Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Pender County, North Carolina Adopted by the Pender County Board of Commissioners on May 21, 2007

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1 Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Pender County, North Carolina Adopted by the Pender County Board of Commissioners on May 21, 2007 Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 305 Chestnut Street, Post Office Box 1810, Wilmington, NC Phone , Fax

2 Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Table of Contents Chapter 1 Introduction...4 Background 4 History.5 Demographics...8 Future Growth.10 Previous Plans & Studies..11 Plan Goals & Objectives 14 Chapter 2 Existing Conditions..15 Arterial Streets 15 Collector Streets.17 Local Streets...19 Pedestrian & Bicycle..19 Public Transportation.20 Traffic & Safety 21 Land Use..24 Zoning...24 Environmental Features...27 Chapter 3 Public Input.29 Residents & Business Owners.30 Land Owners, Developers & Real Estate Professionals..32 Draft Plan Review...34 Chapter 4 Recommendations 36 Updates to Other Transportation Plans...36 Recommended Roadway Improvements 37 2

3 Recommended New Roadways & Reclassifications Recommended Intersection Guidelines..40 Inventory of Stub-out Streets & Easements...40 Roadway Design Guideline Flexibility.41 Planned Developments Higher Density Subdivisions Lower Density Subdivisions Regulatory & Policy Tools.45 Subdivision Ordinance Planned Development (PD) District Requirements Zoning Ordinance Vision for US Highway Chapter 5 Implementation.. 53 Appendices 55 A. Sources...55 B. Transportation Corridor Preservation Overlay District..56 Credits The following people and organizations were instrumental in the completion of this plan: Pat Brennan, Lori Brill, Richie Brown, Ken Day, Don Eggert, Don Ellson, Susan Forbes, Al Freimark, Greater Hampstead Homeowners Association, Hampstead Chamber of Commerce, Michael Herold, Linwood Jones, Barrett Kays, Mike Kozlosky, Kenneth Lanier, Jim McFarland, Joshuah Mello, Burt Millette, North Carolina Department of Transportation, Pender County Board of Commissioners, Pender County Planning Board, Pender County Public Library, Frank Palmer, Allen Pope, Anthony Prinz, Joey Raczkowski, Mark Reyner, Patrick Riddle, Ron Satterfield, Steve Shuttleworth, Ken Vafier, Robert Vause, Commissioner David Williams, David Wilcox, Chuck Wilson, and North Carolina Board of Transportation Member Lanny Wilson. 3

4 Coastal Pender County Collector Street Plan Chapter 1 Introduction Background The Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization (WMPO) is responsible for regional transportation planning within the Wilmington metropolitan area, which is comprised of 10 local municipalities and three counties, including a portion Pender County. The Hampstead and Scotts Hill areas in unincorporated Coastal Pender County were added to the WMPO jurisdiction in August The area is roughly bounded by the New Hanover County border, the Intracoastal Waterway, Sloop Point Loop Road, Pinnacle Parkway, Trumpeter Road and the Northeast Cape Fear River. Downtown Wilmington is approximately 12 miles southwest of Scotts Hill and 16 miles southwest of the center of Hampstead (the intersection of NC 210 west and US Highway 17). The area is about 60 sq. miles with a 2000 Census population of approximately 10,200. The population of Pender County is expected to grow by 23 percent within the next 10 years, and the area adjacent to New Hanover County and the Intracoastal Waterway will likely see the bulk of that growth. US Highway 17, a major intra- and interstate route and North Carolina Strategic Highway Corridor, serves as the area s primary commercial artery connecting Hampstead and Scotts Hill to Brunswick County, Jacksonville, Topsail Island, Wrightsville Beach, Pleasure Island, I-40, and downtown Wilmington and the College Road, Military Cutoff Road and Oleander Drive corridors. 4

5 The proximity to the City of Wilmington and the interstate highway system provides Coastal Pender County with ample opportunity to grow. Recent growth has been clustered on the southeast side of US Highway 17, however this will likely change in the coming years with the opening of the Wilmington Bypass (Interstate 140), the Hampstead Bypass and the Military Cutoff Road extension. The Intracoastal Waterway acts as a natural growth barrier on the southeast side, so most future growth will be pushed to the open land on the northwest side of US Highway 17. The proposed Hampstead Bypass and the potential interchanges at NC 210 and Sidbury Road would greatly improve access to and from the western portion of the study area and could further stimulate growth in this area. The Hampstead and Scotts Hill areas are primarily rural with significant existing or planned suburban residential development in the region closest to the Intracoastal Waterway. US Highway 17 acts as the primary commercial arterial, connecting most local and collector streets. Though the existing rural atmosphere of the area may not necessitate a collector street plan, the potential for growth is likely to dramatically change the landscape in the near future. To accommodate the current and future growth in an efficient manner, to move goods and people within and through the area, and to connect the area with the arterial street system, there is a need to plan a proper collector street system. In a functional street network, a collector street acts as a branch of a tree that connects the trunk, twigs and the leaves. The local streets connect to the collector streets, and the collector streets connect to the arterials or other collector streets. Lack of a proper collector street plan and provisions for future infrastructure would increase the capital and maintenance costs for the community in the long run. For growing communities like Hampstead and Scotts Hill, a well planned collector street system would effectively direct growth and maximize infrastructure investments. History The first European explorers to see what is now called Pender County arrived in They reported on the numerous varieties of game, particularly wild turkeys, found in the area. A century later in 1663, the Barbados commissioners, in attempting to settle the 5

6 Lower Cape Fear, explored the Northeast Cape Fear River. They named the community Rocky Point, the name which it retains today. Although the area was eventually settled in 1725, Pender County was not formed from New Hanover County until The new county was named in honor of General William D. Pender, a Confederate soldier killed in the Battle of Gettysburg. The people of Pender County were patriots during the American Revolution and it was here at Moore's Creek, that the Scottish Highlander Tories sent from Fayetteville were defeated. President Washington is said to have eaten dinner under the old live oak just south of Hampstead on his way from New Bern to Wilmington. The old road that Washington followed was nothing more than a carriage trail through the woods from Comfort and Richlands south. During the 1890s, a railroad line was constructed between New Bern and Wilmington, roughly parallel to what would become US Highway 17. The railroad company named the Coastal Pender County stations Annandale and Hampstead. All manner of goods were transported to and from the area by rail and residents could travel into Wilmington or New Bern for shopping and trading. In the 1870s, the majority of residents worked in farming, clamming, fishing, milling, salt making and shingling. In the Civil War, this area sent nearly 4,000 troops to battle. Still a part of New Hanover County after the war, the area s plantation system declined during the Reconstruction Era. However, it was out of Reconstruction politics that the county was born in The political atmosphere in Wilmington, at the time dominated by Republicans, led many residents of northern New Hanover County to seek secession. By popular vote, and despite strong Republican opposition, the new 6

7 county was created with the City of Watha as the first county seat. Burgaw, the present county seat was chartered in 1879 and received its name from a local Native-American tribe. The highway between Wilmington and New Bern was paved in 1927 and the Intracoastal Waterway was dredged by 1930, offering new transportation options for Coastal Pender County. Hoover Road was widened to a cart trail during President Hoover s term and paved in the late 1940s. NC 210 was paved during World War II in order to better connect Camp Lejeune and Fort Bragg. Passenger service on the rail line between Wilmington and New Bern operated until 1939, however freight service continued until the 1980s. Shortly thereafter the tracks were dismantled. At present day, Pender County is the fifth largest in North Carolina with a land area of square miles. It lies along the coastal plain of Southeastern North Carolina and includes the south end of Topsail Island and several uninhabited barrier islands to the south. The incorporated Town of Burgaw is the county seat and the site of almost all county government offices. 7

8 The land abutting the waterway east of US Highway 17, included in the study area, is officially referred to as Topsail Township and includes Hampstead. Scotts Hill is an unincorporated area to the south of Hampstead along US Highway 17 and just to the north of the New Hanover County border. The inland areas of Pender County include both the Holly Shelter Game Land and the Angola Bay Game Land, both important public hunting areas. The Holly Shelter Game Land at 64,743 acres is one of the largest in the state and is not transected by any public roads. Demographics The population of the three census block groups which comprise the study area of Coastal Pender County increased by 61.56% between 1989 and 1999 and it can be assumed that growth has only accelerated in the six years since, as the area has become more accessible and the Wilmington urban area has expanded. The number of housing units in the area grew at a similar rate of 55.76% during the same period, with the largest concentration of new homes, a total of 707, built in Hampstead (Block Group ). According to the Pender County Planning Department, 3,539 housing units were permitted countywide from 2000 to Table 1.1 Population Change in Coastal Pender County between 1989 and 1999 by Census Block Group Block Group Holly Shelter Hampstead Scotts Hill Total 1989 Population 1,338 2,485 1,546 5,369 Block Group Holly Shelter Hampstead Scotts Hill Total 1999 Population 2,446 4,073 2,155 8,674 Total Change 61.56% Source: United States Census Bureau With the economic growth of the Wilmington area and retirees flocking to Coastal Pender County, the median household income increased from 7% to 26% in each of the three block groups between 1989 and Adjusted for inflation, the Holly Shelter area saw the greatest increase at 26.12%, while Hampstead was only 13.59% and Scotts Hill grew 7.63%. Clearly, as the Wilmington metropolitan area expands into 8

9 formerly rural areas of the county and the number of retired people increases, the median household income will continue to increase. The means of transportation to work for workers 16 years and older has also changed somewhat in recent years. As noted in Table 1.2, between 1989 and 1999, the rate of carpooling declined by over 13 percentage points, while driving alone became more popular, growing by 6.19 percentage points. However, a smaller percentage of people used cars, trucks or vans to reach work in 1999 due to a significant increase in those working at home and smaller increases in the percentage of those using public transportation and walking. Of those that shared rides, the number in 2-person carpools increased by almost 10 percentage points between 1989 and 1999, while the number in 3-, 4-, 5- or 6-person carpools decreased from between 0.2 and 5.7 percentage points. Seven-person carpools remained stagnant. Table 1.2 Change in Means of Transportation to Work in Coastal Pender County between 1989 and Change Car, truck, or van: 96.25% 91.03% -5.42% Drove alone 77.28% 83.47% 8.02% Carpooled 18.97% 5.59% % Public transportation: 0.00% 0.29% 0.29% Motorcycle 0.00% 0.00% 0.0% Bicycle 0.00% 0.00% 0.0% Walked 0.42% 0.77% 83.09% Other means 1.22% 0.67% % Worked at home 1.69% 4.42% % Source: United States Census Bureau The place of work for area workers 16 years and older also changed significantly between 1989 and In 1989 there was a large disparity between block groups, with only 14.08% of Scotts Hill residents working in Pender County and more than 25% of the other two block groups working in the county. In the ensuing decade, the percentage of each block group working within the county became much more even, with all areas measuring between 27% and 43%. In both 1989 and 1999, Hampstead had the largest percentage of residents who worked inside Pender County. For all three 9

