Chem 105 Wed Acids and Bases Neutralization reactions OWL 10/2/2009 1

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1 Chem 105 Wed Acids and Bases Neutralization reactions OWL 10/2/2009 1

2 Definition Acid and Base Acid = Compound that produces H + ions when dissolved in water. Base = Compound that produces OH - ions when dissolved in water. HCl (g) Cl - (aq) + H + (aq) KOH (s) K + (aq) + OH - (aq) 10/2/2009 2

3 Along these lines, we can define STRONG and WEAK acids and bases Strong acid = completely dissociates into anion and H + ions Weak acid = partially dissociates into anion and H + ions Strong base = completely dissociated into cation and OH- ions Weak base = forms a low concentration of OHions 10/2/2009 3

4 The Bronsted definition of an acid is based on what happens in reaction between an acid and base. An Acid = Compound that donates H + ion in chemical reaction. A Base = Compound that accepts a H + ion in chemical reaction. Examples HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) NH 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NH 4+ (aq) + OH - (aq) 10/2/2009 4

5 What does HCl (aq) look like: HCl in a water cluster as a model for aqueous solution Balls and cylinders Overlapping spheres 10/2/2009 5

6 HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) H 3 O + (aq) Cl - (aq) 10/2/2009 6

7 HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) This is a product-favored reaction. >99.99% of HCl is ionized in aqueous solution. This behavior DEFINES a strong acid. 10/2/2009 7

8 HCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) H 3 O + is called the hydronium ion. In the reverse direction, H 3 O + acts (to a small extent) as an acid also donating H + ion to Cl-. The position of H + transfer reactions is determined by the relative strengths of acids. HCl is a strong acid. H 3 O+ is a weaker acid. The equilibrium favors the weaker acid. Or The equilibrium tends away from the stronger acid to side with the weaker acid. 10/2/2009 8

9 Other strong acids whose formulas and names you should know: (See Table 3.2 p. 132) HCl Hydrochloric acid HBr Hydrobromic acid HI Hydroiodic acid HNO 3 Nitric acid HClO 4 Perchloric acid H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid 10/2/2009 9

10 What happens when strong acid NITRIC ACID HNO 3 dissolves in water? HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3- (aq) 10/2/

11 Consider what happens when nitric acid is dissolved in water. Which one of the following is the strongest Bronsted acid? 84% HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + NO 3- (aq) 1. NO 3- (aq) 2. HNO 3 (aq) 3. H 2 O 4. H 3 O + (aq) 46% 45% 28% NO3- (aq) HNO3 (aq) H2O H3O+ (aq) 10/2/

12 Consider what happens when nitric acid is dissolved in water. Which one of the following is the strongest Bronsted acid? 1) NO 3- (aq) 2) HNO 3 (aq) 3) H 2 O 4) H 3 O + (aq) Nitrate can t be an acid has no H s to donate. HNO 3 (aq) + H 2 O (l) NO 3- (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Nitric acid is a strong acid, so the reaction with water is just like HCl i.e. to a large extent all the H + ions end up attached to H 2 O. 10/2/

13 Weak acids Definition: Weak acids, when dissolved in water, form only small % H 3 O +. (Say % up to ~10%) Acetic acid Acetate anion CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O (l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 99.99% 0.01% 10/2/

14 Which is the stronger acid? CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O(l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 1. Hydronium ion (H 3 O + ) or 2. Acetic acid (CH 3 CO 2 H) 58% 64% Hydronium ion... Acetic acid (C... 10/2/

15 Which is the stronger acid? Hydronium ion H 3 O + Acetic acid CH 3 COOH Acetic acid Acetate anion CH 3 COOH (aq) + H 2 O(l) CH 3 COO - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) 99.99% 0.01% H + transfer reactions FAVOR THE WEAKER ACID. Or TEND AWAY FROM THE STRONGER ACID. 10/2/

