Unit 3: Ionic and Molecular Compounds

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1 Unit 3: Ionic and Molecular Compounds Name Block Learning Goals A. Describe how chemical bonds can form between atoms. Your Prior Understanding of Learning Goals Excellent Good Okay Poor B. Write the symbols for the simple ions of the representative elements. C. Using charge balance, write the correct formula for an ionic compound. D. Given the formula of an ionic compound, write the correct name; given the name of an ionic compound, write the correct formula. E. Write the name and formula for an ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion. F. Given the formula of a molecular compound, write its correct name; given the name of a molecular compound, write its formula. G. Draw the Lewis dot formulas for molecular compounds with multiple bonds. H. Predict the three-dimensional structure of a molecule and classify it as polar or nonpolar. I. Use electronegativity to determine the polarity of a bond or a molecule. Set an appropriate academic goal for yourself and your learning for this unit by responding to the following questions. a. What would you like to achieve academically by studying this unit? I want to. b. How will you know that you have met this academic goal? I will have met my goal when. c. What are two specific strategies/activities you plan on using or doing in order for you to achieve your goal? In order to achieve my academic goal, I will. d. Why is this goal important to you? This goal is important to me because. e. What is the deadline for reaching this goal? I will achieve my goal by. 33

2 Chemical Bonds Learning Goal: Describe how chemical bonds can form between atoms. Electrons in the outermost shell of any atom give that atom its chemical properties, including its ability to form. The important outermost electrons are called electrons; the shell they occupy is called that atom s. valence electrons are relatively stable and are referred to as pairs. electrons strongly tend to bond by pairing up with an electron from another atom. Chemical bonds forms in either one of two ways: when one atom an unpaired electron to another atom which also has an unpaired valence electron; this is known as an bond. when two atoms, both of which have an unpaired electrons, their valence electrons to form a single shared valence pair; this is known as a bond. 34

3 Ions Learning Goal: Write the symbols for the simple ions of the representative elements. When the number of protons in an atomic nucleus the number of surrounding electrons in that atom, the charges balance and the atom is electrically. If one or more are lost or gained, the balance is upset and the atom then has a net electric charge. Any atom that has a net electric charge is called an. - Positive ions are formed when a neutral atom electrons; these positive ions are known as. - Negative ions are formed when a neutral atom electrons; these negative ions are known as. Chemists use a to the right of the atomic symbol to show the magnitude and sign of an ion s charge. Usually the numeral 1 is when indicating either a 1+ or 1- charge. Atoms tend to lose or gain electrons so that they end up with an outermost occupied shell that is. 35

4 Ions Learning Goal: Write the symbols for the simple ions of the representative elements. The attraction that an atom s nucleus has for its valence electrons is weakest for atoms and strongest for atoms. Therefore, lose their electrons easily and form cations. gain electrons easily and form anions. tend to not form an ion as they pull strongly on their valence electrons and they have a full valence shell. Transitions metals tend to form ions, but the number of electrons lost tends to. The positive charge of any ion formed from an atom of a transition metal is equal to the number of electrons lost. 36

5 Ionic Compound Formulas Learning Goal: Using charge balance, write the correct formula for an ionic compound. When an atom that tends to electrons comes in contact with an atom that tends to them, an electron occurs. The result of the transfer is that two charged ions are formed. The two oppositely charged ions are then attracted to each other by, which holds them close together. This electric force of attraction between oppositely charged ions is called an. An ionic bond typically forms between cations and anions. All chemical compounds that contain ions are known as. FOR ALL IONIC COMPOUNDS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGES MUST BALANCE! The chemical formula of a compound represents the and in the lowest whole-number ratio of the atoms or ions. - The in the chemical formula for an ionic compound indicate the number of needed to create a compound with an overall charge. - When there is no subscript for a symbol in a formula, it is assumed to be. - The group of ions that contains the lowest ratio of ions in an ionic compound that will achieve a zero charge is called a. 37

6 Ionic Compound Formulas Learning Goal: Using charge balance, write the correct formula for an ionic compound. Use the following steps to write the chemical formula for an ionic compound using charge balance. Guide for Writing Chemical Formulas for Ionic Compounds Example: lithium and nitrogen Another method for writing the chemical formula for an ionic compound is known as the method. 1. Determine the ionic charges of the elements in the ionic compound. 2. Write the number of the charge for the as the subscript for the element symbol. 3. Write the number of the charge for the as the subscript for the element symbol. 4. Reduce the subscripts if necessary to obtain the. 38