10 block groups, the percentage of workers who crossed county lines for work increased by 8.64 percentage points and those who worked outside of North Carolina decreased by 0.87 percentage points. Coupled with this growth in inter-county travel was an increase in the time people spent commuting. Between 1989 and 1999, the number of people who had commutes of more than sixty minutes increased by 1.75 percentage points, while those with commutes of between 15 and 45 minutes declined sharply by percentage points. The number of workers 16 years and older who worked at home increased by 3 percentage points during the 1990s. Table 1.3 Change in Travel Time to Work in Coastal Pender County between 1989 and Change Did not work at home: 98.31% 93.32% -5.07% 0-14 minutes 19.26% 14.35% % minutes 34.93% 19.38% % minutes 35.14% 22.97% % minutes 6.31% 5.30% % More than % 4.42% 65.66% Worked at home 1.69% 4.42% % Source: United States Census Bureau Future Growth According to a study completed by Tommy Hammer, Ph.D. for the Wilmington Metropolitan Planning Organization, the population of Southeast Pender County is expected to increase by more than 28,000 people between 2000 and Table 1.4 Estimated Increase in Population and Employment in Southeast Pender County between 2000 and 2030 Current Ten-year Change Future Percent Population 13,818 6,364 9,785 12,574 42, % Jobs 3,440 1,541 3,021 4,781 12, % Source: Tommy Hammer, Ph.D. 10

11 An additional 9,343 new jobs will be created in these same three-decades. Hammer predicts that Southeast Pender County (which also includes Surf City and southern Topsail Island) will show the highest percentage gains in both population and employment in the Wilmington region between 2000 and According to Hammer, the remainder of Pender County, northwest of the study area, will also emerge as one of the region s fastest growing areas. Previous Plans & Studies 1997 NCDOT Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County: The most current county thoroughfare plan was adopted by the Pender County Board of Commissioners in June 1997 and by the North Carolina Board of Transportation in September In the plan, NC 210 is classified as a major collector, while Island Creek Road and Sidbury Road are classified as minor collectors in the study area. Both US Highway 17 and the proposed Hampstead Bypass are identified as other principal arterials. The bypass is shown at its original alignment, which began at the intersection of US Highway 17 and Long Leaf Drive and ended at the intersection of US Highway 17 and Pandy Ann Lane, just south of Hampstead. Later legislation defining projects eligible for Highway Trust Fund priority funding would identify the Hampstead Bypass southern terminus as the Military Cutoff Road in New Hanover County NCDOT Strategic Highway Corridors: US Highway 17, referred to as Corridor 52, is envisioned as a future freeway in the Vision Plan for Southeastern North Carolina completed as part of the NCDOT Strategic Highway Corridors study. Both the Hampstead Bypass and the Wilmington Bypass are also classified as freeways by the plan. A freeway is defined as a high mobility, fully access-controlled roadway with a 11

12 minimum of four lanes and no driveways, traffic signals or at-grade intersections. The goal of the Strategic Highway Corridors plan is to create a greater consensus towards the development of a genuine vision for each Corridor specifically towards the identification of the desired facility type (freeway, expressway, boulevard, or thoroughfare) for each Corridor Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan Update: The county s required Coastal Areas Management Act plan offers several transportation recommendations. Regional transportation planning, regular updates of the thoroughfare plan, protecting highway capacity through land use regulation and transit expansion, and increased public transportation services for elderly and special needs population. The plan also supports the development of a greenway and hiking trail system. In order preserve the existing highway capacity, the plan suggests that the county encourage cluster development patterns, direct growth into urban and transition areas, and require urban type infrastructure in major new developments. The CAMA plan also emphasizes the importance of locating residential areas near employment and shopping areas and major thoroughfares, and locating large commercial development at the intersections of major thoroughfares. Smaller neighborhood commercial centers are encouraged to be located on the collector street system with appropriate vehicular and pedestrian access. Office, industrial and multi-family residential is encouraged as a transition between single-family residential and commercial. The CAMA plan encourages all new development to meet minimum standards for access, Secondary Road Standards, connectivity requirements to adjacent developments, continuity of streets, trails and utility lines. The plan also recommends pedestrian and bicycle facilities in all new development especially in higher density neighborhoods. The plan 12

13 recommends implementing a series of incentives to achieve the goals above. Under the draft CAMA plan almost the entire study area is classified as an urban growth area, which provides for the continued development of areas provided with water and/or sewer services or where the county is actively engaged in planning these community services State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP): The STIP, a federallymandated statewide funding plan for transportation investments includes several projects in Coastal Pender County, including: R-2405: The widening of US Highway 17 between I-40 in Wilmington and Holly Ridge. This project was completed by R-3300: The Hampstead Bypass is planned as a new four-lane limited access highway from US Highway 17 just northeast of Hampstead to the intersection of I-140 and the future Military Cutoff Extension in New Hanover County. The Hampstead Bypass project is currently in the planning and design process. Funding for advanced right-of-way acquisition is programmed for fiscal year Construction is unfunded. R-3824: The upgrade and extension of Holiday Drive (SR 1644) to serve NC 210 and Hoover Road. This project is unfunded. B-4223: The reconstruction of the NC 210 bridge over the Northeast Cape Fear River. Construction funding for this project is programmed for fiscal year B-4591: The reconstruction of the Island Creek Road (SR 1002) bridge over Island Creek at the New Hanover County border. This project is currently in the planning and design process. Funding for right-of-way acquisition and mitigation is 13

14 programmed for fiscal year Construction funding is programmed for fiscal year Plan Goals & Objectives Goals: To provide a comprehensive guide for a Coastal Pender County collector street network that would improve connectivity, encourage multi-modal transportation, maintain required traffic speeds, promote safety, and enhance the beauty and environment for the existing and future residents, businesses and visitors. Objectives 1. To prepare a collector street network map for the entire southeast Pender County planning area that will effectively accommodate existing and future pedestrian, bicycle, automobile and truck traffic. 2. To provide design standards for local and collector streets so as to minimize conflict between different modes of transportation and provide adequate facilities for current and future users. 3. Provide design guidelines to improve the attractiveness of the various streetscapes. 4. Provide a tool box of ordinances and recommendations to improve connectivity and mobility. 5. Connect the land uses in such a manner so that there will be less traffic impact on residential streets. 6. Protect environmentally sensitive areas from major transportation impacts. 14

15 Coastal Pender County Collector Street Plan Chapter 2 Existing Conditions Arterial Streets The 1997 Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County recognizes only two principal arterials in the collector street plan study area: 1) US Highway 17 from the Onslow County border to the New Hanover County border, and 2) the future Hampstead Bypass. The Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County is in the process of being updated and converted into the new NCDOT-mandated Comprehensive Transportation Plan (CTP) format to reflect recent growth in the area. US Highway 17 (duplexed with NC 210 between Hampstead and Surf City): US Highway 17 runs for about 9.4 miles within the study area from the southwest to the northeast, parallel to the Intracoastal Waterway. From the intersection with the Wilmington Bypass in New Hanover County to just north of the northern intersection with Scotts Hill Loop Road (SR 1571), US Highway 17 has been converted from a four-lane divided fullaccess facility to a four-lane divided superstreet facility by NCDOT. This work was completed in conjunction with the Wilmington Bypass project. Within Pender County, the superstreet facility includes four new signalized left-turn and u-turn crossovers, one of which has a bulb-out to allow large trucks and buses to execute u-turns from the northbound side to the southbound side. Left turns from driveways and cross streets are highly restricted. North of Scotts Hill and just south of Washington Acres Road (SR 1582), US Highway 17 is a four-lane divided full-access facility with unrestricted median breaks at every local street. Between Washington Acres Road and Sloop Point Loop Road (SR 1563), US Highway 17 is a five-lane undivided facility with a two-way left-turn 15

16 lane. The right-of-way through the center of Hampstead is very limited in certain sections. There are signalized left turns from US Highway 17 located at: 1) southern intersection with Scotts Hill Loop Road, 2) Sidbury Road (SR 1572), 3) northern intersection with Scotts Hill Loop Road, and 4) a bulb-out 1/3 mile northeast of the northern intersection with Scotts Hill Loop Road. There are four full-movement intersections with traffic signals located at: 1) NC 210/Dan Owen Drive, 2) Hoover Road (SR 1569), 3) Country Club Road (SR 1565), middle school/high school/vista Lane, and 4) Sloop Point Loop Road. An emergency traffic signal is in operation at the Hampstead Fire Department across from POW/MIA Trail. There are few right turn lanes or acceleration/deceleration lanes anywhere along US Highway 17 in the study area. US Highway 17 runs from Winchester, Virginia to Punta Gorda, Florida and most of it is part of the National Highway Network. The segment of US Highway 17 from Windsor, North Carolina to Yamassee, South Carolina is also part of the federally-designated Strategic Highway Network (STRAHNET). US Highway 17 from Norfolk, Virginia to Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, referred to as Corridor 52, is envisioned as a future freeway in the Vision Plan for Southeastern North Carolina completed as part of the NCDOT Strategic Highway Corridors study and incorporated into North Carolina s Long Range Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan. Future Hampstead Bypass: The Hampstead Bypass was identified on the 1997 Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County as a proposed principal arterial paralleling US Highway 17 roughly beginning at the intersection of US Highway 17 and Long Leaf Drive and terminating at the intersection of US Highway 17 and Pandy Ann Lane, just northeast of the new superstreet facility. Legislation passed by the North Carolina General Assembly that listed candidate projects for priority funding from the Highway Trust Fund specifically defined the Hampstead Bypass as a four-lane facility running from Military Cutoff Road in New Hanover County to US Highway 17 north of Hampstead. In the State Transportation Improvement Program (STIP) , 16

17 project R-3300 is described as the Hampstead Bypass, Proposed I-140 to US 17 North of Hampstead: Construct Multilane Facility on New Location. Planning and design is currently underway and advance right-of-way acquisition has been programmed for fiscal year NCDOT is currently working on securing one combined permit for the Hampstead Bypass project and the Military Cutoff Road extension project (U-4751). The first National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) concurrence meeting occurred in September NCDOT is currently studying several different corridors and that list is subject to change as the NEPA process moves forward. The choice of corridors is limited by the predefined termini and the Holly Shelter Game Land to the north. Construction is unfunded in the STIP. Collector Streets The 1997 Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County recognizes one major collector street and two minor collector streets in the study area: 1) NC 210 from US Highway 17 to the bridge over the Northeast Cape Fear River and on to Rocky Point, 2) Island Creek Road (SR 1002) from NC 210 to the New Hanover County border, and 3) Sidbury Road (SR 1572) from US Highway 17 to the New Hanover County border. NC 210: NC 210, classified as a major collector, runs from Smithfield to Dixon via Fayetteville, Rocky Point, Hampstead and Topsail Island. In Rocky Point there is a fullmovement interchange between NC 210 and Interstate 40. NC 210 is a 24-foot wide, two-lane undivided facility with narrow shoulders for about 6 miles within the study area. 17

