Constraints on the explosion mechanism and progenitors of Type Ia supernovae

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1 Constraints on the explosion mechanism and progenitors of Type Ia supernovae Stéphane Blondin Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Marseille Luc Dessart Observatoire de la Côte d Azur John Hillier University of Pi>sburgh Alexei Khokhlov University of Chicago Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes"

2 A one- dimensional Chandrasekhar- mass delayed- detona3on model for the broad- lined Type Ia supernova 2002bo Blondin, S., Dessart, L., Hillier, D. J MNRAS, 448, 2766 Cri3cal ingredients of Type Ia supernova radia3ve- transfer modelling Dessart, L., Hillier, D. J., Blondin, S., Khokhlov, A. M MNRAS, 441, 3249 Constraints on the explosion mechanism and progenitors of type Ia supernovae Dessart, L., Blondin, S., Hillier, D. J., Khokhlov, A. M MNRAS, 441, 532 [CoIII] versus NaID in type Ia supernova spectra Dessart, L., Hillier, D. J., Blondin, S., Khokhlov, A. M MNRAS, 439, One- dimensional delayed- detona3on models of Type Ia supernovae: Confronta3on to observa3ons at bolometric maximum Blondin, S., Dessart, L., Hillier, D. J., Khokhlov, A. M MNRAS, 429, 2127 Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 2

3 Chemical evolujon Explosive nucleosynthesis main producers of iron combusbon, turbulence Cosmic- Ray AcceleraJon supernova remnants Binary stellar evolujon mass transfer, grav. waves Cosmology, Dark Energy distance measurements Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 3

4 Thermonuclear disrupbon of a C/O WD star near the Chandrasekhar mass 1.4 M M( 56 Ni) 0.5 M Blondin et al. (2015) Light- curve powered by 56 Ni decay Spectra indicate chemical strajficajon Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 4

5 Thermonuclear disrupbon of a C/O WD star near the Chandrasekhar mass 1.4 M M( 56 Ni) 0.5 M Blondin et al. (2015) Light- curve powered by 56 Ni decay Spectra indicate chemical strajficajon Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 5

6 seconds Credit: Frank Timmes Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 6

7 56 Ni M seconds IMEs M Unburnt C/O < 0.1 M Stable Fe/Ni M Credit: Frank Timmes Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 7

8 VariaRon in peak luminosity 10 Diversity at a given luminosity SN 2002bo SN 2011fe Δv 3000 km/s Evidence for mul3ple progenitor channels and explosion mechanisms? Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 8

9 No direct detecjon of SN Ia progenitors (e.g., SN 2011fe in M101, D=6.4 Mpc) Li et al. (2011) M Excluded: Red Giants M > 3.5 M # He star RNe M V 0 Indirect constraints from: potenral progenitor popularons (recurrent Novae, binary WDs, ) early post shock- breakout luminosity (R prog < 0.1 R for SN 2011fe) interacron with binary companion + CSM (Ṁ 10-9 M yr - 1 from radio/x- ray limits) surviving companion star in SN remnants SN rates vs. host stellar popularon Need constraints from numerical simula3ons! Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 9

10 1. C/O WD HydrostaRc X C X O 0.5 Magic 2. Explosion 1D hydro + burning Homologous expansion v(r) t exp < 1 min 1 st Law 3. RadiaJve Transfer 1D non- LTE (CMFGEN) Time- dependent D/Dt Non- local energy deposiron Non- thermal effects Hillier & Dessart (2012) Days since Explosion Iron Nickel Silicon Oxygen Carbon 4. Comparison to ObservaJons Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 10

11 Maximum- light spectra (Blondin et al. 2013) IniRal deflagrajon transirons to a detonajon at a fixed density, ρ tr Lower ρ tr Less 56 Ni Lower L peak but same kinerc energy! Decreasing 56 Ni mass Temperature IonizaRon Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 11

12 Good match to spectral evolujon between d past explosion Blondin et al. (2015) DDC15 vs. SN 2002bo chemical strarficaron spherical symmetry no fine- tuning! Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 12

13 Tycho SNR Iron Silicon Shocked e - Dust spherically symmetric strarfied ejecta Image Credit: MPIA/NASA/Calar Alto Observatory Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 13

14 ρ AM : DDTa-c-e ρ AM =2x10-24 Tycho SNR 56 Ni Iron Silicon Shocked e - Dust Bright Normal SN SN Ia Ia spherically symmetric strarfied ejecta uce amics. check ness. X- ray spectra matched by 1D delayed- detonaron models Dim Normal SN Ia SN Ia Badenes et al. (2006) Image Credit: MPIA/NASA/Calar Alto Observatory Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 14 sity of Pittsburgh Jan

15 Good match to spectral evolujon between d past explosion Blondin et al. (2015) DDC15 vs. SN 2002bo chemical strarficaron spherical symmetry no fine- tuning! too faint/cool at earliest Rmes Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 15

16 Good match to spectral evolujon between d past explosion Blondin et al. (2015) DDC15 vs. SN 2002bo chemical strarficaron spherical symmetry no fine- tuning! too faint/cool at earliest Rmes Ca II 8500 Å emission (Co II?) Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 16

17 11 Khokhlov, Höflich & Müller (1992) Outer envelope v > km/s 10 Outer layers sjll expanding lg R, cm 9 Inner layers v km/s 8 E bind < 0 DeflagraJon Inward shock wave DetonaJon at a fixed density, ρ tr Jme, sec Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 17

18 Standard DD PulsaJng DD PulsaRon leads to a density cliff and a hoher outer ejecta Density Temperature Impacts early- Jme spectra: unburnt C/O at large velocity narrower lines bluer oprcal colors independent of 56 Ni mass! Expect similar interacbon in double WD mergers Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 18

19 Standard DD PulsaJng DD Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 19

20 t exp = 2 d C II 6580 Å Standard DD PulsaJng DD t exp = 15 d Diversity bluer spectra unburnt C narrow lines Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 20

21 Be>er match to the nearby SN 2011fe Standard DD Δt B = 14 d PulsaJng DD Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 21

22 Pure detonaron of sub- M Ch WD Density Model M tot [M ] M( 56 Ni) [M ] E kin [10 51 erg] DDC SCH1p Standard M Ch Sub- M Ch 56 Ni extends to outermost ejecta Impacts light- curve evolujon: 56 Ni faster rise to maximum faster post- maximum decline Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 22

23 Standard M Ch Sub- M Ch SN 1999by (Blondin et al., in preparabon) Be>er match to subluminous events Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 23

24 Standard Chandrasekhar- mass model matches most normal SN Ia No evidence for strong departures from spherical symmetry PulsaRon/interacRon produces diversity at a given luminosity Sub- luminous events appear to require less massive progenitors Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 24

25 Standard Chandrasekhar- mass model matches most normal SN Ia No evidence for strong departures from spherical symmetry PulsaRon/interacRon produces diversity at a given luminosity Sub- luminous events appear to require less massive progenitors More realisrc WD progenitors from stellar evolujon models Compare 1D to angle- averaged mulj- D explosion models hsps://www- n.oca.eu/supernova/home.html Stéphane Blondin (LAM) Journées de la SF2A Atelier PNPS/PNHE "Stades UlJmes" 25

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