7 Ionic Compound Formulas Learning Goal: Using charge balance, write the correct formula for an ionic compound. The formation of ionic compounds can be diagrammed using Lewis dot diagrams. 1. Determine how many are required for the ionic compound. 2. Draw a Lewis dot diagram for of the element that will form. 3. Draw a Lewis dot diagram for of the element that will form. 4. Draw arrows between the diagrams to show the that occurs. 5. Write an arrow, to indicate, followed by the newly formed ions, including. sodium chloride, NaCl magnesium chloride, MgCl 2 Diagram the formation of the ionic compounds that result between the following pairs of elements. Include the chemical formula for the final ionic compound as well. 39

8 Naming Ionic Compounds Learning Goal: Given the formula of an ionic compound, write the correct name; given the name of an ionic compound, write the correct formula. The name of a binary ionic compound, made of two types of ions, has two components: the name of the is written first; this name is the same as the cation s ; the name of the is written second; this name is the of the anion s elemental name followed by the suffix ; a separates the name of the cations and anions. Cation Cation Name Anion Anion Name Al 3+ Br - Ca 2+ Cl - Ge 3+ I - K + N 3- Li + O 2- Mg 2+ P 3- Na + S 2- Name the following ionic compounds using the provided chemical formulas. CaCl2 NaI K3N Al2O3 40

9 Naming Ionic Compounds Learning Goal: Given the formula of an ionic compound, write the correct name; given the name of an ionic compound, write the correct formula. Transition elements and representative metals of groups 4A and 5A can lose electrons from their valence shell and a lower energy level. Therefore, atoms of these elements can form positively charged ions; are described as having a charge that cannot be predicted from the periodic table; require a after their name to indicate the specific charge on the ion. Name the following ionic compounds using the provided ions or chemical formula. Cu 2+ and S 2- Mn 3+ and F - SnO2 Fe3P2 41

10 Naming Ionic Compounds Learning Goal: Given the formula of an ionic compound, write the correct name; given the name of an ionic compound, write the correct formula. The name of an ionic compound can be used to write its chemical formula by following these steps: 1. Write the of the elements that form the ionic compound. 2. Determine the of the cation and anion. a. If the cation has a after it, that is the charge on that ion. b. If there is no Roman numeral, you can determine the charge from the cation s position on the. c. Determine the charge of the by its position on the periodic table. 3. Determine how many of each cation and anion are needed to make the compound. The method can be used for this step. 4. Write the symbols of each element together and add in the appropriate indicating the number of each ion needed for the neutral compound. Determine the chemical formula of the following ionic compounds. magnesium sulfide iron(ii) oxide calcium fluoride aluminum phosphide lead(iv) bromide 42

11 Polyatomic Ions Learning Goal: Write the name and formula for an ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion. A polyatomic ion is a group of that has an overall ionic charge. Most polyatomic ions consist of such as phosphorus, sulfur, carbon, or nitrogen covalently bonded to oxygen atoms Almost all the polyatomic ions are with charges of, or. Only one common polyatomic ion,, has a charge. The names of the most common negatively charged polyatomic ions end in or with the exception of OH - and CN -. The bonding between polyatomic ions and other ions is one of attraction. 43

12 Polyatomic Ions Learning Goal: Write the name and formula for an ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion. To write correct formulas for compounds containing polyatomic ions, follow the same rules of used for writing the formulas of simple ionic compounds. The total negative and positive charges must equal. When more than one polyatomic ion is needed for charge balance, are used to enclose the formula of the ion; a subscript is written of the polyatomic ion to indicate the number needed for charge balance. When naming ionic compound containing polyatomic ions, write the positive ion, usually a, first and then write the name of the. In each of the following ionic compounds, underline the polyatomic ion, write the name of the ion, determine the charge of the polyatomic ion, and indicate how many of that polyatomic ion is needed to make that compound. K 2SO 4 Name: Charge: # of Ions: Ca(OH) 2 Name: Charge: # of Ions: (NH 4) 2S Name: Charge: # of Ions: Write the names and chemical formulas of the following ionic compounds that contain polyatomic ions. aluminum phosphate Mg(NO2)2 lithium carbonate sodium acetate NH4OH 44

13 Molecular Compounds Learning Goal: Given the formula of a molecular compound, write its correct name; given the name of a molecular compound, write its formula. Two atoms can be held together by their they share in a covalent bond. A substance made up of atoms which are held together by covalent bonds is a compound. A is any group of atoms held together by covalent bonds. atoms, and a few metalloids, form covalent bonds, with the exception of the as they typically do not form compounds due to their full valence shells. The chemical formula for a covalent compound uses and just like ionic compounds. - The subscripts indicate the used to form the compound. - Usually, the elements, except for, are written in order of increasing. Provide the formulas for the following compounds. The term covalent refers to the sharing of. of electrons are those electrons found in a single covalent bond. - One electron comes from one of the atoms taking part in the covalent bond; the other electron comes from the other atom taking part in the bond. of electrons are those electrons that exist in the valence shell of an atom but are not part of the covalent bond. - In a nonbonding pair, both electrons come from the. - Nonbonding pairs are also known as. 45