18 It is duplexed with US Highway 17 for about 4.8 miles from Hampstead to northeast corner of the study area, where it continues to Topsail Island. The Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County recommends a future east-west connection between the two sections of NC 210 on either side of the intersection with Island Creek Road in order to straighten the route and form a new T- intersection. NC 210 is controlled by a stop sign in each direction at its current Y- intersection with Island Creek Road. There is one signalized intersection along the nonduplexed section of NC 210 within the collector street plan study area, located at the intersection with US Highway 17 in the center of Hampstead. Island Creek Road (SR 1002): Island Creek Road begins in the area of Castle Hayne in New Hanover County, where it is named Holly Shelter Road and classified as a major collector by the WMPO. In Castle Hayne, there is a full-movement interchange between Holly Shelter Road and Interstate 40. The road s name changes to Island Creek Road when it crosses the bridge over Island Creek and enters Pender County. Island Creek Road ends where it merges with NC 210 about 2.7 miles northeast of the New Hanover County border. There are no controlled or signalized intersections along Island Creek Road within the collector street plan study area. The Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County classifies Island Creek Road as a minor collector. Sidbury Road (SR 1572): Sidbury Road begins at Blue Clay Road in New Hanover County and runs in an east-west direction. It crosses Interstate 40 with no access. It enters Pender County south of Island Creek Road, where it runs for about 2.4 miles in a northwest-southeast direction to US Highway 17. The WMPO has classified Sidbury 18

19 Road as a major collector street within New Hanover County. The Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County classifies Island Creek Road as a minor collector. The roadway is a 20-foot wide, two-lane undivided facility with no paved shoulders. The speed limit is 55 miles per hour. There is one signalized intersection along Sidbury Road within the collector street plan study area, located at the intersection with US Highway 17. The intersection is part of the superstreet facility and, as such, no left turns are permitted when exiting Sidbury Road onto US Highway 17. Local Streets All local streets in Pender County are either: 1) privately-owned and maintained by a homeowners association, or 2) deeded to the public and accepted into the state system for NCDOT maintenance (these streets are assigned an SR number by NCDOT). Some of the busier local streets within the study area include: Country Club Drive (SR 1565), Factory Road (SR 1570), Holiday Drive (SR 1644), Hoover Road (SR 1569), Long Leaf Drive (SR 1675), Kings Landing Road (SR 1575), Olde Point Road (SR 1654), Peanut Road (SR 1569), Scotts Hill Loop Road (SR 1571), Sloop Point Loop Road (SR 1563), and Washington Acres Road (SR 1582). Many are streets dead end at the Intracoastal Waterway or at Holly Shelter Game Land. Pedestrian & Bicycle Pedestrian and bicycle facilities within the study area are extremely limited. There are no sidewalks or multi-use paths along any of the arterial streets or collector streets. None of the signalized intersections in the area have pedestrian signals or crosswalks. A few of the more recent subdivisions have sidewalks and/or walking trails. The Holly 19

20 Shelter Game Land has an extensive network of trails and gravel service roads that allows walkers and off-road bikers. North Carolina Bicycling Highway 3, Ports of Call, travels along Island Creek Road from New Hanover County, NC 210 between Island Creek Road and US Highway 17, and US Highway 17 from NC 210 to the northern border of the study area. Table 2.1 Characteristics of Selected Roads in Coastal Pender County Street Name State Speed Lane Notes Road Number Limit Width Chuckanut Drive Private N/A 0.0 Right-of-way only Corcus Ferry Road Private Country Club Drive Cross Creek Drive Private N/A 10.0 Unpaved Dan Owen Drive Private Dogwood Lane Ebb Drive Factory Road Forest Sound Road Private Godfrey Creek Road Private N/A 12.0 Unpaved, narrows west of power lines Griffith Drive Private N/A 7.0 Unpaved Harrison Creek Road Headwaters Drive Private Holiday Drive Unpaved north of Foxfield Drive Hoover Road MPH east of elementary school Island Creek Road " shoulder Kings Landing Road Long Leaf Drive NC ' shoulder, 35 MPH east of Peanut Road Northline Drive No striping Grandview Drive 1702 N/A 10.0 Olde Point Road Overlook Drive Peanut Road Saps Road Private Unpaved Scotts Hill Loop Road (north) Scotts Hill Loop Road (south) Sidbury Road Sloop Point Loop Road Washington Acres Road

21 Public Transportation Pender Adult Services provides limited van service to low income, disabled and/or elderly county residents. The agency currently has scheduled 19 weekly trips with origins in Coastal Pender County as well as many additional less frequent trips. The vast majority of the trips terminate in the area of New Hanover Regional Medical Center in Wilmington. There are also quite a few regular trips to other area medical facilities and the Topsail Senior Center. Future plans for Wave Transit (Cape Fear Public Transportation Authority) include a park and ride express from Porters Neck Road and Market Street to a new transfer facility in the vicinity of College Road and Market Street in Wilmington. No regularly scheduled intercity bus service travels along US Highway 17 or NC 210 in Pender County. Traffic & Safety The North Carolina Department of Transportation conducts semi-annual traffic counts on all major state roadways in Coastal Pender County. These counts are taken over several 24-hour periods then averaged and adjusted for seasonal fluctuations. Annual data is not available for each location, as the count schedule varies depending on the classification of the roadway. The Wilmington Metropolitan Planning Organization began annual counts of locations throughout Coastal Pender County in The largest increases in annual average daily traffic counts between 1999 and 2003 occurred on the northern end of Scotts Hill Loop Road (36.8%), Sidbury Road (19.2%), and the southern portion of Scotts Hill Loop Road (15.8%). The largest increases in 21

22 annual average daily traffic counts between 1999 and 2004 occurred on Washington Acres Road (122.2%), Island Creek Road (33.3%), and NC 210 between Island Creek Road and Hampstead (31.4%). From 1999 to 2004, traffic on US Highway 17 grew %, with the most growth occurring south of NC 210. Two count locations added in 2002 experienced surprising growth in the following two years. Traffic on NC 210 at the Island Creek bridge grew 31.0% between 2002 and 2004, while traffic on Country Club Road at Sloop Point Loop Road grew 23.0% during the same period. (See Figure 2.2 and Table 2.2.) Table 2.2 Annual Average Daily Traffic Counts for Coastal Pender County (in Thousands) Roadway Segment Change Change Change US Hwy 17 N of Sidbury Rd % US Hwy 17 S of NC % US Hwy 17 N of NC % US Hwy 17 N of Forest Sound Rd % US Hwy 17 S of Country Club Dr % NC 210 E of Island Creek bridge % NC 210 E of Island Creek Rd % NC 210 W of US Hwy % Sidbury Rd % Island Creek Rd % Scotts Hill Loop Rd north % Scotts Hill Loop Rd south % Washington Acres Rd % Hoover Rd Factory Rd % Country Club Rd at US Hwy % Country Club Rd at Sloop Point Loop Rd 1.6 Source: NCDOT; Division of Highways GIS Unit Between 2000 and 2005, all but one of the top ten high-crash intersections in the study area were located along US Highway 17. A half-mile stretch of US Highway 17 22

23 between the two intersections with Scotts Hill Loop Road was the location of 68 crashes and 3 fatalities between January 2000 and December The total number of crashes increased in this area by over 157% during the same period. Table 2.3 Top Ten High-Crash Intersections in Coastal Pender County Intersection Location Number of Crashes Change in Number of Crashes US Hwy 17 at NC % US Hwy 17 at Country Club Dr (SR 1565) US Hwy 17 at Scotts Hill Loop Rd (SR 1571) US Hwy 17 at Sloop Point Loop Rd (SR 1563) % % % US Hwy 17 at Sidbury Rd (SR 1572) % US Hwy 17 at Hoover Rd (SR 1569) % US Hwy 17 at Factory Rd/Peanut Rd (SR 1570) % NC 210 at Island Creek Rd (SR 1002) % US Hwy 17 at Washington Acres Rd (SR 1582) US Hwy 17 at Long Leaf Dr (SR 1675) Source: NCDOT-TEAAS % % Fortunately, three of the intersections in this area have received significant safety improvements as part of the new superstreet facility and may see a large reduction in the number of crashes. US Highway 17 in the center of Hampstead, between NC 210 and Hoover Road, was the location of 142 crashes in the same five year period. This stretch of roadway experienced a 113% increase in the number of crashes between 2000 and Crashes at the Hoover Road and Factory Road/Peanut Road intersections jumped 300% and 200% respectively. The Hoover Road intersection is a 23

24 signalized intersection with a driveway opposite the Hoover Road approach, while the Factory Road/Peanut Road intersection is a full-movement X-intersection with a flashing red signal facing Factory Road and Peanut Road and a flashing yellow signal facing US Highway 17. Intersections in the northern part of the study area also experienced a high number of crashes. The intersection of US Highway 17 and Country Club Drive was the location of 45 crashes and experienced a 100% increase. There were 34 crashes at the intersection of US Highway 17 and Sloop Point Loop Road which also experienced a 40% increase during the five-year period. (See Figure 2.3. and Table 2.3.) Land Use In 2005, over 72% of the land in the Coastal Pender County study area was either vacant or classified as agriculture, crops or forestry. Just over 8% of the land was occupied by single family and mobile homes, almost of it to the east of US Highway 17 and along NC 210. All of the commercial land (mostly small retail) is located along US Highway 17 and NC 210 east of Island Creek Road, with a significant concentration at the intersection of US Highway 17, NC210 and Factory/Peanut Road. Quite a few of the platted residential parcels classified as vacant in 2005 have since been occupied by single family homes. Please see Figure 2.3 for major traffic generators and parcel land use classifications in Table 2.4 Coastal Pender County Land Use in 2005 Land Use in 2005 Acres Percent Agriculture & Forestry 21, % Commercial % Conservation % Industrial % Institutional (i.e., Schools, Parks, Golf Courses, etc.) % Mobile Homes % Residential 2, % Transportation, Communication & Utilities % Vacant 7, % Total Land in Study Area 33, % Source: Pender County Planning Department 24

25 Zoning More than 47% (13, acres) of the land in the Coastal Pender County study area is zoned Rural Agricultural (RA), which allows single family homes on lots of one acre or larger. Most of this land is: 1) north of NC 210 and west of US Highway 17, and 2) between Island Creek Road and US Highway 17. Land along NC 210 and the Intracoastal Waterway is mostly zoned R-20 and R-20C. These low and moderate density districts allow homes on lots of 20,000 square feet and comprise 28.34% (8, acres) of the study area. Mobile homes are not permitted in the R-20C districts. Only 1.41% of the study area land is zoned for business and almost all of it is clustered along US Highway 17 between Washington Acres Road and Country Club Drive. Table 2.5 Coastal Pender County Current Zoning Zoning District Minimum Lot Size in Acres Acres Percent Single-family/Manufactured Homes (R-10) % Single-family/Manufactured Homes (R-15) % Single-family/Manufactured Homes (R-20) , % Single-family Homes (R-20C) , % Neighborhood Business (B-1) % Highway Business (B-2) % Scenic Gateway Business (B-3) % Light Industrial (I-1) % Heavy Industrial (I-2) % Rural Agricultural (RA) , % Rural Transition (RT) % Planned Development (PD) N/A 6, % Total Non-Flood Hazard Land in Study Area 28, % Source: Pender County Planning Department 25