16 Weak acids whose names and formulas you should know: (Table 3.2, p. 132) H 3 PO 4 Phosphoric acid H 2 CO 3 Carbonic acid CH 3 COOH Acetic acid H 2 C 2 O 4 Oxalic acid.. (others not on exams) /2/

17 Why are some acids STRONG and others WEAK? This is controlled by the stability and solvation of the ANION resulting from H + loss. Very stable anion = strong acid Less stable anion = weaker acid OH OH δ+ δ+ O S OH O S O O O + H+ Partially positive S atom stabilizes the 1- charge in hydrogen sulfate ion. OH O O δ+ S O O δ+ S O + H+ O O The 2 nd proton is harder to remove. 10/2/

18 Bronsted BASE: a H + acceptor in chemical reaction. HCl (aq) + H 2 O(l) Cl - (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) SOMETHING has to accept the H + from a strong acid! So water itself CAN ACT as a Brönsted base! Water is amphoteric, that is, it can act as acid or base in different situations. 10/2/

19 Acid-base neutralization reaction Acid + base -> Salt + H 2 O (l) A salt combines the cation from a base and the anion from an acid. NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) -> NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) Write Net Ionic Equation Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) + H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) -> Na + (aq) + Cl - (aq) + H 2 O (l) OH - (aq) + H + (aq) -> H 2 O (l) 10/2/

20 Neutralization occurs because of the strong attraction between H + and OH - ions. Water itself, pure water, does spontaneously form small amounts of H + and OH - ions, which is called selfionization. But only about 1/100,000,000 molecules exits as H + and OH -. Therefore, if you add H + solution to an OH - solution, they will spontaneously revert to that 1/100,000,000 ratio. 2 H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) or, the same thing, written as a reactant-favored reaction: H 3 O + (aq) + OH - (aq) 2 H 2 O (l) 10/2/

21 3.7e Homework: NIE - Acid/Base Reactions OWL problem done on the board (assuming BaF 2 is soluble WRONG!): Write reactants and exchange cations to write the products. HF + Ba(OH) 2 H 2 O + BaF 2 Balance Write separate ions for soluble salts, strong acids. Keep WEAK acids, and water together. 2 HF + Ba(OH) 2 2 H 2 O + BaF 2 2 HF + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) 2 H 2 O(l) + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 F - (aq) 2 HF + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) 2 H 2 O(l) + Ba 2+ (aq) +2 F - (aq) Cancel spectator ions Simplify coefficients to lowest integer values 2 HF + 2 OH - (aq) 2 H 2 O(l) + 2 F - (aq) HF + OH - (aq) H 2 O(l) + F - (aq) (The slide on the solubility rules from Wed s class says to not worry about fluoride salts because these are not covered by OWL s solubility table.. However, apparently OWL is throwing in questions based on the Kotz solubility table too. Advice: Exam 2 will NOT include fluoride salts. For the purposes of doing OWL, PRINT 10/2/2009 OUT BOTH tables, try to remember the correct solubilities, then check both tables. 21

22 OWL problem done correctly assuming BaF 2 is insoluble : Write reactants and exchange cations to write the products. Balance HF + Ba(OH) 2 H 2 O + BaF 2 2 HF + Ba(OH) 2 2 H 2 O + BaF 2 Write separate ions for soluble salts, strong acids. Keep weak acids, insoluble salts, and water together. 2 HF + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) 2 H 2 O(l) + BaF 2 (s) Spectator ions - there are none! 2 HF + Ba 2+ (aq) + 2 OH - (aq) 2 H 2 O(l) + BaF 2 (s) 10/2/

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2-

Note: (H 3 O + = hydronium ion = H + = proton) Example: HS - + H 2 O H 3 O + + S 2- AcidBase Chemistry Arrhenius acid: Substance that dissolves in water and provides H + ions Arrhenius base: Substance that dissolves in water and provides OH ions Examples: HCl H + and Cl Acid NaOH Na +

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