The French and Indian Wars

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1 The Great War for Empire French and Indian War ( ) [Seven Years War - Europe] FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR: The French and Indian war was fought between Britain and France. It lasted from , with the colonies supporting Britain and the Indians supporting France. This war spanned three different continents and it was the main factor in the ending of "salutary neglect." This war planted the seeds of misunderstanding between Britain and the colonies and indirectly was one of the causes of the Revolutionary War. Britain came out victoriously with the Treaty of Paris. The French and Indian Wars : The French and Indian War Over Ohio River Valley trade / settlement - French build forts Fort Duquesne and are friendly with the Indians - English Gov. Dunwittie has stock in Ohio Land Company sends George Washington to expel the French - British declare war 1754 : Albany Plan of Union - for defense fails and shows disunity of colonies 1

2 Albany Plan of Union: Join or Die. Albany Plan of Union Albany Plan of Union, Benjamin Franklin : Colonial confederation based on the ideas of Franklin calling for each town to have independence in a large whole, known as a Grand Council. It was used for military defense and Indian policies and set a precedent for later American unity. Edward Braddock Edward Braddock : Braddock was the General of all the British Troops (French and Indian War), he led an attack against Fort Duquesne, never reaching his destination for they were attacked by the Monongahela River where 900 of his 1200 men were wounded or killed. Braddock was wounded at this battle and died soon afterwards. 2

3 Fort Duquesne Fort Duquesne : This was the fort that General Braddock tried to take during the French and Indian War but him and his troops were slaughtered in an ambush at the Monongahela, where 900 of the 1200 troops were wounded or killed. Later General Amherst captured the fort. Fort Duquesne William Pitt William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, known as 'the Great Commoner', dominated the political scene influencing government from within and without. He is remembered for his vocal criticism of harsh British policy levied against the American colonies and his skills as a wartime leader during the Seven Years' War. 3

4 Siege of Louisbourg: 1758 The fall of Louisbourg was a pivotal event in the war, giving the British control of the mouth of the St. Lawrence River and opening the door to the fateful Quebec campaign of the following year. News of this British victory followed closely on the heels of the reports from forts Duquesne and Frontenac, and indicated a sharp change in the fortunes of the war. Siege of Quebec: 1759 Quebec Falls to the British 4

5 The End of New France in North America Treaty of Paris: 1763 Ended French and Indian War Ended French control of Canada (British control of Canada) Spain gave Florida to Britain France gave up all land east of the Mississippi to the British France gave up all land west of the Mississippi to the Spanish North America Before 1754 North America After

6 Proclamation of 1763 No white settlers west of the Appalachians British claimed it was temporary British hoped to appease Indian nations in Ohio Valley Land speculators angry American colonists angry Frontier Line: 1763 Pontiac s Rebellion, 1763 Pontiac s Rebellion, 1763 : After France had to give up the territory they had near and around the Appalachian Mountains the Indians were afraid that the British would come in and start to settle down permanently, to make sure this didn t happen Chief Pontiac launched an offensive at Bushy Run and Pontiac s forces won for the time being. 6

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