26 This is over five miles from many of the residential districts within the study area. There is also a small Scenic Gateway Business (B-1) district located on US Highway 17 just north of the New Hanover County border. Recently, the Pender County Planning Board and Board of County Commissioners have approved several new Planned Development (PD) districts. According to the Zoning Ordinance of Pender County, the PD district is intended to permit and encourage, on application and approval of detailed development plans, establishment of new Planned Developments for specified purposes where tracts of land suitable in location, area, and character are to be planned and developed as a whole and in a unified manner. Many of the approved PD districts are in the northern end of the study area, in the vicinity of US Highway 17 and Country Club Drive. Three recently approved planned developments include: East Haven, just north of Sidbury Road; The Preserve, north of the intersection of US Highway 17 and Jenkins Road; and Eagles Watch, off of Grandview Drive. The three developments together may include a total of more than 4,600 new housing units. The Preserve includes plans for a new Topsail High School, wastewater treatment facility and 437,000 square feet of retail and restaurant space. The East Haven master plan includes sites for a new school, fire station and wastewater treatment facility along Island Creek Road. In addition to the specific zoning districts and uses, the Zoning Ordinance of Pender County requires special setbacks along streets and roads that are classified as major, minor, arterial or collector in the county thoroughfare plan. In the study area a 100-foot setback is required along US Highway 17 and NC 210, while a 50-foot setback is 26

27 necessary along Sidbury Road and Island Creek Road. These regulations only apply to lots created after November 16, Environmental Features As Coastal Pender County continues to grow and impact the surrounding environment it becomes imperative to manage and minimize these impacts. Area residents, landowners, business owners and visitors share concern for the region s natural features including the Intracoastal Waterway, Island Creek, the Northeast Cape Fear River, Holly Shelter Game Land and the barrier islands. Whether the area is urbanized or rural, the residents of the community expect clean water, while federal and state regulations require that the land remain unpolluted and the air breathable. In Coastal Pender County, protection of wetlands, which filter storm water runoff, mitigate flooding and act as important wildlife habitats, is a major concern for all. Of the 33, acres of land in the study area, acres are in a flood hazard area. According to the Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan 2005 Update, 13.33% of the land in the study area is classified as Conservation Area I, in which all development is strongly discouraged. Conservation Area II zones comprise 32.73% of the study area. Significant environmental mitigation measures are required for development in these areas. The remainder of the study area is classified as Urban Growth Area under the plan, with the exception of a small area west of Cross Creek Drive that is classified as a Rural Area. A careful study of Coastal Pender County reveals how challenging it can be to construct new roadways in the areas where they are most needed. Responsible planning dictates that these environmental features be considered during the planning process and the development of the Coastal Pender County Collector 27

28 Street Plan requires special mitigation measures to leave these areas undisturbed whenever possible. Table 2.6 Coastal Area Management Act Plan (CAMA) Land Classification Classification Acres Percent Conservation Area I 4, % Conservation Area II 10, % Non-CAMA Areas 17, % Total Land in Study Area 33, % Source: Pender County Planning Department 28

29 Coastal Pender County Collector Street Plan Chapter 3 Public Input A very important part of any transportation plan is successfully engaging those who live, work and travel within the study area. These are the people who best understand the existing transportation system and needed improvements. In order to engage citizens, businessmen and landowners, the WMPO held workshops with the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan steering committee, the general public, and Pender County officials regularly throughout the study. These sessions were used to help guide and inform WMPO staff. Topics of discussion at workshops and meetings included: Formalizing goals, objectives and project schedule Communicating importance of plan Identification of transportation issues in the study area Reviewing existing policies and design guidelines Identifying needed improvements Prioritization Formulating implementation strategies At the outset of the study, a steering committee composed of representatives of varying interests was assembled by WMPO staff. This committee included members representing the WMPO, NCDOT, Cape Fear Council of Governments, local homeowners associations, local businesses, the board of education, planning board, landowners and developers, and local environmental advocates. Steering committee meetings were convened throughout the study period and addressed a variety of topics and issues. The initial meetings with the committee focused on familiarizing committee members with transportation planning principles and formalizing goals, objectives and the project schedule. Subsequent meetings focused on strategizing the public input process, evaluating the existing road network, identifying potential design standards, analyzing existing and potential collector street locations, and ranking priorities. Several surveys were also distributed to local homeowners associations, real estate 29

30 professional and land developers. The input from these meetings and surveys is summarized below. Residents & Business Owners On August 29, 2006 a public informational workshop was held at the Hampstead Branch of the Pender County Public Library. The meeting was advertised in the Wilmington Star News - Pender Neighbors section and flyers were distributed to all local officials, churches, schools, and many area businesses. A story also appeared in the previous week s issue of the Topsail Voice newspaper. Using an open house format, WMPO staff, as well as steering committee members, answered questions, solicited input and documented all comments from the members of the public who attended the meeting. Attendees were given opportunities to rank potential streetscape designs and amenities, offer input on potential collector street locations and provide general input into the plan. Detailed surveys were also distributed to all of the local homeowners associations. Figure 3.1 Each person was asked: If you $200,000 to spend on transportation projects in your neighborhood, what would you spend it on? Widening roads 8.3% Other 12.5% Bicycle lanes/paths 20.8% Turn lanes 4.2% Trails 6.3% Street trees/ landscaping 4.2% Street beautification 4.2% Sidewalks 16.7% Landscaped medians 6.3% Traffic calming 4.2% Traffic signals 4.2% Crosswalks/ pedestrian islands 8.3% Using a map of existing streets in the Coastal Pender County study area, the steering committee developed a map of possible new street connections. These connections 30

31 were superimposed over maps of current land use, zoning districts, and environmental features. Using this data, a map was developed which showed the most promising potential collector streets. This map was presented to the public at the public informational workshop and attendees were asked to rate the potential collector streets as favorable or unfavorable. When asked what factors positively affect the quality of life in Coastal Pender County, the overwhelming majority of attendees cited access to the Intracoastal Waterway, beaches and the ocean, quality of public schools, access to nearby services in New Hanover County, and the area s rural environment. When asked to identify the three biggest threats to the quality of life in the area the top responses were uncontrolled growth, inadequate infrastructure, and a lack of long range planning. When asked what new types of transportation facilities residents in Coastal Pender County would like, the overwhelming majority suggested alternatives to US Highway 17, bicycle lanes and paths, and sidewalks (see Figure 3.1). One reoccurring concern was the lack of service roads along US Highway 17 and the high number of curb cuts and driveways. When asked to categorize potential collector streets on the network map as favorable or unfavorable, the streets offering alternatives to US Highway 17 and connections between NC 210, Hoover Road and US Highway 17 received the most favorable ratings (i.e., West Backage Road, Wolf Pond Road reclassification and extension, Saps Road reclassification and extension, Godfrey Creek Road reclassification and extension, Holiday Drive reclassification and extension, the proposed Huggins Road, etc.). A connection between Washington Acres Road and Scotts Hill Loop Road also received significant positive feedback. New collector streets adjacent to mature neighborhoods 31

32 along the Intracoastal Waterway were ranked as less positive (i.e., Kings Landing Road reclassification and extension, Dan Owen Drive reclassification and extension, Center Drive reclassification and extension, etc.). The reclassification of Long Leaf Drive as a collector street was also opposed by a few of those in attendance. There was little input in favor of or opposed to the reclassification of other existing streets (i.e., Sloop Point Loop Road, Country Club Road, Mallard Bay Road, Olde Point Road, Grandview Road, Washington Acres Road, Scotts Hill Loop Road, etc.). It was generally agreed that these streets are already functioning as collector streets and reclassification makes sense. A couple of attendees voiced opposition to a third bridge to Topsail Island in the vicinity of Sloop Point Loop Road, however quite a few of the survey responses were in favor of such a connection. Attendees were also asked about land use patterns and potential changes to zoning. When asked to identify areas for a new or expanded regional commercial center, the majority suggested a continued expansion of the area surrounding the Lowe s Home Improvement store in Surf City at the northern intersection of US Highway 17 and NC 210. Respondents also recommended the creation of smaller neighborhood commercial zones at intersections in the western end of the study area adjacent to NC 210 and the proposed Hampstead Bypass. Land Owners, Developers & Real Estate Professionals Using detailed surveys (created by the steering committee), telephone interviews and a developer meeting, the WMPO staff solicited the opinions of some of the largest 32

33 landowners, and most successful developers and real estate agents in Coastal Pender County. This group overwhelmingly believed that access to the Intracoastal Waterway, beaches and ocean was the factor that brought most people to Coastal Pender County. Excellent public schools, low taxes and open space also ranked high on the list. As for threats to the area s quality of life, the lack of long range planning, traffic, destruction of wetlands and unrestrained growth topped the list of detriments to the community. When asked how they would improve the quality of life in Coastal Pender County, respondents suggested increased access to services and businesses, predictable and comprehensive planning, enhanced coordination between the school board and county, traffic management on US Highway 17, and preservation of wetlands. The group of landowners, developers and real estate agents was also asked to comment on the transportation system in Coastal Pender County. Positive aspects of the system included US Highway 17, while negative aspects cited ranged from increasing traffic on US Highway 17 to a lack of cross-county highway connections between Interstate 40 and US Highway 17. Many were critical of the lack of connectivity and access to Topsail Island. NCDOT design standards, NCDENR storm water regulations and Army Corps of Engineers wetlands requirements were also cited as impediments to providing logical streets networks, connectivity, sidewalks, paths and trails in new developments. The guidelines are viewed as too complicated and detrimental to community aesthetics. When asked what transportation features most buyers in Coastal Pender County would like to see in new developments, the participants again cited bicycle lanes, trails and sidewalks. Well functioning collector streets and alternatives to US Highway 17 were also mentioned by several of those interviewed and surveyed. Many believed that it would be a challenge to convince residents of existing neighborhoods that connections to adjacent subdivisions are beneficial. Limiting cut-through traffic between neighborhoods was seen as a key component to winning support from local residents. 33

34 A suggestion was also made that the county require subdividers and developers to deed the rights-of-way for future connections to the county and that the county create an inventory of these rights-of-way and stub-out streets for use by the planning department and planning board. When asked to identify areas for a new or expanded regional commercial center, the landowners, developers and real estate agents also suggested the continued expansion of the area surrounding the Lowe s Home Improvement store. This group echoed the community s desire for a smaller commercial center at the proposed NC 210 and Hampstead Bypass interchange. There was a strong consensus among the group that preserving the wetlands of Coastal Pender County should be an important component of any collector street plan. Draft Plan Review On February 27, 2007, the Draft Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan was presented to the general public at Topsail High School. The 2-hour open house was advertised in the Wilmington Star News Pender Neighbors section, Topsail Voice, Pender Post and various local radio stations. Flyers were distributed to all local officials, churches, schools, and many area businesses. WMPO staff, as well as steering committee members, answered questions, solicited input and documented all comments from the members of the public who attended the open house. Attendees were given the opportunity to review the draft plan, which was presented in both written and visual formats. Staff also gathered significant input regarding the community s vision for US 34

35 Highway 17 in the future. The plan was available for review at the local library branch and posted on the WMPO and Wilmington Star News websites for a period of two weeks. The majority of the comments received have been positive, although there were some concerns regarding some of the collector street connections and reclassifications on the Intracoastal Waterway side of US Highway 17. All comments received at the open house and via , fax and telephone have been addressed in this draft plan. 35

