion, Osmosis, and Membrane Transport

Diffusion, Osmosis, and Membrane Transport Diffusion, Osmosis, and Membrane Transport Introduction... 2 Diffusion and osmosis as related to cellular processes... 2 The hotter the medium, the faster the molecules diffuse... 2 TASK 1: TEMPERATURE

More information

1 Test for Starch and Metanil Yellow in Food Items

1 Test for Starch and Metanil Yellow in Food Items Test for Starch and Metanil Yellow in Food Items 13 TERM I 1 Test for Starch and Metanil Yellow in Food Items EXPERIMENT 1A AIM To test the presence of starch in the given food sample. APPARATUS/MATERIALS

More information

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole

Cell and Membrane Practice. A. chromosome B. gene C. mitochondrion D. vacuole Name: ate: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains N?. chromosome. gene. mitochondrion. vacuole 2. potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure below. Which

More information

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch

Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Introduction Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acid building blocks. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of metabolic

More information

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal

The digestive system, also called the gastrointestinal exercise 8 Chemical and Physical Processes of Digestion Objectives 1. To define digestive tract, accessory glands, digestion, hydrolases, salivary amylase, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, bile salts,

More information

Table of Content. Enzymes and Their Functions Teacher Version 1

Table of Content. Enzymes and Their Functions Teacher Version 1 Enzymes and Their Functions Jeisa Pelet, Cornell University Carolyn Wilczynski, Binghamton High School Cornell Learning Initiative in Medicine and Bioengineering (CLIMB) Table of Content Title Page Abstract..

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information

HUMAN BODY. Are You My Carbohydrate?

HUMAN BODY. Are You My Carbohydrate? Are You My Carbohydrate? Searching for the products of carbohydrate digestion: starch and glucose. ObjectiveS Students will be able to: Identify the presence of glucose and starch using common indicators

More information

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz

OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS AND DIALYSIS 2003 BY Wendy Weeks-Galindo with modifications by David A. Katz OSMOSIS Osmosis is the reason that a fresh water fish placed in the ocean desiccates and dies. Osmosis is the reason

More information

Chemistry 101. Chemistry Experiments for the Home Acidity Determination Using Indicators

Chemistry 101. Chemistry Experiments for the Home Acidity Determination Using Indicators Chemistry 101 Chemistry Experiments for the Home Acidity Determination Using Indicators I. Objective: To determine the acidity of a variety of common substances by the use of indicators. To prepare your

More information

Determination of Vitamin C in Foods 2013 by David A. Katz. Al rights reserved.

Determination of Vitamin C in Foods 2013 by David A. Katz. Al rights reserved. Determination of Vitamin C in Foods 2013 by David A. Katz. Al rights reserved. Object The object of this experiment is to measure the amount of ascorbic acid in common foods using an oxidation reduction

More information

B2 3 Enzymes. 77 minutes. 77 marks. Page 1 of 25

B2 3 Enzymes. 77 minutes. 77 marks. Page 1 of 25 B2 3 Enzymes 77 minutes 77 marks Page of 25 Q. Enzymes have many uses in the home and in industry. (a) Which type of organism is used to produce these enzymes? Tick ( ) one box. Mammals Microorganisms

More information

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes

Biochemistry. B.9.C identify and investigate the role of enzymes Biochemistry B.9.A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids B.9.D analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding

More information

Cell Unit Practice Test #1

Cell Unit Practice Test #1 ell Unit Practice Test #1 Name: ate: 1. Which organelle is primarily concerned with the conversion of potential energy of organic compounds into suitable form for immediate use by the cell?. mitochondria.

More information

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates

The Chemistry of Carbohydrates The Chemistry of Carbohydrates Experiment #5 Objective: To determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds in each class

More information

LAB #6 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

LAB #6 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration LAB #6 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Introduction In order to survive, organisms require a source of energy and molecular building blocks to construct all of their biological molecules. The ultimate

More information

Saliva. Biological Screening

Saliva. Biological Screening Saliva Saliva Colorless fluid secreted by three glands in the mouth: Sublingual Submandibular Parotid Saliva from parotid glands contain amylases, enzymes, which aid in the digestion of carbohydrates Saliva

More information

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form.

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form. Biology 1 Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Name Date our Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Use the correct word from the box to complete the sentence about this first step. evaporating filtering pressing

Use the correct word from the box to complete the sentence about this first step. evaporating filtering pressing Q. A vegetable oil can be extracted from olives. (a) The diagram shows the first step in this extraction. Use the correct word from the box to complete the sentence about this first step. evaporating filtering

More information

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life.

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. Introduction to Biology and Chemistry Outline I. Introduction to biology A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. B. Characteristics of Life 1. Form and size are characteristic. e.g. A

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

The Periodic Table also shows the atomic number of the element. is the number of protons (and usually electrons) in one atom of the element.

The Periodic Table also shows the atomic number of the element. is the number of protons (and usually electrons) in one atom of the element. Chemistry The Periodic Table also shows the atomic number of the element. is the number of protons (and usually electrons) in one atom of the element. This Elements are arranged from left to right and

More information

1. Define and give an example of the following:

1. Define and give an example of the following: Name: KEY Date: / / HR: Section 1 Chemistry of Life CHAPTER 3 CELL PROCESSES REVIEW 1. Define and give an example of the following: a. Atoms invisible particles that make up all mater; made from protons,

More information

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling

Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Name: Date: Block: Molecular Modeling Background: In biology, the four most important elements found in living things are: H hydrogen (1 valence electron) O oxygen (2 valence electrons) N nitrogen (3 valence

More information

Biotechnology Outreach Program. B i o t e c h n o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y

Biotechnology Outreach Program. B i o t e c h n o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y Biotechnology Outreach Program B i o t e c h n o l o g y L a b o r a t o r y DNA Extraction from Fruit DNAExtraction Introduction Students extract a visible mass of DNA from 4 different fruits and visually

More information

The objective of this lab was to determine if LACTAID really works to digest

The objective of this lab was to determine if LACTAID really works to digest Matthew Przybysz Bio Lab Report 11/18/12 OBJECTIVE: The objective of this lab was to determine if LACTAID really works to digest milk sugar, lactose. If lactaid is added to milk, glucose will be detected

More information

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells).

Investigating cells. Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells

More information

HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH BY SALIVARY AMYLASE

HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH BY SALIVARY AMYLASE Experiment 5 1 V HYDROLYSIS OF STARCH BY SALIVARY AMYLASE I. OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND Amylase, an enzyme present in saliva, catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages in starch. The effect of

More information