14 Molecular Compounds Learning Goal: Given the formula of a molecular compound, write its correct name; given the name of a molecular compound, write its formula. It is possible to have shared between two atoms in covalent bonds. A occurs when electrons are shared between two atoms. - There are of electrons in a double covalent bond. - A double covalent bond is abbreviated with the term bond. A occurs when electrons are shared between two atoms. - There are of electrons in a triple covalent bond. - A triple covalent bond is abbreviated with the term bond. Multiple bonds like a covalent bond are not commonly observed. A triple bond is stronger than a bond, which is stronger than a bond. In the following diagrams, circle in blue all the single bonds, red all the double bonds, and orange all the triple bonds. Multiple covalent bonds are frequently observed in molecules. Diatomic molecules contain. Many exist in their natural state as diatomic molecules as this provides the atoms a stable electron arrangement. The elements that are diatomic in their natural state include. 46

15 Molecular Compounds Learning Goal: Given the formula of a molecular compound, write its correct name; given the name of a molecular compound, write its formula. The naming of a made of only types of elements involves the use of prefixes. The names need prefixes because from the same two nonmetals. The first nonmetal in the compound is named by its name. The second nonmetal in the compound is named by using the of its elemental name with the ending changed to. that indicate two or more atoms of an element are expressed as placed in front of each name. The prefix mono- is omitted from the in the name. When adding a prefix and the vowels or appear together, the first vowel is omitted from the prefix. Prefix # of Atoms Prefix # of Atoms Writing a chemical formula from the name of a covalent compound is easily done by following these two steps: Write the for each nonmetal in order as they appear in the name. Convert the of the names into. Write either the name or chemical formula of the following covalent compounds. N2O4 Cl2O7 SiF4 sulfur trioxide tetraphosphorus decoxide 47

16 Electron Dot Formulas of Molecular Compounds Learning Goal: Draw the Lewis dot formulas for molecular compounds with multiple bonds. Electron dot formulas illustrate the bonds in a molecule. Electron-dot formulas show the in a molecule; the of electrons shared between atoms; the nonbonding or unshared ( ) of electrons; the bonded to other atoms. The following steps are used to draw an electron dot formula for a molecule. 1. Determine how many are found in the atoms of the molecule. 2. If there is more than one type of atom in the molecule, place the in the center of the electron dot structure. 3. Place electrons so that between each atom. 4. Place the remaining valence electrons around the atoms; check that each atom has an. 5. If octets are not formed, move the electrons around to form between the atoms until octets are made. 6. If needed, redraw the electrons on each atom to form pairs. Write a chemical formula for each covalent compound and draw its electron dot formula. phosphorus trichloride formula: total # of valence e-: carbon monoxide formula: total # of valence e-: oxygen gas formula: total # of valence e-: 48

17 Electron Dot Formulas of Molecular Compounds Learning Goal: Draw the Lewis dot formulas for molecular compounds with multiple bonds. Some exceptions to the octet rule in an electron dot formula include: hydrogen, H, only gets a ; boron, B, has only electrons around it to form bonds; compounds of P, S, Cl, Br, and I can have with,, or even valence electrons around them. Draw electron dot formulas for the following compounds. BH3 SF6 PBr5 There are variations on how to draw an electron dot formula. Chemists often use a straight line to represents the two electrons involved in a covalent bond. - straight line represents a single bond. - straight lines a double bond. - straight lines a triple bond. In some representations, the pairs are left out. Redraw the following electron dot formulas by replacing bonding pairs of electrons with lines and then by removing the nonbonding pairs of electrons. Electron Dot Formula w/ All Valence e- Electron Dot Formula w/ Lines for Bonding e- Electron Dot Formula w/o Nonbonding e- 49

18 VSEPR, Molecule Shape and Polarity Learning Goal: Predict the three-dimensional structure of a molecule and classify it as polar or nonpolar. The three-dimensional shape of a molecule is important to understanding how it interacts with its surroundings. In the valence shell electron-pair repulsion ( ) theory, the electron groups around an atom are arranged as far apart as possible to minimize the between their charges. An electron group can be of electrons or of electrons in single or multiple bonds. The number of electron groups is determined by drawing the of a molecule. 2 Electron Groups off Central Atom Electron Group Structure Molecular Shape 2 bonding electron groups lone pair bonding electron group 3 Electron Groups off Central Atom 4 Electron Groups off Central Atom Electron Group Structure Molecular Shape Electron Group Structure Molecular Shape 3 bonding electron groups 4 bonding electron groups 2 bonding electron groups 1 lone pair 3 bonding electron groups 1 lone pair 2 bonding electron groups 2 lone pairs 50