36 Coastal Pender County Collector Street Plan Chapter 4 Recommendations Updates to Other Transportation Plans In the coming decades, Pender County is expected to be one of the fastest growing counties in the State of North Carolina. In order to minimize the negative impacts of this growth, it is imperative that the county have regularly updated transportation plans. The North Carolina Department of Transportation has not updated the county thoroughfare plan since Many of the functional classifications are long outdated and the Hampstead Bypass is shown following an alignment that was altered by legislation tying the project s southern terminus to Interstate 140 and the Military Cutoff Road extension in New Hanover County (North Carolina General Statutes ). Few new collectors or arterials are shown on the 1997 Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County. In 2001, North Carolina General Statute was amended to require each municipality and MPO, with the cooperation of the NCDOT, to develop a Comprehensive Transportation Plan (CTP), serving present and anticipated travel demand in and around the municipality or MPO. The CTP is to be based on the most current and detailed information available including population growth, economic forecast and patterns of land development in and around the municipality. The CTP is expected to provide for the safe and effective use of the transportation system. Municipalities and MPOs are currently transitioning from the Thoroughfare Plan to the Comprehensive Transportation Plan. The amendment also gave counties the authority to complete CTPs, and many have done so. The CTP is a series of six sheets: 1) base map with existing roadway system, rail lines, water features, and other significant features, 2) adoption sheet, 3) highway map, 4) public transportation and rail map, 5) bicycle map, and 6) pedestrian map. Due to the accelerating rate of growth in Coastal Pender County, it was recommended that the North Carolina Department of Transportation fast-track the development of a countywide Comprehensive Transportation Plan, as an update to the

37 Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County. The county officially submitted a request for such an update in August However, Coastal Pender County was added to the Wilmington Metropolitan Planning Organization planning jurisdiction in late Any county CTP will not include the areas of Pender County within the WMPO. The WMPO is scheduled to complete an update to the Long Range Transportation Plan (LRTP) in 2007, at which time the agency will also complete a regional CTP which will include Coastal Pender County. The findings and recommendations from the Coastal Pender Collector Street should be integrated into the LRTP and CTP. Recommended Roadway Improvements The current roadway network in Coastal Pender County suffers from several safety and mobility deficiencies. The following roadway improvements were recommended by the NCDOT Division 3 staff: 1. Improvements to the intersection of NC 210 and Island Creek Road (SR 1002) including the realignment of NC Widen and strengthen Island Creek Road from NC 210 to the New Hanover County border 3. Extend the superstreet cross-section (restricted left turns with signalized u-turns) on US Highway 17 to the north as funds become available, while improving the visual appeal of the Hampstead commercial area between Washington Acres Road and Country Club Drive 4. Construct right turn deceleration lanes along US Highway 17 at all intersecting state maintained roadways 5. Widen lanes and add shoulders to Country Club Drive (SR 1565) between US Highway 17 and Sloop Point Loop Road (SR 1563), while improving the safety of the existing golf cart crossing 6. Widen lanes and add shoulders to Sloop Point Loop Road between Country Club Road and US Highway 17 (paying careful attention to golf cart crossing safety) 7. Construct right-turn lane on Country Club Drive (SR 1565) northwest-bound at the intersection with US Highway 17 37

38 Recommended New Roadways & Reclassifications Through extensive public input and the work of the steering committee, a map of recommended roadways has been developed as part of this plan (see Figure 4.1.). This map includes new arterials, freeways and interchanges from the 1997 Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County as well as the corridor under study for the Hampstead Bypass. The Hampstead Bypass corridor and interchanges are only preliminary and do not reflect the final alignment that will be selected after the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) process is completed by the North Carolina Department of Transportation (NCDOT). NCDOT is currently studying interchanges along the Hampstead Bypass at NC 210 and US Highway 17. The map also identifies roadways which should be reviewed for functional reclassification. These roads are likely functioning differently and carrying more traffic than they were when last classified in NC 210, Island Creek Road and Sidbury Road, all classified as collectors are serving as arterials today. Many of the roadways identified as local streets in 1997 now function as major or minor collectors (i.e., Sloop Point Loop Road, Country Club Road, Hoover Road, Factory Road, Washington Acres Road, Scotts Hill Loop Road, etc.). The roadways identified on the map for reclassification should be studied by the WMPO and submitted to NCDOT and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) for review. The map identifies new collector streets, as well as recommended extensions of existing roadways. These new connections are categorized as priority new collector and new collector. Priority new collectors were rated highly favorable by the public, 38

39 business owners, land owners, developers and others. They fulfill one or both of the two objectives cited by many who offered input: 1) alternatives to US Highway 17, and 2) better east-west access. The new collectors are important as well, as they will provide important alternatives to both NC 210 and US Highway 17. Many of these roadways follow existing farm roads and are spaced roughly 3,000 feet apart, the recommended spacing for the medium-intensity mixed suburban development expected to be prevalent in Coastal Pender County. The recommended collector street network is denser in the southern portion of the study area bordering New Hanover County, as development pressure and land values are expected to be higher and land use will likely be more intense. Existing dirt and gravel roads were used when possible to minimize the financial impact on small landowners and also to ensure that required rights-of-way can feasibly be preserved even where large-scale subdivision is not likely to occur (i.e. RA and RT zoning districts). These connections are intended to be constructed or reserved if and when the surrounding tracts of land become developed and/or subdivided. The map is not intended to be used as an engineering document. The connections between adjacent roadways and properties are more important than the exact path of the roadway (see Figure 4.2). It is also recognized that due to certain environmental, legal, and logistical reasons some of the collector streets connections shown on the map may not be possible. However, throughout the development of this plan, significant efforts have been made to anticipate any environmental issues which may affect the construction of the recommended roadways. 39

40 Recommended Intersections Guidelines As permitted by NCDOT, the construction of roundabouts should be encouraged at the intersection of two or more collector streets identified in the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. Driveway and roadway intersections along collector streets identified in the plan should be no less than 300 feet apart and aligned at or close to 90-degree angles, unless infeasible due to topographic or environmental issues. Inventory of Stub-out Streets & Easements The Pender County Subdivision Ordinance requires that streets in new subdivisions conform to the following: 1) adjoining street systems, 2) existing, planned and proposed streets, 3) continuity in existing streets and proposed streets, and 4) reasonable access to adjacent properties for development. The ordinance also requires the construction of public collector streets when existing public streets have been dedicated or constructed to the property line of the subdivision. The planning board has encouraged connectivity between adjacent subdivisions whenever feasible. However, due to the county s mix of private and NCDOT roadways, these connections are sometimes difficult. The county enforces varying standards for roads planned as private and roads that will be accepted into the state system. There is also no system for tracking and indexing dedicated stub-outs and paper streets (planned streets). This often leaves the planning board with a shortage of information required to assess the possibility of interconnectivity between adjacent developments. These rights-of-way, if left unmonitored and unmaintained, can revert to private ownership or become entangled in property rights disputes. It is recommended 40

41 that the county develop a system to track and monitor all future right-of-way dedications, paper streets and stub-outs in an electronic format [e.g. geographic information system (GIS)]. It is also recommended that the county research all available documents at the Registry of Deeds in order to add existing right-of-way dedications, paper streets and stub-outs to this electronic database. All new streets that have the potential to connect to adjacent developments should be constructed to NCDOT standards and added to the state system. This will limit the potential for disputes and ensure that interconnectivity is feasible when adjacent land is developed. The county should consider a requirement that all future streets or right-ofway dedications be signed as a future street. This would prevent any confusion or misunderstanding at the time of lot or building sale, construction or resale. These signs would be installed and maintained by the county. Roadway Design Guideline Flexibility Planned Developments: It is recommended that the county require the use of NCDOT Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Guidelines for the construction of collector streets identified in Figure 4.1 that are located within mixed-use PD zoning districts. The Avenue and Main Street cross-sections are most appropriate for these collector streets. These Figure 4.3 Avenue Cross-section 41

42 Figure 4.4 Main Street Cross-section cross-sections provide for 8 sidewalks, 6 verges with small street trees, 8 parking lanes, 6 bicycle lanes and travel lanes. The Avenue cross-section also includes a landscaped 18 median (see Figure 4.3). In areas where curb and gutter construction may not be feasible, the use of the Hybrid cross-section should be encouraged. This cross-section includes two 10 travel lanes and a 10 multi-use pathway. Higher Density Developments: It is recommended that Pender County require 5 sidewalks on both sides of the collector streets identified in Figure 4.1 that are located within the B-2, B-3, and R-10 zoning districts. These sidewalks should be well connected to all sidewalks and walkways internal to adjacent developments. Collector streets with Recommended Bicycle Facilities as identified in Figure 4.1 should include one of the following: 1. Wide outside lanes (14 not including concrete gutter pan) 2. Paved and striped shoulders (4-6 not including concrete gutter pan) 42

43 3. Paved and striped bicycle lanes (4-6 not including concrete gutter pan) 4. Adjacent multi-use pathway (>10 )* *May be substituted for required 5 sidewalks Figure 4.5 Hybrid Cross-section Lower Density Subdivisions: It is recommended that Pender County require the use of the NCDOT Subdivision Roads Minimum Construction Standards for the construction of all collector streets identified in Figure 4.1 that are located in lower density projects within the B-1, R-20, R- 20C, RA, and RT zoning districts. These collector streets should be built to the Residential Collector Roads standards and accepted into the NCDOT system. Collector streets with Recommended Bicycle Facilities as identified in Figure 4.1 should include one of the following: 1. Wide outside lanes (14 not including concrete gutter pan) 43

44 Figure 4.6 Residential Collector Street (without bicycle accommodations) Figure 4.7 Residential Collector Street (with bicycle accommodations) 44

45 2. Paved and striped shoulders (4-6 not including concrete gutter pan) 3. Paved and striped bicycle lanes (4-6 not including concrete gutter pan) 4. Adjacent multi-use pathway (>10 ) All sidewalks and multi-use pathways constructed as part of these requirements should be maintained by a property owners association. Regulatory & Policy Tools Subdivision Ordinance: The Pender County Subdivision Ordinance establishes the procedures and standards for development and subdivision of land within the county. This document includes provisions for the dedication and reservation of land for public purposes and ensures the adequate provision of infrastructure. In order to implement the recommendations of this plan, the following changes are encouraged: 1. The definition of net density should exclude the 66 right-of-way reserved for priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets identified in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 2. The submission requirements for preliminary plats for major subdivisions should include a review to ensure compliance with the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as well as the Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization Comprehensive Transportation Plan. 3. The submission requirements for preliminary plats for major subdivisions should require the submission of a traffic impact analysis prior to the submittal of any preliminary plan that will generate more than 100 trips during peak hours, based on the latest version of the Institute of Transportation Engineers Trip Generation Manual. These studies should be prepared in accordance with standards and guidelines adopted by Pender County. 4. The submission requirements for final plats for major subdivisions should require the submission of proposed agreements or covenants ensuring continued maintenance of proposed alleys, sidewalks and multi-use pathways by the property owners served by such facilities. These agreements should require: 45

46 adequate maintenance of the proposed alleys to provide safe passage for vehicles, adequate maintenance of the proposed sidewalks to provide safe passage for pedestrians, adequate maintenance of the proposed multi-use pathways to provide safe passage for pedestrians and bicyclists, apportionment of responsibility for maintenance among the property owners served by the facilities, and the provision of enforcement mechanisms for the maintenance agreement. 5. The Required Improvements section should require the public dedication of all recommended roadways designated as priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 6. The Design Requirements section should include a requirement to conform to the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as well as the Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization Comprehensive Transportation Plan. 7. The Design Requirements section should permit the substitution of the NCDOT Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Guidelines for both the NCDOT Subdivision Roads Minimum Construction Standards and the Pender County Private Street Standards. 8. The Design Requirements section should include a requirement to provide bicycle accommodations (i.e. multi-use paths, wide outside lanes, paved shoulders or bicycle lanes) along recommended roadways identified for Recommended Bicycle Accommodations in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 9. The Design Requirements section should prohibit or limit direct driveway access to properties abutting priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 10. The Design Requirements section should allow for the construction of alleys for access to properties abutting priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street 46

47 Plan. Alleys should have a right-of way of and a pavement width of Alleys should provide access to multiple properties and connect directly to local streets. 11. The Design Requirements section should require that intersections with other collector streets, local streets and driveways along all recommended roadways designated as priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan be at least 300 apart. Planned Development (PD) District Requirements The Pender County Planned Development District Requirements are designed to permit suitable tracts of land to be planned and developed as a whole and in a unified manner. Where planned developments (PDs) are permitted, the adopted master plan, along with additional adopted regulations, accomplish the purposes of the zoning and subdivision ordinances in the PD district. It is recommended that the county amend the Planned Development District Requirements to include the following: 1. In mixed-use PD districts, require the use of NCDOT Traditional Neighborhood Development (TND) Guidelines for the construction of collector streets that are identified in figure The definition of net density should exclude the 66 right-of-way reserved for priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets identified in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 3. The submission requirements for preliminary plans should include a review to ensure compliance with the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as well as the Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization Comprehensive Transportation Plan. 4. The submission requirements for preliminary plans should require the submission of a traffic impact analysis prior to the submittal of any preliminary plan that will generate more than 100 trips during peak hours, based on the latest version of the Institute of Transportation Engineers Trip Generation Manual. These studies 47

48 should be prepared in accordance with standards and guidelines adopted by Pender County. 5. The requirements for final plans should require the submission of proposed agreements or covenants ensuring continued maintenance of proposed alleys, sidewalks and multi-use pathways by the property owners served by such facilities. These agreements should require: adequate maintenance of the proposed alleys to provide safe passage for vehicles, adequate maintenance of the proposed sidewalks to provide safe passage for pedestrians, adequate maintenance of the proposed multi-use pathways to provide safe passage for pedestrians and bicyclists, apportionment of responsibility for maintenance among the property owners served by the facilities, and the provision of enforcement mechanisms for the maintenance agreement. 6. Require the public dedication of all recommended roadways designated as priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 7. Require the provision of bicycle accommodations (i.e. multi-use paths, wide outside lanes, paved shoulders or bicycle lanes) along recommended roadways identified for Recommended Bicycle Accommodations in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 8. Prohibit or limit direct driveway access to properties abutting priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 9. Allow for the construction of alleys for access to properties abutting priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. Alleys should have a right-of way of and a pavement width of Alleys should provide access to multiple properties and connect directly to local streets. 48

49 10. Require that intersections with other collector streets, local streets and driveways along all recommended roadways designated as priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector streets in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan be at least 300 apart. Zoning Ordinance: The Pender County Zoning Ordinance regulates the location and uses of buildings, structures and land within the county. This document includes provisions for the erection or alteration of buildings, dictates the height and size of buildings, controls the size of yards and open space and regulates the density of population in legally defined zones within the county. In order to implement the recommendations of this plan, the county should implement the Transportation Corridor Preservation Overlay District in Appendix B. This zoning overlay district, tied to the study area boundaries of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan, preserves the required rights-of-way for both existing and future collector streets identified in the plan and the Hampstead Bypass corridor. Through the transfer of development rights, any density that would be forfeited due to the preservation of the rights-of-way is allowed to be transferred to other areas of the development site, as permitted by underlying zoning and environmental regulations. Developers may also propose and amendment to the map of recommended roadways and individual corridors. In the denser PD, B-2, B-3, and R-10 zoning districts, the county should also consider requiring the construction of 5 sidewalks along priority new collector, new collector or reclassified collector rights-of-way that are identified in Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. All sidewalks constructed as part of these requirements would need to be maintained by Pender County, which is currently not permitted. It would likely take special legislation at the state level to enable Pender County to maintain sidewalks in NCDOT rights-of-way. 49

50 Vision for US Highway 17 US Highway 17 runs for about 9.4 miles within the study area from the southwest to the northeast, parallel to the Intracoastal Waterway. From the intersection with the Wilmington Bypass in New Hanover County to just north of the northern intersection with Scotts Hill Loop Road (SR 1571), US Highway 17 has been converted from a fourlane divided full-access facility to a four-lane divided superstreet facility by NCDOT. Figure 4.8 Existing US Highway 17 in the Hampstead Commercial Area This work was completed in conjunction with the Wilmington Bypass project. Within Pender County, the superstreet facility includes four new signalized left-turn and u-turn crossovers, one of which has a bulb-out to allow large trucks and buses to execute u- turns from the northbound side to the southbound side. Left turns from driveways and cross streets are highly restricted. North of Scotts Hill and just south of Washington Acres Road (SR 1582), US Highway 17 is a four-lane divided full-access facility with unrestricted median breaks at every local street. Between Washington Acres Road and Sloop Point Loop Road (SR 1563), US Highway 17 is a five-lane undivided facility with a two-way left-turn lane. The right-of-way through the center of Hampstead is very limited in certain sections. 50

51 The Hampstead Bypass, which is currently moving through the environmental process, will transform the existing US Highway 17 from a major intrastate and interstate facility to a less important regional arterial and community main street. Depending on where the bypass begins and ends, there will be a great opportunity to re-envision both the function and appearance of US Highway 17. Figure 4.9 Village Boulevard Concept Figure 4.10 Village Boulevard Concept with Bicycle and Pedestrian Facilities and Landscaping 51

52 While the superstreet cross-section has certainly improved the safety and function of the southern end of US Highway 17, the community has voiced s different vision for the roadway as it passes through the heart of the Hampstead commercial area. The commercial area is the stretch of highway between Washington Acres Road and Country Club Drive. Based of the extensive number of comments received at both open houses and via , fax, mail, and telephone, a village boulevard cross-section seems to be the most favored. This cross-section would consists of a landscaped median, landscaped buffers, pedestrian and bicycle facilities and improved access management, which could include superstreet intersections, frontage roads, backage roads, shared driveways, and deceleration lanes. The residents and business owners value the creation of a community identity for Hampstead. This identity should include an attractive main street, which can be a source of community pride. Along with the introduction of aesthetic features, pedestrian and bicycle facilities and access management tools, it is important that the county maintain the non-commercial buffer between Scotts Hill and Hampstead (RA and RT zoning between Scotts Hill Loop Road and Washington Acres Road). The county should also consider the development of an overlay zoning district for the Hampstead commercial area. This zoning district would mandate certain design, landscaping and access management requirements beyond those required under the existing zoning. 52

53 Coastal Pender County Collector Street Plan Chapter 5 Implementation Action Plan Agency/ Organization Pender County Planning Department Pender County Planning Board Step Action 1 Develop system to notify WMPO staff of any developments located within the WMPO area 2 Track all new stub-out streets, easements and right-of-way dedications using a geographic information system (GIS) 3 Draft a Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) Ordinance specifying the requirements for such studies 4 Draft changes to subdivision ordinance using recommendations on pages Draft changes to the PD district requirements using recommendations on pages Draft changes to zoning ordinance using recommendations on page 49 7 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when reviewing PD rezoning applications and master plans 8 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when reviewing all preliminary and final plats for major subdivisions 1 Recommend adoption of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan 2 Encourage the planning department to track all new stubout streets, easements and right-of-way dedications using a geographic information system (GIS) 3 Support the adoption of a Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) Ordinance specifying the requirements for such studies 4 Support the changes to subdivision ordinance (pp 45-47) 5 Support the changes to PD district requirements (pp 47-49) 6 Support the changes to zoning ordinance (p 49) 7 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when reviewing PD rezoning applications and master plans 8 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when reviewing all preliminary and final plats for major subdivisions 9 Amend the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan, as needed, based on new development and changes in needs and opportunities 53

54 Pender County Board of Commissioners Wilmington Metropolitan Planning Organization NCDOT Division 3 NCDOT Transportation Planning Branch 1 Adopt the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan 2 Fund an inventory of all existing dedications, paper streets and stub-out streets using a geographic information system (GIS) to be maintained by the planning department 3 Direct county staff to sign all existing paper streets and stub-out streets that connect to NCDOT-maintained streets as a Future Street using standard street signage 4 Adopt the Traffic Impact Analysis (TIA) Ordinance specifying the county s requirements for such studies 5 Adopt the recommended changes to subdivision ordinance (pp 45-47) 6 Adopt the recommended changes to PD district requirements (pp 47-49) 7 Adopt the recommended changes to zoning ordinance (p 49) 8 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when reviewing all rezoning requests, major subdivisions and appeals 1 Adopt the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan 2 Complete the Wilmington Metropolitan Area Comprehensive Transportation Plan (including the Coastal Pender study area) 3 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when considering projects in the study area 1 Consider recommended roadway improvements (p 37) as spot safety and congestion management funds become available 2 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when reviewing driveway permit applications 3 Use the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan as a reference when considering projects in the study area 1 Complete the Pender County Comprehensive Transportation Plan North Carolina Board of Transportation 1 2 Adopt the Pender County Comprehensive Transportation Plan Adopt the Wilmington Urban Area Comprehensive Transportation Plan 54

55 Coastal Pender County Collector Street Plan Appendix A Sources Hammer, Tommy, Ph.D.; Demographic and Economic Forecasts for the Wilmington Region and Component Areas: Summary Document; April 2004 Howard, Roland; Hampstead, North Carolina; No date Howard, Jack; A History of Hampstead; No date North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, Statewide Planning Branch; Strategic Highway Corridors: Vision Plan for Southeastern NC; September 2004 North Carolina Department of Transportation, Division of Highways, Statewide Planning Branch; Thoroughfare Plan Study Technical Report for Pender County; February 1998 Pender County Board of County Commissioners; Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan 2005 Update; May 2005 United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census; 1990 Census & Census

56 Coastal Pender County Collector Street Plan Appendix B Transportation Corridor Preservation Overlay District TRANSPORTATION CORRIDOR PRESERVATION OVERLAY DISTRICT SECTION I. GENERAL PROVISIONS 1.1 FINDINGS A. The North Carolina Board of Transportation has adopted the North Carolina s Long Range Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan, Appendices A and B, and the Strategic Highway Corridors Vision Plan, and the Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County, North Carolina to assure state- and county-wide continuity of land use and transportation systems. B. The Pender County Board of Commissioners has adopted the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan, Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County, North Carolina, the Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan and the Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperative, Comprehensive, and Continuing Transportation Planning Between the City of Wilmington, Town of Carolina Beach, Town of Kure Beach, Town of Wrightsville Beach, County of New Hanover, Town of Belville, Town of Leland, Town of Navassa, County of Brunswick, County of Pender, Cape Fear Public Transportation Authority and the North Carolina Department of Transportation to assure county-wide continuity of land use and transportation systems. C. It is in the best interests of the public and citizens of Pender County to anticipate future needs in areas where right-of-way does not exist, in order to establish harmonious, orderly, efficient development of Pender County and ensure a safe and efficient transportation system. D. The preservation, protection, or acquisition of rights-of-way and corridors is necessary to implement coordinated land use and transportation planning, to provide for future planned growth, and to ensure that the transportation system is adequate to meet future needs, and complies with the concurrency requirements of the Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan and the Zoning Ordinance of Pender County. E. The interim use of land in future rights-of-way provides a means for economic use of land until that land is needed for transportation purposes. F. Future corridors and rights-of-way must be protected from permanent encroachment to ensure availability consistent with long-range plans for Pender County. 56