19 VSEPR, Molecule Shape, and Polarity Learning Goal: Predict the three-dimensional structure of a molecule and classify it as polar or nonpolar. A chemical bond is a tug-of-war between atoms for electrons. If the two atoms in a covalent bond are, their nuclei have the same positive charge, and therefore, the electrons are shared. In a covalent bond between non-identical atoms, the nuclear charges are, and the bonding electrons may be shared. Uneven sharing of electrons may give rise to slightly positive and negative charges on atoms; this is known as a. - A bond is considered if there is no dipole. - A bond is considered if there is a dipole. The positive and negative ends of a dipole are indicated with the symbol or. A dipole can also be represented by a crossed arrow,, pointing to the side of the bond. The molecular shape can be used to predict the polarity of a molecule. Molecular Shape Polarity Explanation polar nonpolar polar nonpolar polar nonpolar polar nonpolar polar nonpolar the polarity depends on the electronegativity of the bonded atoms in the molecule the polarity depends on the electronegativity of the bonded atoms in the molecule the lone pairs of electrons create an uneven distribution of electrons the polarity depends on the electronegativity of the bonded atoms in the molecule the lone pairs of electrons create an uneven distribution of electrons Identify whether you think the following molecules are polar or nonpolar based on shape and dipoles. polar nonpolar polar nonpolar polar nonpolar polar nonpolar 51

20 Electronegativity and Polarity Learning Goal: Use electronegativity to determine the polarity of a bond or a molecule. The attraction that an atom has to electrons has been measured experimentally and quantified as the atom s. The range of electronegativities runs from to. The an atom s electronegativity, the its ability to pull electrons toward itself when bonded. Electronegativity is greatest for elements at the of the periodic table and lowest for elements at the. Rank the following element from largest to smallest electronegativity: Al, F, Mg, Rb, S. > > > > Why do the noble gases have no electronegativity values? Electronegativity values can be used to determine the of a chemical bond by calculating the between the electronegativity values of the bonded atoms. Bonds with an electronegativity difference of are considered. Bonds with an electronegativity difference of are considered. Bonds with an electronegativity difference are considered. Determine the polarity of each of the following bonds. 52

21 Electronegativity and Polarity Learning Goal: Use electronegativity to determine the polarity of a bond or a molecule. Recall that a, and not just a, can be classified as polar or nonpolar. There are two questions to answer in order to determine molecular polarity. What is the symmetry of the molecular shape? - shapes can be divided into equal parts. Examples: - shapes cannot be divided equally. Examples: Are the atoms bonded to the central atom the same or are they different? - Same atoms form dipoles that by equally distributing electrons within the bonds. - Different atoms form dipoles that may not cancel each other out. This is because of and within the bonds. The polarity of the molecule depends on the combination of a molecule s symmetry and type of atoms. Type of Atoms Bonded to Symmetry Polarity Central Atom N/A Note that a molecule can have polar covalent bonds and not be a polar molecule! Determine the shapes of the following molecules by drawing their electron dot formulas. Then, decide whether the molecules are polar or nonpolar. 53

22 Unit 3: Ionic and Molecular Compounds Learning Goals A. Describe how chemical bonds can form between atoms. Your Level of Mastery of Learning Goals Excellent Good Okay Poor B. Write the symbols for the simple ions of the representative elements. C. Using charge balance, write the correct formula for an ionic compound. D. Given the formula of an ionic compound, write the correct name; given the name of an ionic compound, write the correct formula. E. Write the name and formula for an ionic compound containing a polyatomic ion. F. Given the formula of a molecular compound, write its correct name; given the name of a molecular compound, write its formula. G. Draw the Lewis dot formulas for molecular compounds with multiple bonds. H. Predict the three-dimensional structure of a molecule and classify it as polar or nonpolar. I. Use electronegativity to determine the polarity of a bond or a molecule. On a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high), how well do you think your performance on this exam demonstrated your understanding of these learning goals? Why did you choose this ranking? What learning objective(s) did you enjoy studying the most from this unit? A B C D E F G H I What learning objective(s) did you enjoy studying the least from this unit? A B C D E F G H I Did you meet the goal you set for yourself for this unit? If yes, explain what was successful in helping you reach your goal. If no, describe what you could have done to help you reach your goal. 54

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