57 1.2 INTENT AND PURPOSE The intent of this ordinance is to preserve, protect, and/or acquire rights-of-way and transportation corridors that are necessary to provide future facilities and facility improvements to meet the needs of growth projected in the Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan and to coordinate land use and transportation planning. These rights-of-way and corridors are part of a network of transportation facilities and systems, which provide mobility between and access to businesses, homes, and other land uses throughout the jurisdiction, the region, and the state. The Pender County Board of Commissioners recognizes that the provision of an adequate transportation network is an essential public service. The plan for that transportation network is described in the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan; the Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County, North Carolina; and North Carolina s Long Range Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan, Appendices A and B; the Strategic Highway Corridors Vision Plan, and implemented through the State Transportation Improvement Program and other policies and procedures, and through regulations on land use and development as well as regulations to preserve and protect the corridors and rights-of-way for the transportation network. The purpose of this ordinance is to foster and preserve public health, safety, comfort, and welfare and to aid in the harmonious, orderly, and beneficial development of Pender County in accordance with the land use plan. 1.3 RELATIONSHIP TO COMPREHENSIVE PLAN, OTHER PLANS, REGULATIONS, LAND STATUTES A. The adoption of this ordinance implements the following goals, objectives, and policies of the Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan. In addition, this ordinance is a part of the Zoning Ordinance of Pender County. 1. Section I.C.1: Coordinated inter-governmental and regional planning for land development, transportation and water and sewer services shall be a high priority for the County. Regional efforts for transportation planning and advocacy for transportation improvements shall be supported as a very high priority for this effort. 2. Section I.C.2: The County will request and participate in regular updates of the County Thoroughfare Plan and ensure that it reflects the desired land development patterns contained in adopted policies and reasonable provisions to protect the capacity of area thoroughfares and provide for emergency evacuation needs. 3. Section I.C.3: The County encourages land use patterns and site development that protect highway capacity. 4. Section I.I.1.e: All new development shall provide for reasonable development of anticipated future thoroughfares and access. 5. Section I.I.4: All new development shall be required to meet access standards that preserve the traffic carrying capacity of the public roads to which it is connected. Connection to existing and potential future streets, access ways and parking areas of existing and anticipated development shall be encouraged. 57

58 B. This ordinance is consistent with following policies of the Memorandum of Understanding for Cooperative, Comprehensive, and Continuing Transportation Planning Between the City of Wilmington, Town of Carolina Beach, Town of Kure Beach, Town of Wrightsville Beach, County of New Hanover, Town of Belville, Town of Leland, Town of Navassa, County of Brunswick, County of Pender, Cape Fear Public Transportation Authority and the North Carolina Department of Transportation adopted by the Pender County Board of Commissioners on June 19, An identification of transportation facilities (including but not necessarily limited to major roadways, transit, and multimodal and intermodal facilities) that should function as an integrated metropolitan transportation system, giving emphasis to those facilities that serve important national and regional transportation functions. In formulating the long-range transportation plan, the metropolitan planning organization shall consider factors described in subsection (f) as such factors relate to a 20-year forecast period. 2. Assist governing bodies and official agencies in determining courses of action and in formulating attainable capital improvement programs in anticipation of community needs; and, 3. Guide private individuals and groups in planning their decisions which can be important factors in the pattern of future development and redevelopment of the area; and, 4. The continuing transportation planning process will be a cooperative one and all planning discussions will be reflective of and responsive to the programs of the North Carolina Department of Transportation, and to the comprehensive plans for growth and development of the municipalities of Wilmington, Carolina Beach, Kure Beach, Wrightsville Beach, Belville, Leland, Navassa, and the counties of New Hanover, Brunswick and Pender. C. This ordinance is consistent with following policies of the North Carolina Board of Transportation and North Carolina Department of Transportation as set forth in North Carolina s Long Range Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan, Appendices A and B, and the Strategic Highway Corridors Vision Plan all adopted on September 2, The Hampstead Bypass from I-140 to US-17 (North) is identified as part of Corridor 52 in these two plans. 1. Advance the Strategic Highway Corridors Concept In keeping with the Recommended Investment Scenario and to reinforce NCDOT's new emphasis on a targeted mobility approach, NCDOT should adopt a formal policy to recognize and advance the Strategic Highway Corridors concept. Appendix A provides the Policy Statement, which notes support for and directs future use of this concept. This concept emphasizes the need to improve, protect, and maximize the capacity of a set of existing highways that are critical to statewide mobility and regional connectivity. Each corridor represents an opportunity for NCDOT and stakeholders to consider long-term vision, decision-making consistency, land use partnerships, and overarching design/operational changes. The following criteria, along with input from the public, BOT, & NCDOT staff guided the Strategic Highway Corridors selection process: 58

59 Mobility corridor currently serves or has the potential to expeditiously move large volumes of traffic; a facility vital to the state's and/or region's interest. Connectivity corridor provides a connection between activity centers, including cities, airports, military bases, seaports, etc. Interstate Connectivity corridor provides a connection between existing and/or planned interstates. Interstate Reliever corridor currently serves or has the potential to serve as a reliever route to an existing interstate facility. Hurricane Evacuation Routes corridor represents a major route from within North Carolina s Emergency Management's Coastal Evacuation Route Map. Cited in a Prominent State Report for example, the Rural Prosperity Task Force Report. Part of a National, Statewide, Economic, or Military Highway System for example, the National Highway System or STRAHNET. The Strategic Highway Corridors concept includes several goals. In particular, the concept supports the creation of a genuine and consensus-based vision for each Corridor (i.e., identification of the desired facility type for each corridor). This approach is expected to influence key decisions related to funding, project planning, design, access, and local land use decisions. As this concept advances, future Statewide Transportation Plan updates will assess progress including results of corridor studies and costs for improving those corridors. The map on the following page is a visual representation of the selected Corridors. This Vision Plan proposes a future facility type improvement for each corridor. The map is meant to communicate a long-term vision, with individual improvements still subject to current federal and state project planning requirements. A more detailed explanation of each Facility Type can be found in Appendix B. Strategic Highway Corridors represents a planning direction for highway improvements that limit and/or minimize impact to the surrounding environment while strengthening economic opportunities for communities and regional areas across the state. 2. NCDOT Goals; 10: Coordination Provide increased responsibility and continuing cooperation, coordination, and participation with NCDOT s customers: the public, stakeholders, private sector, and local, regional, state, and federal governments. 1.4 APPLICABILITY This ordinance shall apply to all land within the jurisdiction of Pender County which abuts or is located within the study area as identified in the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. 1.5 SEVERABILITY If any section, subsection, paragraph, sentence, clause, or phrase of this ordinance is for any reason held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be unconstitutional or 59

60 otherwise invalid, the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance shall continue in full force and effect. 1.6 EFFECTIVE DATE This ordinance shall be effective immediately. SECTION 2. CREATION OF A CORRIDOR PROTECTION OVERLAY DISTRICT 2.1 PURPOSE The purpose of the corridor protection overlay district is to impose special development regulations on areas of Pender County which have been identified as the study area in the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan. In order to ensure the availability of lands within the area to meet the corridor needs as shown on Figure 4.1 of the plan, additional review is required of proposed development which lies within the study area. 2.2 PERMISSIBLE AND PROHIBITED USES The underlying uses, as determined by the applicable land use district in the Pender County CAMA Land Use Plan and the Zoning Ordinance of Pender County remain undisturbed by the creation of this overlay district. 2.3 BUILDING SETBACK LINES ALONG IDENTIFIED CORRIDORS Pursuant to G.S. 153A-326 Pender County designates a principal structure setback from the right of way line for all lots created after November 16, 2003, along corridors identified in the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan, Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County, North Carolina, Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization Comprehensive Transportation Plan and North Carolina s Long Range Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan, Appendices A and B, the Strategic Highway Corridors Vision Plan. These setbacks shall apply in the Transportation Corridor Preservation Overlay District to principal buildings for all types of developments. Corridors to which the requirement applies and the minimum setbacks are as follows: STREET/ROAD Centerline of Hampstead Bypass (STIP R-3300) as shown on the North Carolina s Long Range Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan, Appendices A and B, the Strategic Highway Corridors Vision Plan, and the Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County, North Carolina. Centerlines of Priority New Collector, New Collector, and Reclassified Collector streets as shown on Figure 4.1 of the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan SETBACK

61 2.4 DENSITY AND INTENSITY OF DEVELOPMENT The gross density and intensity of development shall be that allowable by the underlying land use and zoning district. However, as a condition of approval of the development, such density and intensity shall be transferred to portions of the site that lie outside the required setbacks of the corridors. Such transfer may result in a greater net density on the developed portion of the project. This section is not intended to grant approval to the location of development in environmentally sensitive or otherwise protected lands within the project site. It is intended to allow approval of the transfer of development rights within the contiguous lands of the project, without additional review procedures beyond the review for a preliminary or final development order. 2.5 SITE DESIGN REQUIREMENTS A. In order to protect a future corridor from potential encroachment by structures, parking areas, or drainage facilities, setbacks will be required from the approximate alignment. This approximate alignment shall be consistent with the need to provide continuity from the identified corridor as well as to meet conceptual site planning needs of the project. The normal setbacks shall be as required by the underlying zoning district as specified in Section 9.8 of the Zoning Ordinance of Pender County. When the final alignment is established through engineering study and design, the setback may be reduced through administrative approval, provided that such reduction is necessitated solely by the final alignment of the corridor. B. Clustering of structures may be allowable in order to retain full development rights while siting structures so as to avoid encroachment into the corridor. Clustering of structures under this provision of the Zoning Ordinance of Pender County may include administrative approval to reduce setbacks between buildings within a project site, reduction of buffers within a project site, or variation of other site design requirements. This provision is not intended to reduce perimeter bufferyards designed to ensure compatibility of adjacent uses. 2.6 REVIEW OF PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT FOR CONSISTENCY WITH THE COMPREHENSIVE PLAN A. Conceptual, preliminary, and final site plans and preliminary or final subdivision plats submitted for review shall include information regarding the location of the corridor designated on the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan; the Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County, North Carolina; and North Carolina s Long Range Statewide Multimodal Transportation Plan, Appendices A and B; the Strategic Highway Corridors Vision Plan which cross, abut, or are within one quarter mile of the property of the proposed project. During the review process, the Pender County Planning Department and the Pender County Planning Board shall consider the proximity of the proposed project to future corridors for purposes of assessing the impact, if any, of the project on future corridors. 61

62 B. Either preliminary or final approval shall include findings regarding the consistency of the proposed project with the future corridor, and shall note any impacts that may be anticipated from the proposed project, along with recommendations for mitigating such impacts. If the proposed project is inconsistent with the future corridor location, it may be necessary for the applicant to modify the proposed project or to propose an amendment to the Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan or the Thoroughfare Plan for Pender County, North Carolina. However, it is intended that corridor locations shall have some flexibility so as to be compatible with proposed development, so long as the basic intent to provide continuity of the corridor is met. 62

63 Legend Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 1.1: Study Area WMPO Study Area 1 Mile US HIGHWAY 17 Local Streets NC State Highways SLOOP POINT LOOP RD Holly Shelter Game Land COUNTRY CLUB DR HOOVER RD NC 210 ISLAND CREEK ROAD SCOTTS HILL LOOP RD SIDBURY RD New Hanover County New Hanover County Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007

64 Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 2.1: Current Street Network 1 Miles Legend Principal Arterial UNION BETHEL RD EDENS LN AMANDA LN E COLONNADE DR RED FOX TR ROBERTS RD OAK CIR WMPO Study Area Major Collector Street PINNACLE PKWY CHAMPION DR MASTERS LN SLOOP POINT LOOP RD COLE DR MIDDLE POINT RD Minor Collector Street Existing Private Streets US HWY 17 LONG LEAF DR AZALEA DR PLOVER WAY MALLARD BAY RD LAKEVIEW DR Existing NCDOT Streets Holly Shelter Game Land N BELVEDERE DR LEEWARD LN COUNTRY CLUB DR BELVEDERE DR AVILA AVE J A DR OAKEY POINT RD SAPS RD CROSS CREEK DR WOLF POND RD HOOVER RD GODFREY CREEK RD HIGHLANDS DR HOLIDAY DR TIM MOORE DR LEA CREST LN RENEE DR ST JOHNS CHURCH RD PEANUT RD VISTA LN COOTS TR WILLIAMS STORE RD GRANDVIEW DR DAVID'S LN FOREST SOUND RD SAWGRASS RD FACTORY RD HEADWATERS DR GREEN TEE RD HUGHES RD KINGS LANDING RD OLDE POINT RD SOUTH GULL RD CORCUS FERRY RD GROVEDIERE LN GREAT OAK DR OLDE POINT RD LEAS LN ROWAN RD FRANK MILLIS RD NC 210 NC 210 GRIFFITH DR PEARSON'S LN WASHINGTON ACRES RD MILLIS FARM RD ANNA BELL LN DERBY LN WHITEBRIDGE RD US HWY 17 KNOLLWOOD DR HUNTER CT ISLAND CREEK RD PANDY ANN LN SCOTTS HILL LOOP RD LASALLE ST HIGH TIDE DR ABBEY LN H L SMITH RD O'BRIEN LN SIDBURY RD New Hanover County New Hanover County Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007

65 Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 2.2: Traffic Counts 1 Miles Legend WMPO Study Area NC Highways Local Streets 1500 (2005) +30% since 1999 Number of vehicles per day (year counted) Rate of increase since earliest count SLOOP POINT LOOP RD 4400 (2005) 1600 (2005) +23% since 2002 LONG LEAF DR Holly Shelter Game Land 720 (2005) COUNTRY CLUB DR US HIGHWAY 17 KINGS LANDING RD 1200 (2005) (2005) +36% since (2004) +21% since 1999 HOOVER RD (2005) +8% since (2001) +23% since (2005) +18% since (2005) +36% since (2005) +25% since 1999 NC (2005) +21% since 2002 NC 210 WASHINGTON ACRES RD 2000 (2004) +122% since (2005) +51% since 1999 US HIGHWAY 17 ISLAND CREEK RD 3500 (2005) +46% since (2005) +52% since 1999 New Hanover County Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007 SIDBURY RD (2005) +9.09% since (2005) +62% since 1999 SCOTTS HILL LOOP RD 2300 (2005) +21% since 1999

66 HOOVER RD Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 2.3: High Crash Areas 1 Miles Legend UNION BETHEL RD ALTON D RIVENBARK RD Study Area NC Highways Local Streets US HWY % DORAL DR KEMPER RD SLOOP POINT LOOP RD MASTERS LN HICKORY POINT RD % Total crashes Change in annual crashes % LONG LEAF DR N BELV EDERE DR COUNTRY CLUB DR MALLAR D BAY RD FAIRWAY DR LAKEVIEW DR CHANNEL BLVD BELVEDERE DR COUNTRY CLUB DR Holly Shelter Game Land SCOTCH BONNET WAY NEWTON RD % JENKINS RD SAWGRASS RD GREEN TEE RD OLDE POINT RD SOUTH KINGS LANDING RD RAVENSWOOD RD WILLIAMS STORE RD GRANDVI EW DR HOOVER RD HOOVER RD PEANUT RD NC HWY % % % US HWY 17 DEERFIELD DR FACTORY RD NORTH LINE DR E CREEKV IEW DR NC 210 NC 210 WASHINGTON ACRES RD % HUGHES RD CIRCLE DR WASHINGTON ACRES RD US HWY % HARRIS ON C REEK RD ISLAND CREEK RD SCOTTS HILL LOOP RD LASALLE ST LAFAYETTE ST HIGH TIDE DR INLET DR COPPERS TR ABBEY LN H L SMITH RD SIDBURY RD 35 (2 fatal) % 33 (1 fatal) % New Hanover County New Hanover County Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007

67 Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 2.4: Existing Land Use 1 Miles LEWIS RD WMPO Study Area U NIO N BE T Vacant E ED Conservation E ART QU Residential PI NN LN FRIENDLY A LN R NS D MA S T CH 17 Commercial R ED FOX EE TOPSAI L GR LN WY E PK ACL N A MP I O N T LOOP North Topsail Elementary Industrial ER COLE DR MIDDL E POIN T RD RD PLOVER WAY NB E LV LA L ON G L EA F D R Transportation & Utilities E DERE DR D LN V IS RD KINGS ANDING L D Topsail Middle School Topsail High School SA W G R ASS SA RA HL N R S RD SAP INT R D O D SO U T H TR D R CT WINDSO OL D E PO RD IN HIGH LAN D HO OV E JENKINS RD S DR O WO LF R PO D ND R AVILA AVE TA LN W NS VE RA JAD VIEW D R INLET CT Holly Shelter Game Land KE BELVEDERE DR R LUB D TRY C COUN L EE W AR RD AY MALLAR D B A Z ALEA DR Institutional TR S LN DR OIN SLOOP P Y US HW Mobile Homes SE OR RH NS L CIR Agricultural, Crops & Forestry H EL RD OAK AMAND PELICAN WALK Legend OL D E PO RR D PO W / MIA TR South Topsail Elementary CORCUS D EE V D W ATER S DR PANSY LN DEER FIE IEW LD DR HU G H ES R D DR CEN TER E R D GTON ACRES RD PINE ST WASH IN DO H GW ON'S LN PEARS DR D R D LN W HI T EB R IDG E RD ISLAN D CRE EK RD 17 K EE CR MARE POND PL OO Y US HW HARRIS O N E CR H EA T FI IF GR RD RM K NO LLW OO D DR AN RD D RD 10 Supermarket Pharmacy DR K W Y CT PINES ERING WHISP RO AR 2 NC RD S FA Y LN ANNA BELL LN CT ND SE ND LA DERB ILLIS LI MIL 10 NK M FRA NC 2 N DA EN OW LN DR IDAY HOL RN ES D ACR EK DR RI CK RD RY TO C FA LE A S EN GRE CRE CROSS B RD IERE LN GROVED D RD OUN ST S FORE DR CL K EE F ER R Y CIR R CO NTR A IL DR G C R EY ODF R T INLE N LN Y AN PAND DR ERS COPP L LASA HUNTER CT T LE S TR Y BE AB LN HL RD Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007 H IL RD ITH New Hanover County SCOTTS OP SM RY RD SIDBU O LL New Hanover County

68 DEERFIELD DR GREEN TEE RD DOGWOOD CIR Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 2.5: Zoning Districts 1 Miles Legend WMPO Study Area Existing Zoning Districts US HWY 17 Lower Density Residential (No Mobile Homes) Lower Density Residential KEMPER RD HICKORY POINT RD Higher Density Residential Neighborhood Business COUNTRY CLUB DR Highway Business Gateway Business Light Industrial Planned Development FAIRWAY DR SOUND VIEW DR N Rural Transition Rural Agriculture Flood Hazard Area Holly Shelter Game Land BELVEDERE DR NEWTON RD The Preserve (461 housing units) (437,000 SF commercial) JENKINS RD HOOVER RD Castle Bay WILLIAMS STORE RD Eagle's Watch (137 housing units) HOOVER RD HOOVER RD FACTORY RD NC HWY 17 US HWY 17 PEANUT RD NORTH LINE DR WASHINGTON ACRES RD NC 210 NC 210 WASHINGTON ACRES RD US HWY 17 ISLAND CREEK RD East Haven (4,096 housing units) LASALLE ST LAFAYETTE ST HIGH TIDE DR INLET DR COPPERS TR ABBEY LN H L SMITH RD SIDBURY RD New Hanover County New Hanover County Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007

69 Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 2.6: Environmental Features 1 Miles Legend WMPO Study Area Intracoastal Waterway Water Features Conservation Land CAMA Conservation Area I CAMA Conservation Area II Holly Shelter Game Land Kiwanis Park Barrier Islands Holly Shelter Game Land Barrier Islands C ross Creek New Hanover County Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007 New Hanover County Barrier Islands Intracoastal Waterway r Rive Fear ape NE C Isla nd Cree k

70 Coastal Pender Collector Street Plan Figure 4.1: New Roadways 1 Miles Legend SLOOP POINT LOOP RD WMPO Study Area CAMA Conservation Area I Existing Private Streets Existing NCDOT Streets Existing Arterials New Interchanges US HIGHWAY 17 SLOOP POINT LOOP RD New Arterials & Freeways MALLARD BAY RD Priority New Collector New Collector COUNTRY CLUB DR Reclassified Collector Recommended Bicycle Facilities Holly Shelter Game Land WOLF POND RD EXT WOLF POND RD EXT W BACKAGE RD COLLECTOR G COLLECTOR G KINGS LANDING RD HOOVER RD WOLF POND RD COUNTRY CLUB DR OLDE POINT RD SAPS RD EXT SAPS RD HOOVER RD SAPS RD HOOVER RD GRANDVIEW DR EXT HOLIDAY DR SAPS RD EXT GODFREY CREEK RD EXT GODFREY CREEK RD HOLIDAY DR HOOVER RD PEANUT RD DAN OWEN DR FACTORY RD GREAT OAK DR HOLIDAY DR NC 210 GRIFFITH DR EXT NC210 GRIFFITH DR EXT WASHINGTON ACRES RD NC210 W BACKAGE RD E BACKAGE RD COLLECTOR F COLLECTOR F ISLAND CREEK RD ISLAND CREEK RD HOLIDAY DR EXT COLLECTOR D COLLECTOR E COLLECTOR D COLLECTOR A HOLIDAY DR EXT HUGGINS RD EAST HAVEN RD CORBETT RD HUGGINS RD COLLECTOR A CORBETT RD COLLECTOR C E BACKAGE RD E BACKAGE RD COLLECTOR A COLLECTOR B COLLECTOR C SCOTTS HILL LOOP RD DOGWOOD LN EXT SCOTTS HILL LOOP RD SCOTTS HILL LOOP RD SIDBURY RD SIDBURY RD SIDBURY RD New Hanover County New Hanover County Wilmington Urban Area Metropolitan Planning Organization 2007

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